Faculty Of Anthropology, University Of Rajasthan, Jaipur

 
Faculty Of Anthropology, University Of Rajasthan, Jaipur
City Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
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Admission Notices

    Horizons of Anthropology.

    1. Basic Consept : Institution and group; community, society and culture, status and role; social structure and social organisation. Social function.
    2. Marriage: The problems of universal definition; incest and prohibited categories; preferential forms of marriage. Marriage regulation and marriage payments: dowry and bride wealth.
    The familly as the corner stone of human society: universality of the family. Functions of the family. Diverse forms of family nuclear extended joint family system in India.
    Kunship the idea of kunship system and its place in social structure Classificatory and descriptive terms/systems according to Morgan and Murdock Privaleged famiharily avoidance and joking relatioship. Unilateral bilateral and double descent systems. Virilocal uxorilocal and meolocal residence paterns. Corporate kin group: lineage, clan, Kinbred. Structural implication of crosscousin marriage.
    3. Economic anthropology : meaning, scope and differences from economics, Modes of exchange; barter; ceremonial exchange (kula, patlatch), reaprocity and redistribution; market and trade, Production. The debate between formalists and substranitivists about the relevance of economic theory for understanding primitive and peasant economics
    4. Political Anthropology: meaning, scope and difference from political science. The locus power and functions of legitimate authority in different societies. Difference between state and stateless political systms. The rise of the state. Leadership patterns. Law and anthropological approach to its study. The cultural back ground of law. Extra-legal devices of social control.
    5. Religion theories of origin,e.g. animism,animation Magic religion and science, Myth and ritual, Totemism and tabboo. Relation of religion to other social institutions. The contemporary anthropological perspective on the study of religion.
    6. Social Stratification : caste, class and estate. The major features of caste system and its place in contemporary India,The impact of caste on non-Hindus in India.

    Book for compulsory reading: B.Malinowski's Crime and Custom in Savage Society.
    Readings Recommended:
    Battie, John: Other Cultures
    Bohannan, Paul: Social Anthropology
    Dumont, Louis: Homo-Hierarchicus
    Firth, Raymond: Eleements of Social Organisation
    Rirth,Raymond : Elemments of Social Organisation
    Fried, M (ed): Readings in Anthropology Voll. II
    Hammond, Peter B (ed) : Culture and social Anthropology
    Krober,A.L. and other's : 'Horizons of Anthropology'. Current Anthropology(1961).
    Leach,E.R. Aspects of caste in south India,Ceylon & North West Pakistan.
    Lessa,W.S. and E.Z. Vogt (ed) : Reading in Comparative Religion.
    Lienhardt, G.: Social Anthropology
    Nadel,S.F. : Foundation of Social Anthropology
    Reddeliffe-Brown,A.R. : structure and Functions in Primitive Sociedty.
    Sarana,Gopala : Sociology and Anthropology & Other Essays.
    Tumin,M.: Social Stratification
    Kessing,Reger M: Cultural Anthropology A Contemporary Perspective.
    Ember & Ember : Anthropology.
    A R N Srivastave : What is Anthropology
    Dr. A. R. N. Shrivastava : Social Anthropology
    Dr. Sudha Mutthaal : samazik manav vigyan saidhantik vyavhaar
    Paper II-Physical and Archaeological Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks
    (A) Physical Anthropology 50 Marks

    1. Meaning and scope of Physical Anthropology : Its relation to the other pranches of anthropology and to other sciences.
    2. Foundations of the theory of organic evolution: Lamarckism, Neo-Lamarckism,Drawinism and synthetic theory. Human evolution: biological and culural dimension. Micro-evolution.

    The Order Primate: Its evolutionary.K tendencies,(i.e. characteristics.) classification and distribution. A comparative study of primates with special reference to the anthropological aspects and man.
    3. Fossil eveidence for human evolution: Dryopethecus,Ramapithecus Australopithrecines, Homo erectus Pithecanthropines, Homo-sapiens, Neaderthalensis and Homo sapiens. Genetics: Definition: The Mendelian principles and their application to human populations.
    4. Human variation : Racial differentiation of man bases of Recial classification, morphological,serological and genetic.Rolo of heredity and environment i the formation of races.

    Book for compulsary reading:
    T. Dobzhansky's : Mankind Evolving
    Brace, C.Loring: The stages of Human Evolution : Human and Cultural Origins.
    Buttner-Janusch J.: Origins of Man.
    Dobzhansky,T.: Mankind Evolving.
    Emeral,S. and Devore,J.: The Primates (Life Nature Libary)
    Hammond,Pater,B. (Editor) : Physical Anthropology and Archaeotogy
    Introductory Readings.
    Howell,F. Clark and Editors of Life : Early Man (life Nature Libary)
    Howells, W.W. : Mankind in the Making.
    Kraus, Bertrum: The Basis of Human Evolution
    Sarkar S.S.: Aboriginal Races of India.
    Simpson.G.G. : The Meaning of Evolution.
    Singh R.D. : Sharirik Manavavigyan (Hindi).
    Dr. A.R.N. Shrivastava : Saririk manav vigyan
    Shri R.K. Shukl & Sudha Rastogi : Manav Udvikas

    (B) Archaeologial Anthropology

    The meaning and scope of Archacological Anthropology.
    Archacology in relation to other Social and Natural Sciences Concep of Prehistoric, Protohistoric and Historical Archaeology.Retrieval Archaeological date and its analysis.Dating in Archaeologyh.
    Salient features of palacolithic,Mesolithic and Neolithic and Neolithi cultures with special refreence of India. Harappan Civilization post Harappa Chalcolithic cultures of Northern India Megaliths and associated meateriaculture.
    Reading List:
    Allchin,B & R : The Birth of Indian Civilization
    Bhattacharya,D.K. : Prehistoric Archacology.
    Majumdar,D.N. & Gopala Sarana: Pragitihasa (Hindi)
    Pandaya,J.N. : Puralattva Vimarsha (Hindi)
    Sankalia,H.P.: Pre-history and protohistory of India and Pakistan
    Wheeler,M.: Archaeology from the Earth (Also Hindi translation Prithi se Puratattva).
    Zeuner,F.E. : Dating the Past.
    Section (A) Physical Anthropology and Section(B) Archaeologica Anthropology will be evaluated separately by the separate examiners and the examinees shall use two separate answer books for the two sections. Each section contains five questio out of which atleast two questions are to be attempted by the examinee. One question containing five short notes of the five marks each shall form a compulsory question.
    Paper III-Field Work and Practicals
    100 Marks
    (A) Physical Anthropology(Practical) 50 Marks

    Duration 3 hrs.
    Identification and description of the major bones of human skeleton. Aging and sexing of lhuman bones with special reference of suture closure ossification centers and epiphyseal unions.
    Measurements on the Cranium:

    1. Maximum cranial length.
    2. Maximum cranial breadthy
    3. Maximum frontal breadthy
    4. Bi-curricular breadth.
    5. Greatest occipical breadth.
    6. Bimastoid breadth.
    7. Basion bregma height.
    8. Horizontal circumference of the skull.
    9. Frontal arc.
    10. Paristal arc.
    11. Occipital arc.
    12. Frontal chord.
    13. Parietal chord.
    14. Orbital breadth.
    15. Orbital Height
    16. Bizygomatic Breadth.
    17. Upper facial height.
    18. Rasal height.
    19. Nasal breadth.

