With the awakening of national consciousness in the early years of the last century, a few notable efforts were made in British India to improve the system of education prevalent in India during that time. Gujarat Vidyapeeth, started by Mahatma Gandhi, aimed at preparing youth to serve and uplift the rural masses; Shantiniketan tried to bring the cultures of the East and West into universal harmony; Jamia Millia tried to educate the Muslims in keeping with the needs of the main stream of national life; and the Gurukul Kangri aimed at preserving the cultural heritage of the nation keeping with the requirements of the modern age.
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