Class 10: Maths Chapter 1 solutions. Complete Class 10 Maths Chapter 1 Notes.

Contents

## Maharashtra Board Solutions for Class 10-Maths (Part 1): Chapter 1- Linear Equations in Two Variables

Maharashtra Board 10th Maths Chapter 1, Class 10 Maths Chapter 1 solutions

#### Practice Set 1.1

**Question 1.Complete the following activity to solve the simultaneous equations.**

5x + 3y = 9 …(i)

2x-3y=12 …(ii)

**Solution:**

5x + 3y = 9 …(i)

2x-3y=12 …(ii)

Add equations (i) and (ii).

ii. x + 7y = 10

∴ x = 10 – 7y …(i)

3x – 2y = 7 …1(ii)

Substituting x = 10 – ly in equation (ii), we get

3 (10 – 7y) – 2y = 7

∴ 30 – 21y – 2y = 7

∴ -23y = 7 – 30

∴ -23y = -23

∴ y = −23−23

Substituting y = 1 in equation (i), we get

x = 10 – 7 (1)

= 10 – 7 = 3

∴ (x, y) = (3, 1) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

iii. 2x – 3y = 9 …(i)

2x + y = 13 …(ii)

Subtracting equation (ii) from (i), we get

∴ (x, y) = (6, 1) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

x = 4 – 5(1)

= 4 – 5 = -1

∴ (x, y) = (-1, 1) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

Substituting y = 3 in equation (i), we get

x = 10 – 3(3)

= 10 – 9 = 1

∴ (x, y) = (1, 3) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

vii. 99x + 101 y = 499 …(i)

101 x + 99y = 501 …(ii)

Adding equations (i) and (ii), we get

Substituting x = 3 in equation (iii), we get

3 + y = 5

∴ y = 5 – 3 = 2

∴ (x, y) = (3, 2) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

viii. 49x – 57y = 172 …(i)

57x – 49y = 252 …(ii)

Adding equations (i) and (ii), we get

Substituting x = 7 in equation (iv), we get

7 + y = 10

∴ y = 10 – 7 = 3

∴ (x, y) = (7, 3) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

**Complete the following table. (Textbook pg. no. 1)**

**Question 1.Solve: 3x+ 2y = 29; 5x – y = 18 (Textbook pg. no. 3)Solution:**

3x + 2y = 29 …(i)

and 5x- y = 18 …(ii)

Let’s solve the equations by eliminating ‘y’.

Fill suitably the boxes below.

Multiplying equation (ii) by 2, we get

#### Practice Set 1.2

**Complete the following table to draw graph of the equations.**i. x + y = 3

ii. x – y = 4

**Answer:**

i. x + y = 3

ii. x – y = 4

**Solve the following simultaneous equations graphically.**i. x + y = 6 ; x – y = 4

ii. x + y = 5 ; x – y = 3

iii. x + y = 0 ; 2x – y = 9

iv. 3x – y = 2 ; 2x – y = 3

v. 3x – 4y = -7 ; 5x – 2y = 0

vi. 2x – 3y = 4 ; 3y – x = 4

**Solution:**

i. The given simultaneous equations are

x + y = 6 x – y = 4

∴ y = 6 – x ∴ y = x – 4

The two lines intersect at point (5, 1).

∴ x = 5 and y = 1 is the solution of the simultaneous equations x + y = 6 and x – y = 4.

ii. The given simultaneous equations are

The two lines intersect at point (4, 1).

∴ x = 4 and y = 1 is the solution of the simultaneous equations x+y = 5 and x – y = 3.

iii. The given simultaneous equations are

The two lines intersect at point (3, -3).

∴ x = 3 and y = -3 is the solution of the simultaneous equations x + y = 0 and 2x – y = 9.

iv. The given simultaneous equations are

The two lines intersect at point (-1, -5).

∴ x = -1 and y = -5 is the solution of the simultaneous equations 3x- y = 2 and 2x- y = 3.

v. The given simultaneous equations are

The two lines intersect at point (1, 2.5).