    Measurements on the mandible:

    1. Bicondylar breadth.
    2. Bigonial breadth.
    3. Heights of the ramus.
    4. Breadth of the ramus.

    Indices:

    1. Cranial index
    2. Frontal index.
    3. Upper facial index.
    4. Orbital index.
    5. Rasal index.

    Somatometric Measurements:

    1. Height vertex.
    2. Sitting height vertex.
    3. Upper arm length.
    4. Fore arm hebngth
    5. Hand length.
    6. Hand breadth.
    7. Foot length.
    8. Foot breadth.
    9. Biacromial breadth.
    10. Biacromial breadth.
    11. Chest breadth.
    12. Chest depth.
    13. Chest girth.
    14. Arm girth in the middle
    15. Body weight.

    Book Recommended:
    Singh I.P and M.K. Bhasin : Anthropmetry.
    B. Field Work 50 Marks.

    This will inclube conducting of field work of sometopic relevant to social or cultural Anthrpology under the supervision and guidance of some faculty mkembers in the leading to the writing and submission of a short field report,before the commencement of theory examinations.
    N.B. There woll be two separate external examiners invited to donduct the Practicals in Physical Anthropology i.e. section-A and assess the 'Field work' done in social/cultural Anthropology i.e. section 'B' respectively.
    Paper IV- Tools and Techniques of Anthropological Research
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. Field work tradition in Anthropology. Teh main features of field work-getting acquatinted with the field; establishment of report, learning and use of native language. The use of informations Key-informants role in anthrpological field work.
    2. Technique, method and methodology in Anthropological research.
    3. Definition and delimitation of the problem, hypothesis, concept of research design, and sampling.
    4. Basic data-gathering techniques : interview observation, schedule, quedstionnaire, case study method, extyended case method the genealogical method, the use of personal, official and historial documents in anthropological research.

    Simple statistical Techniques - avarages; data analysis and report writing.
    Readings Recomended:

    1. Bartleett, F.C(Ed): The study of Society.
    2. Casagrande, J. (Ed.) : In the Company of Man
    3. Epstein,A.L (Ed.) : In The Craft of Social Anthroplogy.
    4. Evans-Pritchard,E.E.: Social Anthropology and other Essays.
    5. Firth,Raymond(Ed.): Nabd Culture.
    6. Gottschalk, L. and others: use of Personal Documents in History, Anthropology and Sociology.
    7. Rusell Bcmard: Research Method in Cultural Anthropology.
    8. Basu,M.N. : Field methods in Anthropology and other social science.
    9. Kroeber,A.L. (Ed.) : Anthropology Today.
    10. Lewis Oscar: La Vida.
    11. Muller and Schuler: Statistical Reasoning in Sociology.
    12. Murdock, G.P. and others Outlines of Culture Marerial.
    13. Percto, Perti J : Anthropological Research; Structure of Enquiry.
    14. Royal Anthropological Institute: Notres and Queries on Anthropology.

    Paper V- Folk Culture and Folklore
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    The concept of Folk and Folk Culture.
    Redifield's view of folk society and folk culture.
    George M. Foster's concept of folk culture.
    Redfiedid's ideas about peasant society and peasand culture.
    The nature of Folklore.
    The devolutionary permose in folklore theory.
    The study of folklore in literature and culture.
    The problems of collecting folklore.
    Indentification and Interpretation.
    Significance of the study of folklore in peasant civilization. Taxonomy and social bacground of folk literature folk songs.
    Narrative of folk peotry-Ballads, Epic play's
    Prose Narrative-Folktales, Myths,legends
    Proverbs,Riddles,Charm & Other short pieces.
    Social content of folk literature: Woman,Family,Castes,Religion,Beliefs and attitude to Life,Recent Social Changes.
    Social Function of Folklore: Social control,Education,Recreation,Ritual.
    The Traditional Culture.
    The concept of Elite Tradition.
    Nature of Elite Tradition in Peasant civilizations.
    Changes in Elite tradition in Pre modern times.
    Changes in elite tradition in contemporary times.
    Sociological interpretation of Elite tradition.
    Interaction between folk and elite tradition with special reference to India.
    The future of folklore and folk culturte.

    Suggestyed Readings:
    Robert Redfield: Peasant Society and Culture
    Robert Rdfield: The Little Community.
    Alan Dundes: The study of Folklore
    Cecil Sharpe: The English Folk song.
    Stith Thompson: The Foplklore.
    M.J.C. Hodgert: The Ballads.
    Archer Taylor: The Proverbs.
    C.M. Bowra : Heroic Poetry
    C.M. Foster: Traditional Cultures and the Impact of Technological Change.
    J.G. Frazer: The Golden Bough
    Verier Elwin: Myths of Middle India.
    V. Elwin and S. Hiwale : Folk Culture and Oral Tradition.
    S.L. Srivastava : Folk Literature of Bengal
    D.C. Sen: Folk Literature of the Punjab.
    G.D. Upreti: Proverbs and Folklore of Kuimayun and Garhawal
    R.C. Temple: Lengends of the Punjab.
    W.G. Archer: The Blue Grove
    H.Zimmerman: Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization.
    Y.Singh: Images of man: Ideology and Theory in Indian society.Rural Studies.
    M.A./M.Sc. Final
    Paper VI-Methods and Theory in Social & Culture Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. Technique, method and methodology.
    2. The comparative methods of the unilinear (ninteeth century) evolutionists. Its critisims by the diffusionists and Franz Boss. The nature,purpose and methods of comparison in social-cultural anthropology: illustrative comparison,complete-universe comparison and hologeistic sampled (or cross-cultural) comparison.Comparison and control.
    3. Social anthropology and history, A critical examination of ple for the unity ofmethod in the natural and social sciences. Scientific and humanistic approaches to be distinguished. The nature of anthropological method and nation of its autonomy.
    4. The philosophical perspective on explanation in science and in history hempelian covering law' model of explanation. The nature of explanatio in social cultural anthroplolgy and the possibility of covering law model of explanation in the subject.
    5. Distinction between restudy and reinterpretation. The methodological implications of the difference between 'interpreatation' of the work of nineteenth century amateur ethnographers and rfeinterpretation of the contemporary ethnographies: Leach, Lounsbury, Needham,etc.
    6. Meansing of evolution: biological and cultural Ninteenth century unilinear evolutionism and its basic assumptions, Neo-evolutionism and the contemporary prespective on socio-cultural evolutionism.
    7. Diffusion and tradition. Diffusionism: British helecentric and German-Austrian kulturkreise approaches and their basic concepts. Culture area,age area and American distributionism.
    8. Relevance of psychological categories and approaches for anthropology. Patterns of culture, basic personality structure and model personality. Anthropological studies of culture at a distance: anthropological contribution to nation character studies. Recent trends in psychological anthropology : John whting and Anthony Wallac.
    9. Malinowski's contribution to functionalism in social anthroplogy: the theory of needs. Relevance of term like manifest latent function and eufunction/dysfunctiion. Functionalism, teleology and causality. Function and structujres: Radcliffe-Brown, Firth,Fortes and Nadel, Social structure or societal structure.
    10. Relationship and cross-fertilisation of liguistics and anthropology: structurealism in the two disciplines. Structures as model: Leach's and Levi-strauss's views. The structuralist method in the study of myth, totemism and alliance. Ethnography and formal semantic analysis.

    Books Recommended:
    Evans-Pritcard, E.E. : Social Anthropology and Other Essays.
    Firth, Raymond: Elements of Social Organisation.
    Firth, Raymond (Ed); Man and Culture (Selected chapters)
    Harris, Marian: The Rise of Anthropologica Theory.
    Eemple,Carl G.: Aspects of Scientific Explanation.
    Kroeber, A.L. : The Nature of Culture.
    Leach, E.R. : Lev-Strauss.
    Levi-strauss,c.: Structural Anthropology, Volume I & II.
    Menners, R. and d. Kaplan (Ed.) : Theory in Anthropology.
    Merton,R.K. Social Theory and Social Structure.
    Nagel,E. : The Structyure and Function in Primitive Society.
    Redcliffe-Brown,A.R.: Structyure and Function in Primitive Society.
    Redfield,Robert: Human Nature and the Study of Society.
    Saran, Gopala : Sociology and Anthropology and other Essays.
    Spancer, R.F. (Ed.) Method and Theory in Anthropology.
    Stocking, G.R. : Evolution, Race and Culture.
    Tyler, Stephen (Ed.) : Cognitive Anthropology.
    Write, L.A.: Evolution of Culture.
    Paper VII: Development Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1.
    1. Concepts of 'development','change' and 'modernization.
    2. 'Development' and the 'developing' Societies'The issue of cultural pluralism Vs.Colonialism.
    3. Anthropological perspective on 'development' ;'applied','action' and 'development' perspectives. perspectives. Anthropology and survival in an age of crisis.
    4. Cevelopment and Environment relationshop the present crists.
    5. Indian notion of development -Gandhiam Sarvoday a model and its relevance.
    2. Process of development : The Rural, Urban and Tribal scenarios-Trends Problems of 'development' in India: Demographic, social-cultural, Techno-economic and ecological aspects of 'development'.
    3. 'Development' areas and strategies: Poverty eradication and cultgure of poverty, eduction, environment-conservation and technological growth. "Development"perspective and the Status of Woman with special reference to Women in India.

    Books Recomonded:
    Roger M. Keesing: Cultural Anthropology: A Contemporary Perspective Hari Mohan Mathur: Anthropology and Development in Traditional societies. E.B Leacock (ed.) : The Culture of Poverty : A critique.
    G.M Foster : Traditional societies and Technological Change
    J.A. Clifton (ed.) : Applied Anthropology : Readings in the uses of the science of Man.
    E. Friedl: Wineb abd Neb: An Anthropologist's view
    Glynn Cocharane: Development Anthropology
    Everett Rogers : Modemization among peasants
    Atal Yogesh : Development : Cultural interface.
    Paper VIII- Indian Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. the origin and growth of Indian Anthropology.
    1. Distinctiveness of anthropological contribution in the study of tribal and peasant sections of the Indian population- study of Indian village.
    2. Theoretical-methodological issues involed in studying Indian Social-cultural reality. The Indian world-View and its cognitive construction-importance of studying classical texts along with the field view of reality.
    3. Critical understanding of the basic concepts and approaches of the study of Indian Civilization : Little tradition and great tradition; Universalization and Parochialization : Sanskitization, Westernization Tribe-cast continuum. Ethno-sociological and Traditional Indian cosmocentric perspective.
    2. Ethnogrtaphic profiles of Indian tribes: demographic, racial linguistic, economic and social organisational dimensions.
    3. Problems of tribal people : land-alienation; bonded labour indebtendess; shifting cultivation; irrigation; forests and tribal unemployment; agricultural labour, tribal revlots, minor tribes, Different approaches and measureasa adopted to solve tribal problems including constitutional provisions.
    4. Issues relating to national integration. Regionalism, lingustic cleaveges ethnic and communal riots.

    Books Recommended:

    1. Bose N.K.: Tribal India
    2. Bose N.K.: Tribal Life in India
    3. Bose N.K.: National Integration
    4. Elwin, Verrier : A New Deal for Tribal India
    5. Elwin, Verrier : A Philosophy for NEFA
    6. Fuchs, S.: The Aboriginal Tribes of India
    7. Ghurye, G.S. : The Scheduled Tribes
    8. Lynch, O.: The POolitics of Untoujchability
    9. Mamoria, O.: Tribal Demography
    10. Stephen A. Tyler: Indian : An Anthropological Perspective
    11. Madam, T.N.: Non-renunciation
    12. Marriott, Mackim : Village India
    13. Singh, Y.: Modernization of Indian Tradition
    14. Jain R.K. : Text and Context.
    15. Madan T.N. : Religion in India.
    16. Dube S.c. Understanding Change: Anthropological and Sociological perspective.

    Either Paper IX (a) -Rural Communities and Peasant Societies
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Concepts:
    Peasant Society, Peasantry, Rural,Community, folk-Urban Continuum; Tonnies Concepts of Community and Society.Characteristics of Peasants Society-Cultural,Social and Econoimic.
    Peasant Societies in India and other south Asian countries, Development Programmes, Rural communities and Peasant societies.
    Readings:
    Robert Redifield : Peasant Society and Culture- and anthropological approach to civilization.
    N.K. Bose : Culture and Society in Indian.
    Mackim Marriot (ed) : Village Indian.
    Louis Comont and Pecock: 'Village studies'-contribution to Indian Socilogy Vol 1957.
    Andre Beteille : Six Essay in Comparative Socilogy.
    Daniel Throner : Peasantry Encyclopedia of Social Sciences: Theordre Shanine.
    Andre Beteille-Caste, Class and Power.
    OR Paper IX (b)- Archaeological Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Meaning,Scope methods and kinds of Archaeology, Archaelogical traditions of the old world and the New Worls Archaeology as Anthropology, Methods of dating in Archaeology.
    Man and the Quaternary (Great) Ice age. Stratigraphic and other evidences of Ice Age : river terraces, moraines, eustation fluctuations, Alpine and Himalayan glaciation cycles.
    The age of palaeolithic savegery: Main subdivisions of West European and Indian Palaeolithic Cultrures with special refernce to their statigraphic horizon, chronology, tool-types and technique. Upper Palaeolithic Art of Europe Chief characteristics and significance. A brief account of stone age Africa.
    Mesolithic Cultures of Northern and Western Eujrope and corresponding stone age Cultures in Indian.
    The barbarism of the first-food producers, Salient features of the Neolithic Cultures in general. The Neolithic complex in Indian.
    Stone Tool technology and typology during palaeolithic and Post Palaeolithic times.
    Meaning and general concepts of Urban Revolution and Civilization Mains centres of Civilization in the old world. Origin, extent, development and decay of the Indus Civilization.
    The distribution and Chief Characterstics of Indian Megalithic Culture, Its correlation with living tradition of Megalith builders.
    The main features of ameerican Indian Cultures.