∴ x = 1 and y = 2.5 is the solution of the simultaneous equations 3x – 4y = -7 and 5x – 2y = 0.

vi. The given simultaneous equations are

The two lines intersect at point (8, 4).

∴ x = 8 and y = 4 is the solution of the simultaneous equations 2x – 3y = 4 and 3y – x = 4.

**Solve the following simultaneous equations by graphical method. Complete the following tables to get ordered pairs.**

i. Plot the above ordered pairs on the same co-ordinate plane.

ii. Draw graphs of the equations.

iii. Note the co-ordinates of the point of intersection of the two graphs. Write solution of these equations. (Textbook pg. no. 8)

**Solution:**

The two lines intersect at point (-1, -2).

∴ (x , y) = (-1, -2) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

**Solve the above equations by method of elimination. Check your solution with the solution obtained by graphical method. (Textbook pg. no. 8)Solution:**

The given simultaneous equations are

x – y = 1 …(i)

5x – 3y = 1 …(ii)

Multiplying equation (i) by 3, we get

3x – 3y = 3 …(iii)

Subtracting equation (iii) from (ii), we get

Substituting x = -1 in equation (i), we get

-1 -y= 1

∴ -y = 1 + 1

∴ -y = 2

∴ y = -2

∴ (x,y) = (-1, -2) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

∴ The solution obtained by elimination method and by graphical method is the same.

**The following table contains the values of x and y co-ordinates for ordered pairs to draw the graph of 5x – 3y = 1.**

i. Is it easy to plot these points?

ii. Which precaution is to be taken to find ordered pairs so that plotting of points becomes easy? (Textbook pg. no. 8)

**Solution:**

i. No

The above numbers are non-terminating and recurring decimals.

∴ It is not easy to plot the given points.

ii. While finding ordered pairs, numbers should be selected in such a way that the co-ordinates obtained will be integers.

**To solve simultaneous equations x + 2y = 4; 3x + 6y = 12 graphically, following are the ordered pairs.**

**Plotting the above ordered pairs, graph is drawn. Observe it and find answers of the following questions.**

i. Are the graphs of both the equations different or same?

ii. What are the solutions of the two equations x + 2y = 4 and 3x + 6y = 12? How many solutions are possible?

iii. What are the relations between coefficients of x, coefficients of y and constant terms in both the equations?

iv. What conclusion can you draw when two equations are given but the graph is only one line? (Textbook pg. no. 9)

**Solution:**

i. The graphs of both the equations are same.

ii. The solutions of the given equations are (-2, 3), (0, 2), (1, 1.5), etc.

∴ Infinite solutions are possible.

iii. Ratio of coefficients of x = 13

Ratio of coefficients of y = 26 = 13

Ratio of constant terms = 412 = 13

∴ Ratios of coefficients of x = ratio of coefficients of y = ratio of the constant terms

iv. When two equations are given but the graph is only one line, the equations will have infinite solutions.

**Draw graphs of x- 2y = 4, 2x – 4y = 12 on the same co-ordinate plane. Observe it. Think of the relation between the coefficients of x, coefficients ofy and the constant terms and draw the inference. (Textbook pg. no. 10)Solution:**

ii. Ratio of coefficients of x =12

Ratio of coefficients of y = −2−4 = 12

Ratio of constant terms = 412 = 13

∴ Ratio of coefficients of x = ratio of coefficients of y ratio of constant terms

iii. If ratio of coefficients of x = ratio of coefficients of y ≠ ratio of constant terms, then the graphs of the two equations will be parallel to each other.

**Condition of consistency in Equations:**

#### Practice Set 1.3

**Question 1.Fill in the blanks with correct number.Solution:**

**Question 2.Find the values of following determinants.**

**Solution:**

**Question 3.Solve the following simultaneous equations using Cramer’s rule.**

i. 3x – 4y = 10 ; 4x + 3y = 5

ii. 4x + 3y – 4 = 0 ; 6x = 8 – 5y

iii. x + 2y = -1 ; 2x – 3y = 12

iv. 6x – 4y = -12 ; 8x – 3y = -2

v. 4m + 6n = 54 ; 3m + 2n = 28

vi. 2x + 3y = 2 ; x – y2 = 12

**Solution:**

i. The given simultaneous equations are 3x – 4y = 10 …(i)

4x + 3y = 5 …(ii)

Equations (i) and (ii) are in ax + by = c form.