    Books Recommended:
    Allchin, B & R : The Birth of Indian Civillization.
    Allchin, H : Prehistory of Africa.
    Binford, S.R & L (ed.) : New perspectives in Archacology.
    Borders, F. The Old Stone Age.
    Bhaidwood R.J. : Prehistoric Men
    Bhattacharya, D.K. Prehistoric Archeology.
    Childe, V.G. : Piecing Together the past Man Makes Himself.
    Fried, Morton (Ed.) : Readings in Anthropology Voil. I
    Jayaswal, Vadula,: Bharatiya Itihas Ka Adi Prastar Yug (Hindi):
    Bharatiya Itihas Ka Madhya Prastrar Yug (hindi).
    Majumdar, D.N. & Gopala Sarana: Pragitihasa (Hindi).
    Oakely,K.P.: Man and the Tool-Maker.
    Pandeya J.N. Puratattva Vimarasha (Hindi)
    Sankalia, H.B.: Stone Age Tools: Their techniques, Names and functions:
    Prehistory & Protohistory of Indian and Pakistan.
    Willey, Gordon R : An Introduction to american Archaeologh Vol-I
    Wheeler, M : Archacology from the Earth also Hindi trans. Prithvi Se Puratatta.
    Zeuner, F.E. Dating the Past.
    OR Paper IX (C)- Linguistic Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Language defined. Universals of language.
    Ferdinand de saussure and structure of language: Paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations. Pregue Linguistic circle.
    Phonetics : Acoustic and Asticulatory.
    Phonemics: The definition and identification of Phonomes, Phinemic analysis.
    The morpheme: Phonemes and morphemes distinguished.
    The identification of morphemes and classifying allomorphs into mrophemes.
    Dialetology and language geography.
    Syntactic strtuctures and Immediate Constituent (ICE) analysis. Phrase structure and transformational grammars.
    Chomsly's distinction between competence and performance.
    The Cultural settiing of language: The role of meaning.
    Sociolinguistics: Linguistic and anthropological perspectives. Ethnography of communication.
    Data acquisition procedure and formal semantic anallysis in etrhnoscience and cognitive anthropology.

    Books Recommended:
    Ariner, E. (Editor): Social Anthropology and Language.
    Burling, R.: Man's Many Voices.
    Gleason, H.A.: An Introduction of Descriptive Linguistics.
    Hackett,C.F. : A course in Modern Linguistics.
    Hymes, Dell (Editor) : Language in Culture and Society.
    Lyons, John : Chomsky (Modern Masters Services).
    Lyons, John : Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics.
    Cystal, David : Linguistics.
    Sapir, Edward : Language.
    Tyelr, Stephen A. (Editor): Cognitive Anthropology.
    OR Paper IX (d)- Kinship and Religion
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Section'A'

    The idea of kinship system and its place in social structure, Prespectives on the study of Kinship from L.H. Morgan to Mayer Forts. Recent trends in kinship studies. Formal semantic analysis of kinship terms and categories.
    The problem of incest. Different theories, accounting for incest and incest prohibition. The views of C.Levi Strauss and Leslie White to be examined.
    Marriage and alliance : Perferential and precriptive cross-cousin marriage: Leve Strauss and Needham.
    Decent and residence theory of kindship. Radcliffe-Brown, Evans Pritchard and Fortes. Kin terms, kin terms, groups and kinship behvious.
    modes of exchange, Restrictged exchange: harmonic and disharmonic regimes. Generalised exchange.

    Section'B'

    Theories of origin and development of religion.
    Conceptions of the supernatural beings and objects. Mana and Toboo.
    Function of religion in human society; the family economic action, political a ction and religion.
    Myth, ritual and totemism, Structural study of myth and totomism.
    Religious practitioners: shammans and priests.
    Magic and witchcraft. Maico-religious treatment of illness.
    Books Recommended:
    On Kinshop
    Evans-Pritchard, E.E.: Kinship and Marriage among the Nuer.
    Fortes. M: The Web of Kinship among Tallensi.
    Fortes. M : Dynamics of clanship among the Tallensi.
    Fox, Robin : Kinship and Marriage.
    Goddy, Jack (Ed): Kinship.
    Levi-Strauss, C : The Elementary Structures of Kinship.
    Needham, R. : Structure and Sentiment.
    Needham, R (Ed.) : Rethinking and Marriage.
    Radcliff-Brown, A.R. and c. Daryll Forde (Ed). : African system of Kinship and Marriage.
    White, L.A. Science of Culture (chapter on incest).
    On Religion:
    Evans-Pritchard, E.E. : Theories of Primitive Religion
    Firth, R. : Ritual and Belief in Tikopia.
    Goode, William J.: Religion Among the Primitives.
    Leach, E.R. ,(Ed.) : Structural Study of Myhth and Totemism.
    Leslie, Charles : Anthropology of Folk religion.
    Lessa, W.A. and E.Z. Vog (Ed): Reader in comparative Religion.
    Levi-Strauss, G.: Structural Anthropology (Selected Chapters)
    Levi Strauss, G.: Totemism.
    Norbeck,E. : Religion on Primitive Society.
    OR Paper IX (e)- Economic and Political Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Section'A'

    Development of Economic Anthropology.
    Modern economic theory and its relevance to economic anthropology: the debate between formalists and substantivists.
    Economy in its socio-cultural settings. Deterministic theories. The relevance of encironmental and culture factors in equilibrium theory.
    Nature of economic transactions and economic process in primitive societies, bater, trade and market exchange.
    Economic growth and cultural change.
    Section'B'

    The scopoe and signiticance of polotical anthropology. The equity polotical process and the functions of legitimate authority.
    Political organizatiion in equilitarion and stratified societies. Locus of power and the topology of polotical structure in different societies.
    Leadership and social structure. The concept of the state and the anthropological point of view.
    Anthropological study of political process among emerging nations and complex societies, Concepts of Political Culture and political development The study of nation buiding processes.
    Books Recommended:
    Banton, M. (Editor) : Political Systems and distribution of Power.
    Belshaw, C : Traditional Exchange and Modern Man.
    Chammer, J. (Ed.) : The New Economic Anthropology.
    Cohn, R and J. Middleton (Editor): Comparative Political System.
    Dalton, George : Tribal and Peasant Economics.
    Dalton, George : Economic Development and Social Change.
    Firth Raymond (Editor) : Themes in Economic Anthropology.
    Geertz, Clifford (Editor) : Old Societies and New States.
    Leclair, E.E. and M.R. and M.R. Schneider (Editors) : Economic Anthropology : Readings in Theory and Analysis.
    Middleton, J. and D. Tate (Editor) : Tribes without Rulers.
    Pye, Lucian W. and S. Verba (Editors): Political Anthropology.
    OR Paper IX (f)- Medocal Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. History, Nature, Scope of Medical Anthrolpology.
    2. Concepts of Health Illness (Physical and mental) and their cultural specification
    3. Omdogemepis and Exogeneous medical systems: Folk and ethno medicine (herbal medicine), Ayurvedic,Naturopathy Homoepathy, Unani, Allopaty.
    4. Traditional healers: Sorcery, witchcrft, magicians, Shamans Bhopas
    5. Critical understanding of Health care programmes and policies-Roe of Government and non-Government organizations.

    Readings Recommended:

    1. David Landy : Culture, Disease and Healing
    2. Foster GM, Anderson BC : Medical Anthropology
    3. Paul B.D.: Health, Culture and Community
    4. Logan M.H. & E.E. Hunt Jr.: Health and Human condition Perspectives on Medical Anthropology.
    5. Chaudhry Buddabeb :Tribal Health Socio-Cultural Dimensions.

    OR Paper IX (g)- Visual Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. Visual Anthropology-definition,scope and uses with special refernce to India.
    2. Visual Anthropology as one of the documentation methods in Anthropology - Photography as an effective Medium of Communciation and its role in Visual Anthropology. Still Photography Vs Movie Photography-their advantages and limitations.
    3. Movie films: feature films, ethnographi films documentary films, research films: instructional films-Their scope and relevance to visual Anthropology.
    4. Visual Anthropology and analysis of cultural style. Film as an art from-the-film language. Film review, appreciation and cirticism Realistic and 'Nes Wave' feature films in Indian and /visual Anthropology.
    5. Televison and Visual Anthropology-Videotape; New Techniques of observation and analysis in Anthropology.

    Suggested Readings:

    1. K.N. Sahay : Visual Anthropology in India and its development.
    2. Paul Hockings(ed) : Principles of Visual Anthropology.
    3. John Collier (Jr) : Visual Anthropology : Photography as a Reseaarth Method.
    4. Satyajit Roy : Our films Their Films.
    5. Margaret Mead & F.C. Macgrigor : Growth and Cultures : A Photographic study of Balenese Childhood.
    6. Firoze Rangoconwala : Seventy five years of Indian Cinema.

    Scheme of Examination
    Each Theory Paper
    Dissertation/Thesis/
    Surve Report/Field 3 hrs. duration 100 Marks
    Work,if any. 100 Marks

    1. The number of papers and the maximum marks for each paper/practicalshall be shown in the syllbus for the subject concerned.It will benecessary for a candidate to pass in the theory part as well as in thepractical part (wherever prescribed) of a subject/paper separately.
    2. A candidate for a pass at each of the previous and the Final Examination shall be required to obtain:
    1. Atleast 36% marks in the aggregate of all the papers prescribed for the examination and
    2. Atleast 36% marks in practical(s) wherever prescribed at the examination provided that if a candidate fails to secure atleast 25% marks ineach individual paper at the examination and also in the desertation/survey report/ field work,wherever prescribed,he shall be deemed to have failed at the examination notwithstanding his having obtained the minimum percentage of marks required in the aggregate for the examination.No division shall be awarded at the end of the Final Examinationon the combined marks obtained at the previous and the Final Examination taken together,as noted below:
    First Division
    Second Division 60% of the aggregate marks taken
    48% together of the Previous and
    the Final Examinations.

    3. All the rest shall be declared to have passed the examinatin. If a candidate clears any Paper(s)Practical(s)Dissertation prescribed atthe previous and/or Final Examination after a continuous period of threeyears,then for the purpous of working out his divison the minimum pass marks only viz.25% (35% in the case of practrical) shall be taken intoaccount in respect of such Paper(s)/Practical(s)/Dissertion are cleared after the expiry of the aforesaid period of three years;providedthat in case where a candidate requirs more than 25% marks in order to reach the minimum aggregate as many marks out of those actuall secured by him will be taken into account as would enable him to make upthe deficiency in the requisite minimum aggregate.
    4. The Thesis/Dissertation/Survey Report/Field Work shall be type-writte and submitted in triplicate so as to reach the office of the Registrar atleast 3 weeks before the commencement of the theory examinations.Only succandidates shall be permitted to offer Dissertation/Field Works/Survey Report/Thesis(if provided in the scheme of examination) in lieu of a papers prescribed for the previous examination in the case of annual scheme irrespective of the number of papers in which a candidate actually appeared at the examination.

    N.B.: Non-collegiate candidate are not eligible to offer dissertation as per previsions of O.170-A.
    Distribution of Papers
    M.A./M.Sc. ANTHROPOLOGY

    Note:

    1. .There will be Five Papers in the Previous and Five papers in the Final.
    2. Each Paper shall carry 100 marks.

    M.A./M.Sc. (Previous)

    Scheme: Max.Marks.
    Paper I Social Anthropology 100
    Paper II Physical And Archeological Anthropology
    (A) Physical Anthropology 50
    (B) Archeological Anthropology 50
    Paper III Field work and practical 100
    Paper IV Tools and Techni9ques of Anthropoological Rasearch 100
    Paper V Folk Culture and Folklore 100

    M.A./M.Sc. (Final)
    Paper I Methods and Theory in Social Cultural Anthropology 100
    Paper VII Development Anthropology 100
    Paper VIII Indian Anthropology 100

    Paper IX

    1. Rural Communities and Peasand societies
    2. OR Archaeological Anthropology
    3. OR Linguistic Anthropoology
    4. OR Kinship and Religion
    5. OR Economic and Political Anthropology
    6. OR Medical Anthropoology
    7. OR Visual Anthropology

    Paper X Field Work and Field Report.
    Note : A Field Report shall be prepared by each student on the basis of field work conductyed by him/her under the supervision of a teacher by actually staying in the field for not less than thiry days in place at least 20 miles away form the Municipal Corporation Limits of the Jaipur City.
    the scheme of evaluation of the Field work Report to be evaluated jointly by the Internal and External Examiners will be as follows:
    1 Field Work Report 70 Marks
    2 Viva Voce on the field work report 30 Marks

    M.A. Previous
    Paper I- Social Anthropology

    Horizons of Anthropology.