Comparing the given equations with

a

_{1}x + b

_{1}y = c

_{1}and a

_{2}x + b

_{2}y = c

_{2}, we get

a

_{1}= 3, b

_{1}= -4, c

_{1}= 10 and

a

_{2}= 4, b

_{2}= 3, c

_{2}= 5

∴ (x, y) = (2, -1) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

ii. The given simultaneous equations are

4x + 3y – 4 = 0

∴ 4x + 3y = 4 …(i)

6x = 8 – 5y

∴ 6x + 5y = 8 …(ii)

Equations (i) and (ii) are in ax + by = c form.

Comparing the given equations with

a_{1}x + b_{1}y = c_{1} and a_{2}x + b_{2}y = c_{2}, we get

a_{1} = 4, b_{1} = 3, c_{1} = 4 and

a_{2} = 6, b_{2} = 5, c_{2} = 8

∴ (x, y) = (-2, 4) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

iii. The given simultaneous equations are

x + 2y = -1 …(i)

2x – 3y = 12 …(ii)

Equations (i) and (ii) are in ax + by = c form.

Comparing the given equations with

a_{1}x + b_{1}y = C_{1} and a_{2}x + b_{2}y = c_{2}, we get

a_{1} = 1, b_{1} = 2, c_{1} = -1 and

a_{2} = 2, b_{2} = -3, c_{2} = 12

∴ (x, y) = (3, -2) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

iv. The given simultaneous equations are

6x – 4y = -12

∴ 3x – 2y = -6 …(i) [Dividing both sides by 2]

8x – 3y = -2 …(ii)

Equations (i) and (ii) are in ax + by = c form.

Comparing the given equations with

a_{1}x + b_{1}y = c_{1} and a_{2}x + b_{2}y = c_{2}, we get

a_{1} = 3, b_{1} = -2, c_{1} = -6 and

a_{2} = 8, b_{2} = -3, c_{2} = -2

∴ (x, y) = (2, 6) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

v. The given simultaneous equations are

4m + 6n = 54

2m + 3n = 27 …(i) [Dividing both sides by 2]

3m + 2n = 28 …(ii)

Equations (i) and (ii) are in am + bn = c form.

Comparing the given equations with

a_{1}m + b_{1}n = c_{1} and a_{2}m + b_{2}n = c_{2}, we get

a_{1} = 2, b_{1} = 3, c_{1} = 27 and

a_{2} = 3, b_{2} = 2, c_{2} = 28

∴ (m, n) = (6, 5) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

vi. The given simultaneous equations are

2x + 3y = 2 …(i)

x = y2 = 12

∴ 2x – y = 1 …(ii) [Multiplying both sides by 2]

Equations (i) and (ii) are in ax + by = c form.

Comparing the given equations with

a_{1}x + b_{1}y = c_{1} and a_{2}x + b_{2}y = c_{2}, we get

a_{1} = 2, b_{1} = 3, c_{1} = 2 and

a_{2} = 2, b_{2} = -1, c_{2} = 1

**Question 1.To solve the simultaneous equations by determinant method, fill in the blanks,y + 2x – 19 = 0; 2x – 3y + 3 = 0 (Textbookpg.no. 14)Solution:**

Write the given equations in the form

ax + by = c.

2x + y = 19

2x – 3y = -3

**Question 2.Complete the following activity. (Textbook pg. no. 15)Solution:**

**Question 3.What is the nature of solution if D = 0? (Textbook pg. no. 16)Solution:**

If D = 0, i.e. a

_{1}b

_{2}– b

_{1}a

_{2}= 0, then the two simultaneous equations do not have a unique solution.