    1. Basic Consept : Institution and group; community, society and culture, status and role; social structure and social organisation. Social function.
    2. Marriage: The problems of universal definition; incest and prohibited categories; preferential forms of marriage. Marriage regulation and marriage payments: dowry and bride wealth.
    The familly as the corner stone of human society: universality of the family. Functions of the family. Diverse forms of family nuclear extended joint family system in India.
    Kunship the idea of kunship system and its place in social structure Classificatory and descriptive terms/systems according to Morgan and Murdock Privaleged famiharily avoidance and joking relatioship. Unilateral bilateral and double descent systems. Virilocal uxorilocal and meolocal residence paterns. Corporate kin group: lineage, clan, Kinbred. Structural implication of crosscousin marriage.
    3. Economic anthropology : meaning, scope and differences from economics, Modes of exchange; barter; ceremonial exchange (kula, patlatch), reaprocity and redistribution; market and trade, Production. The debate between formalists and substranitivists about the relevance of economic theory for understanding primitive and peasant economics
    4. Political Anthropology: meaning, scope and difference from political science. The locus power and functions of legitimate authority in different societies. Difference between state and stateless political systms. The rise of the state. Leadership patterns. Law and anthropological approach to its study. The cultural back ground of law. Extra-legal devices of social control.
    5. Religion theories of origin,e.g. animism,animation Magic religion and science, Myth and ritual, Totemism and tabboo. Relation of religion to other social institutions. The contemporary anthropological perspective on the study of religion.
    6. Social Stratification : caste, class and estate. The major features of caste system and its place in contemporary India,The impact of caste on non-Hindus in India.

    Book for compulsory reading: B.Malinowski's Crime and Custom in Savage Society.
    Readings Recommended:
    Battie, John: Other Cultures
    Bohannan, Paul: Social Anthropology
    Dumont, Louis: Homo-Hierarchicus
    Firth, Raymond: Eleements of Social Organisation
    Rirth,Raymond : Elemments of Social Organisation
    Fried, M (ed): Readings in Anthropology Voll. II
    Hammond, Peter B (ed) : Culture and social Anthropology
    Krober,A.L. and other's : 'Horizons of Anthropology'. Current Anthropology(1961).
    Leach,E.R. Aspects of caste in south India,Ceylon & North West Pakistan.
    Lessa,W.S. and E.Z. Vogt (ed) : Reading in Comparative Religion.
    Lienhardt, G.: Social Anthropology
    Nadel,S.F. : Foundation of Social Anthropology
    Reddeliffe-Brown,A.R. : structure and Functions in Primitive Sociedty.
    Sarana,Gopala : Sociology and Anthropology & Other Essays.
    Tumin,M.: Social Stratification
    Kessing,Reger M: Cultural Anthropology A Contemporary Perspective.
    Ember & Ember : Anthropology.
    A R N Srivastave : What is Anthropology
    Dr. A. R. N. Shrivastava : Social Anthropology
    Dr. Sudha Mutthaal : samazik manav vigyan saidhantik vyavhaar
    Paper II-Physical and Archaeological Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks
    (A) Physical Anthropology 50 Marks

    1. Meaning and scope of Physical Anthropology : Its relation to the other pranches of anthropology and to other sciences.
    2. Foundations of the theory of organic evolution: Lamarckism, Neo-Lamarckism,Drawinism and synthetic theory. Human evolution: biological and culural dimension. Micro-evolution.

    The Order Primate: Its evolutionary.K tendencies,(i.e. characteristics.) classification and distribution. A comparative study of primates with special reference to the anthropological aspects and man.
    3. Fossil eveidence for human evolution: Dryopethecus,Ramapithecus Australopithrecines, Homo erectus Pithecanthropines, Homo-sapiens, Neaderthalensis and Homo sapiens. Genetics: Definition: The Mendelian principles and their application to human populations.
    4. Human variation : Racial differentiation of man bases of Recial classification, morphological,serological and genetic.Rolo of heredity and environment i the formation of races.

    Book for compulsary reading:
    T. Dobzhansky's : Mankind Evolving
    Brace, C.Loring: The stages of Human Evolution : Human and Cultural Origins.
    Buttner-Janusch J.: Origins of Man.
    Dobzhansky,T.: Mankind Evolving.
    Emeral,S. and Devore,J.: The Primates (Life Nature Libary)
    Hammond,Pater,B. (Editor) : Physical Anthropology and Archaeotogy
    Introductory Readings.
    Howell,F. Clark and Editors of Life : Early Man (life Nature Libary)
    Howells, W.W. : Mankind in the Making.
    Kraus, Bertrum: The Basis of Human Evolution
    Sarkar S.S.: Aboriginal Races of India.
    Simpson.G.G. : The Meaning of Evolution.
    Singh R.D. : Sharirik Manavavigyan (Hindi).
    Dr. A.R.N. Shrivastava : Saririk manav vigyan
    Shri R.K. Shukl & Sudha Rastogi : Manav Udvikas

    (B) Archaeologial Anthropology

    The meaning and scope of Archacological Anthropology.
    Archacology in relation to other Social and Natural Sciences Concep of Prehistoric, Protohistoric and Historical Archaeology.Retrieval Archaeological date and its analysis.Dating in Archaeologyh.
    Salient features of palacolithic,Mesolithic and Neolithic and Neolithi cultures with special refreence of India. Harappan Civilization post Harappa Chalcolithic cultures of Northern India Megaliths and associated meateriaculture.
    Reading List:
    Allchin,B & R : The Birth of Indian Civilization
    Bhattacharya,D.K. : Prehistoric Archacology.
    Majumdar,D.N. & Gopala Sarana: Pragitihasa (Hindi)
    Pandaya,J.N. : Puralattva Vimarsha (Hindi)
    Sankalia,H.P.: Pre-history and protohistory of India and Pakistan
    Wheeler,M.: Archaeology from the Earth (Also Hindi translation Prithi se Puratattva).
    Zeuner,F.E. : Dating the Past.
    Section (A) Physical Anthropology and Section(B) Archaeologica Anthropology will be evaluated separately by the separate examiners and the examinees shall use two separate answer books for the two sections. Each section contains five questio out of which atleast two questions are to be attempted by the examinee. One question containing five short notes of the five marks each shall form a compulsory question.
    Paper III-Field Work and Practicals
    100 Marks
    (A) Physical Anthropology(Practical) 50 Marks

    Duration 3 hrs.
    Identification and description of the major bones of human skeleton. Aging and sexing of lhuman bones with special reference of suture closure ossification centers and epiphyseal unions.
    Measurements on the Cranium:

    1. Maximum cranial length.
    2. Maximum cranial breadthy
    3. Maximum frontal breadthy
    4. Bi-curricular breadth.
    5. Greatest occipical breadth.
    6. Bimastoid breadth.
    7. Basion bregma height.
    8. Horizontal circumference of the skull.
    9. Frontal arc.
    10. Paristal arc.
    11. Occipital arc.
    12. Frontal chord.
    13. Parietal chord.
    14. Orbital breadth.
    15. Orbital Height
    16. Bizygomatic Breadth.
    17. Upper facial height.
    18. Rasal height.
    19. Nasal breadth.

    Measurements on the mandible:

    1. Bicondylar breadth.
    2. Bigonial breadth.
    3. Heights of the ramus.
    4. Breadth of the ramus.

    Indices:

    1. Cranial index
    2. Frontal index.
    3. Upper facial index.
    4. Orbital index.
    5. Rasal index.

    Somatometric Measurements:

    1. Height vertex.
    2. Sitting height vertex.
    3. Upper arm length.
    4. Fore arm hebngth
    5. Hand length.
    6. Hand breadth.
    7. Foot length.
    8. Foot breadth.
    9. Biacromial breadth.
    10. Biacromial breadth.
    11. Chest breadth.
    12. Chest depth.
    13. Chest girth.
    14. Arm girth in the middle
    15. Body weight.

    Book Recommended:
    Singh I.P and M.K. Bhasin : Anthropmetry.
    B. Field Work 50 Marks.

    This will inclube conducting of field work of sometopic relevant to social or cultural Anthrpology under the supervision and guidance of some faculty mkembers in the leading to the writing and submission of a short field report,before the commencement of theory examinations.
    N.B. There woll be two separate external examiners invited to donduct the Practicals in Physical Anthropology i.e. section-A and assess the 'Field work' done in social/cultural Anthropology i.e. section 'B' respectively.
    Paper IV- Tools and Techniques of Anthropological Research
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. Field work tradition in Anthropology. Teh main features of field work-getting acquatinted with the field; establishment of report, learning and use of native language. The use of informations Key-informants role in anthrpological field work.
    2. Technique, method and methodology in Anthropological research.
    3. Definition and delimitation of the problem, hypothesis, concept of research design, and sampling.
    4. Basic data-gathering techniques : interview observation, schedule, quedstionnaire, case study method, extyended case method the genealogical method, the use of personal, official and historial documents in anthropological research.

    Simple statistical Techniques - avarages; data analysis and report writing.
    Readings Recomended:

    1. Bartleett, F.C(Ed): The study of Society.
    2. Casagrande, J. (Ed.) : In the Company of Man
    3. Epstein,A.L (Ed.) : In The Craft of Social Anthroplogy.
    4. Evans-Pritchard,E.E.: Social Anthropology and other Essays.
    5. Firth,Raymond(Ed.): Nabd Culture.
    6. Gottschalk, L. and others: use of Personal Documents in History, Anthropology and Sociology.
    7. Rusell Bcmard: Research Method in Cultural Anthropology.
    8. Basu,M.N. : Field methods in Anthropology and other social science.
    9. Kroeber,A.L. (Ed.) : Anthropology Today.
    10. Lewis Oscar: La Vida.
    11. Muller and Schuler: Statistical Reasoning in Sociology.
    12. Murdock, G.P. and others Outlines of Culture Marerial.
    13. Percto, Perti J : Anthropological Research; Structure of Enquiry.
    14. Royal Anthropological Institute: Notres and Queries on Anthropology.

    Paper V- Folk Culture and Folklore
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    The concept of Folk and Folk Culture.
    Redifield's view of folk society and folk culture.
    George M. Foster's concept of folk culture.
    Redfiedid's ideas about peasant society and peasand culture.
    The nature of Folklore.
    The devolutionary permose in folklore theory.
    The study of folklore in literature and culture.
    The problems of collecting folklore.
    Indentification and Interpretation.
    Significance of the study of folklore in peasant civilization. Taxonomy and social bacground of folk literature folk songs.
    Narrative of folk peotry-Ballads, Epic play's
    Prose Narrative-Folktales, Myths,legends
    Proverbs,Riddles,Charm & Other short pieces.
    Social content of folk literature: Woman,Family,Castes,Religion,Beliefs and attitude to Life,Recent Social Changes.
    Social Function of Folklore: Social control,Education,Recreation,Ritual.
    The Traditional Culture.
    The concept of Elite Tradition.
    Nature of Elite Tradition in Peasant civilizations.
    Changes in Elite tradition in Pre modern times.
    Changes in elite tradition in contemporary times.
    Sociological interpretation of Elite tradition.
    Interaction between folk and elite tradition with special reference to India.
    The future of folklore and folk culturte.

    Suggestyed Readings:
    Robert Redfield: Peasant Society and Culture
    Robert Rdfield: The Little Community.
    Alan Dundes: The study of Folklore
    Cecil Sharpe: The English Folk song.
    Stith Thompson: The Foplklore.
    M.J.C. Hodgert: The Ballads.
    Archer Taylor: The Proverbs.
    C.M. Bowra : Heroic Poetry
    C.M. Foster: Traditional Cultures and the Impact of Technological Change.
    J.G. Frazer: The Golden Bough
    Verier Elwin: Myths of Middle India.
    V. Elwin and S. Hiwale : Folk Culture and Oral Tradition.
    S.L. Srivastava : Folk Literature of Bengal
    D.C. Sen: Folk Literature of the Punjab.
    G.D. Upreti: Proverbs and Folklore of Kuimayun and Garhawal
    R.C. Temple: Lengends of the Punjab.
    W.G. Archer: The Blue Grove
    H.Zimmerman: Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization.
    Y.Singh: Images of man: Ideology and Theory in Indian society.Rural Studies.
    M.A./M.Sc. Final
    Paper VI-Methods and Theory in Social & Culture Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. Technique, method and methodology.
    2. The comparative methods of the unilinear (ninteeth century) evolutionists. Its critisims by the diffusionists and Franz Boss. The nature,purpose and methods of comparison in social-cultural anthropology: illustrative comparison,complete-universe comparison and hologeistic sampled (or cross-cultural) comparison.Comparison and control.
    3. Social anthropology and history, A critical examination of ple for the unity ofmethod in the natural and social sciences. Scientific and humanistic approaches to be distinguished. The nature of anthropological method and nation of its autonomy.
    4. The philosophical perspective on explanation in science and in history hempelian covering law' model of explanation. The nature of explanatio in social cultural anthroplolgy and the possibility of covering law model of explanation in the subject.
    5. Distinction between restudy and reinterpretation. The methodological implications of the difference between 'interpreatation' of the work of nineteenth century amateur ethnographers and rfeinterpretation of the contemporary ethnographies: Leach, Lounsbury, Needham,etc.
    6. Meansing of evolution: biological and cultural Ninteenth century unilinear evolutionism and its basic assumptions, Neo-evolutionism and the contemporary prespective on socio-cultural evolutionism.
    7. Diffusion and tradition. Diffusionism: British helecentric and German-Austrian kulturkreise approaches and their basic concepts. Culture area,age area and American distributionism.
    8. Relevance of psychological categories and approaches for anthropology. Patterns of culture, basic personality structure and model personality. Anthropological studies of culture at a distance: anthropological contribution to nation character studies. Recent trends in psychological anthropology : John whting and Anthony Wallac.
    9. Malinowski's contribution to functionalism in social anthroplogy: the theory of needs. Relevance of term like manifest latent function and eufunction/dysfunctiion. Functionalism, teleology and causality. Function and structujres: Radcliffe-Brown, Firth,Fortes and Nadel, Social structure or societal structure.
    10. Relationship and cross-fertilisation of liguistics and anthropology: structurealism in the two disciplines. Structures as model: Leach's and Levi-strauss's views. The structuralist method in the study of myth, totemism and alliance. Ethnography and formal semantic analysis.