Examples:

i. 2x – 4y = 8 and x – 2y = 4

Here, a

_{1}b

_{2}– b

_{1}a

_{2}= (2)(-2) – (-4) (1)

= -4 + 4 = 0

Graphically, we can check that these two lines coincide and hence will have infinite solutions.

ii. 2x – y = -1 and 2x – y = -4

Here, a_{1} b_{2} – b_{1} a_{2} = (2)(-1) – (-1) (2)

= -2 + 2 = 0

Graphically, we can check that these two lines are parallel and hence they do not have a solution.

Question 4.

What can you say about lines if common solution is not possible? (Textbook pg. no. 16)

Answer:

If the common solution is not possible, then the lines will either coincide or will be parallel to each other.

#### Practice Set 1.4

**Question 1.Solve the following simultaneous equations.**

**Solution:**

i. The given simultaneous equations are

∴ Equations (i) and (ii) become

2p – 3q = 15 …(iii)

8p + 5q = 77 …(iv)

Multiplying equation (iii) by 4, we get

8p – 12q = 60 …(v)

Subtracting equation (v) from (iv), we get

ii. The given simultaneous equations are

Substituting x = 3 in equation (vi), we get

3 + y = 5

∴ y = 5 – 3 = 2

∴ (x, y) = (3, 2) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

iii. The given simultaneous equations are

∴ Equations (i) and (ii) become

27p + 31q = 85 …(iii)

31p + 27q = 89 …(iv)

Adding equations (iii) and (iv), we get

iv. The given simultaneous equations are

Substituting x = 1 in equation (vi), we get

3(1) + y = 4

∴ 3 + y = 4

∴ y = 4 – 3 = 1

∴ (x, y) = (1, 1) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

**Question 1.Complete the following table. (Textbook pg. no. 16)Solution:**

**Question 2.In the above table the equations are not linear. Can you convert the equations into linear equations? (Textbook pg. no. 17)Answer:**

Yes, the above given simultaneous equations can be converted to a pair of linear equations by making suitable substitutions.

Steps for solving equations reducible to a pair of linear equations.

- Step 1: Select suitable variables other than those which are in the equations.
- Step 2: Replace the given variables with new variables such that the given equations become linear equations in two variables.
- Step 3: Solve the new simultaneous equations and find the values of the new variables.
- Step 4: By resubstituting the value(s) of the new variables, find the replaced variables which are to be determined.

**Question 3.To solve given equations fill the below boxes suitably. (Text book pg.no. 19)Answer:**

**Question 4.The examples on textbook pg. no. 17 and 18 obtained by transformation are solved by elimination method. If you solve these equations by graphical method and by Cramer’s rule will you get the same answers? Solve and check it. (Textbook pg. no. 18)**

**Solution:**

The two lines intersect at point (1,-1).

∴ p = 1 and q = -1 is the solution of the simultaneous equations 4p + q = 3 and 2p – 3q = 5.

Re substituting the values of p and q, we get

The two lines intersect at point (0, -1).

∴ x = 0 and y = -1 is the solution of the simultaneous equations x – y = 1 and x + y = -1.

∴ (x, y) = (0, -1) is the solution of the given simultaneous equations.

#### Practice Set 1.5

**Question 1.Two numbers differ by 3. The sum of twice the smaller number and thrice the greater number is 19. Find the numbers.Solution:**

Let the greater number be x and the smaller number be y.

According to the first condition, x – y = 3 …(i)

According to the second condition,

3x + 2y = 19 …(ii)

Multiplying equation (i) by 2, we get

2x – 2y = 6 …(iii)

Adding equations (ii) and (iii), we get

Substituting x = 5 in equation (i), we get

5 – y = 3

∴ 5 – 3 = y

∴ y = 2

∴ The required numbers are 5 and 2.

**Question 2.Complete the following.**

**Solution:**

Opposite sides of a rectangle are equal.

∴ 2x + y + 8 = 4x – y

∴ 8 = 4x – 2x – y – y

∴ 2x – 2y = 8

∴ x – y = 4 …(i)[Dividingboth sides by 2]

Also, x + 4= 2y

∴ x – 2y = -4 …(ii)

Subtracting equation (ii) from (i), we get

Substituting y = 8 in equation (i), we get

x – 8 = 4

∴ x = 4 + 8

∴ x = 12

Now, length of rectangle = 4x – y

= 4(12) – 8

= 48 – 8

∴ Length of rectangle = 40

Breadth of rectangle = 2y = 2(8) = 16

Perimeter of rectangle = 2(length + breadth)

= 2(40 + 16)

= 2(56)

∴ Perimeter of rectangle =112 units

Area of rectangle = length × breadth

= 40 × 16

∴ Area of rectangle = 640 sq. units

∴ x = 12 and y = 8, Perimeter of rectangle is 112 units and area of rectangle is 640 sq. units.

**Question 3.The sum of father’s age and twice the age of his son is 70. If we double the age of the father and add it to the age of his son the sum is 95. Find their present ages.Solution:**

Let the present ages of father and son be x years and y years respectively.

According to the first condition,

x + 2y = 70 …(i)

According to the second condition,

2x + y = 95 …(ii)

Multiplying equation (i) by 2, we get

2x + 4y = 140 …(iii)

Subtracting equation (ii) from (iii), we get

Substituting y = 15 in equation (i), we get

x + 2(15) = 7O

⇒ x + 30 = 70

⇒ x = 70 – 30

∴ x = 40

∴ The present ages of father and son are 40 years and 15 years respectively.

**Question 4.The denominator of a fraction is 4 more than twice its numerator. Denominator becomes 12 times the numerator, if both the numerator and the denominator are reduced by 6. Find the fraction.Solution:**

Let the numerator of the fraction be x and the denominator be y.

∴ Fraction = xy

According to the first condition,

y = 2x + 4

∴ 2x – y = -4 …(i)

According to the second condition,

(y – 6)= 12(x – 6)

∴ y – 6 = 12x – 72

∴ 12x – y = 72 – 6

∴ 12x – y = 66 …(ii)

Subtracting equation (i) from (ii), we get

**Question 5.Two types of boxes A, B ,are to be placed in a truck having capacity of 10 tons. When 150 boxes of type A and 100 boxes of type B are loaded in the truck, it weights 10 tons. But when 260 boxes of type A are loaded in the truck, it can still accommodate 40 boxes of type B, so that it is fully loaded. Find the weight of each type of box.Solution:**

Let the weights of box of type A be x kg and that of box of type B be y kg.

1 ton = 1000 kg

∴ 10 tons = 10000 kg

According to the first condition,

150x + 100y = 10000

∴ 3x + 2y = 200 …(i) [Dividing both sides by 50]

According to the second condition,

260x + 40y = 10000

∴ 13x + 2y = 500 …(ii) [Dividing both sides by 20]

Subtracting equation (i) from (ii), we get

∴ The weights of box of type A is 30 kg and that of box of type B is 55 kg.

**Question 6.Out of 1900 km, Vishal travelled some distance by bus and some by aeroplane. Bus travels with average speed 60 km/hr and the average speed of aeroplane is 700 km/hr. It takes 5 hours to complete the journey. Find the distance Vishal travelled by bus.Solution:**

Let the distance Vishal travelled by bus be x km and by aeroplane be y km.

According to the first condition,

x + y = 1900 …(i)

Time = Distance Speed

∴ Time required to cover x km by bus = x60 hr

Time required to cover y km by aeroplane

= y700 hr

According to the second condition,

Multiplying equation (i) by 6, we get

6x + 6y= 11400 …(iii)

Subtracting equation (iii) from (ii), we get

∴ The distance Vishal travelled by bus is 150 km.

**Question 1.There are some instructions given below. Frame the equations from the information and write them in the blank boxes shown by arrows. (Textbook pg. no. 20)Answer:**

**Download PDF**

Maharashtra Board Solutions for Class 10-Maths (Part 1): Chapter 1- Linear Equations in Two Variables

**Chapterwise Maharashtra Board Solutions Class 10 Maths (Part 1) :**

- Chapter 1- Linear Equations in Two Variables
- Chapter 2- Quadratic Equations
- Chapter 3- Arithmetic Progression
- Chapter 4- Financial Planning
- Chapter 5- Probability
- Chapter 6- Statistics

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