    Books Recommended:
    Evans-Pritcard, E.E. : Social Anthropology and Other Essays.
    Firth, Raymond: Elements of Social Organisation.
    Firth, Raymond (Ed); Man and Culture (Selected chapters)
    Harris, Marian: The Rise of Anthropologica Theory.
    Eemple,Carl G.: Aspects of Scientific Explanation.
    Kroeber, A.L. : The Nature of Culture.
    Leach, E.R. : Lev-Strauss.
    Levi-strauss,c.: Structural Anthropology, Volume I & II.
    Menners, R. and d. Kaplan (Ed.) : Theory in Anthropology.
    Merton,R.K. Social Theory and Social Structure.
    Nagel,E. : The Structyure and Function in Primitive Society.
    Redcliffe-Brown,A.R.: Structyure and Function in Primitive Society.
    Redfield,Robert: Human Nature and the Study of Society.
    Saran, Gopala : Sociology and Anthropology and other Essays.
    Spancer, R.F. (Ed.) Method and Theory in Anthropology.
    Stocking, G.R. : Evolution, Race and Culture.
    Tyler, Stephen (Ed.) : Cognitive Anthropology.
    Write, L.A.: Evolution of Culture.
    Paper VII: Development Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1.
    1. Concepts of 'development','change' and 'modernization.
    2. 'Development' and the 'developing' Societies'The issue of cultural pluralism Vs.Colonialism.
    3. Anthropological perspective on 'development' ;'applied','action' and 'development' perspectives. perspectives. Anthropology and survival in an age of crisis.
    4. Cevelopment and Environment relationshop the present crists.
    5. Indian notion of development -Gandhiam Sarvoday a model and its relevance.
    2. Process of development : The Rural, Urban and Tribal scenarios-Trends Problems of 'development' in India: Demographic, social-cultural, Techno-economic and ecological aspects of 'development'.
    3. 'Development' areas and strategies: Poverty eradication and cultgure of poverty, eduction, environment-conservation and technological growth. "Development"perspective and the Status of Woman with special reference to Women in India.

    Books Recomonded:
    Roger M. Keesing: Cultural Anthropology: A Contemporary Perspective Hari Mohan Mathur: Anthropology and Development in Traditional societies. E.B Leacock (ed.) : The Culture of Poverty : A critique.
    G.M Foster : Traditional societies and Technological Change
    J.A. Clifton (ed.) : Applied Anthropology : Readings in the uses of the science of Man.
    E. Friedl: Wineb abd Neb: An Anthropologist's view
    Glynn Cocharane: Development Anthropology
    Everett Rogers : Modemization among peasants
    Atal Yogesh : Development : Cultural interface.
    Paper VIII- Indian Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. the origin and growth of Indian Anthropology.
    1. Distinctiveness of anthropological contribution in the study of tribal and peasant sections of the Indian population- study of Indian village.
    2. Theoretical-methodological issues involed in studying Indian Social-cultural reality. The Indian world-View and its cognitive construction-importance of studying classical texts along with the field view of reality.
    3. Critical understanding of the basic concepts and approaches of the study of Indian Civilization : Little tradition and great tradition; Universalization and Parochialization : Sanskitization, Westernization Tribe-cast continuum. Ethno-sociological and Traditional Indian cosmocentric perspective.
    2. Ethnogrtaphic profiles of Indian tribes: demographic, racial linguistic, economic and social organisational dimensions.
    3. Problems of tribal people : land-alienation; bonded labour indebtendess; shifting cultivation; irrigation; forests and tribal unemployment; agricultural labour, tribal revlots, minor tribes, Different approaches and measureasa adopted to solve tribal problems including constitutional provisions.
    4. Issues relating to national integration. Regionalism, lingustic cleaveges ethnic and communal riots.

    Books Recommended:

    1. Bose N.K.: Tribal India
    2. Bose N.K.: Tribal Life in India
    3. Bose N.K.: National Integration
    4. Elwin, Verrier : A New Deal for Tribal India
    5. Elwin, Verrier : A Philosophy for NEFA
    6. Fuchs, S.: The Aboriginal Tribes of India
    7. Ghurye, G.S. : The Scheduled Tribes
    8. Lynch, O.: The POolitics of Untoujchability
    9. Mamoria, O.: Tribal Demography
    10. Stephen A. Tyler: Indian : An Anthropological Perspective
    11. Madam, T.N.: Non-renunciation
    12. Marriott, Mackim : Village India
    13. Singh, Y.: Modernization of Indian Tradition
    14. Jain R.K. : Text and Context.
    15. Madan T.N. : Religion in India.
    16. Dube S.c. Understanding Change: Anthropological and Sociological perspective.

    Either Paper IX (a) -Rural Communities and Peasant Societies
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Concepts:
    Peasant Society, Peasantry, Rural,Community, folk-Urban Continuum; Tonnies Concepts of Community and Society.Characteristics of Peasants Society-Cultural,Social and Econoimic.
    Peasant Societies in India and other south Asian countries, Development Programmes, Rural communities and Peasant societies.
    Readings:
    Robert Redifield : Peasant Society and Culture- and anthropological approach to civilization.
    N.K. Bose : Culture and Society in Indian.
    Mackim Marriot (ed) : Village Indian.
    Louis Comont and Pecock: 'Village studies'-contribution to Indian Socilogy Vol 1957.
    Andre Beteille : Six Essay in Comparative Socilogy.
    Daniel Throner : Peasantry Encyclopedia of Social Sciences: Theordre Shanine.
    Andre Beteille-Caste, Class and Power.
    OR Paper IX (b)- Archaeological Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Meaning,Scope methods and kinds of Archaeology, Archaelogical traditions of the old world and the New Worls Archaeology as Anthropology, Methods of dating in Archaeology.
    Man and the Quaternary (Great) Ice age. Stratigraphic and other evidences of Ice Age : river terraces, moraines, eustation fluctuations, Alpine and Himalayan glaciation cycles.
    The age of palaeolithic savegery: Main subdivisions of West European and Indian Palaeolithic Cultrures with special refernce to their statigraphic horizon, chronology, tool-types and technique. Upper Palaeolithic Art of Europe Chief characteristics and significance. A brief account of stone age Africa.
    Mesolithic Cultures of Northern and Western Eujrope and corresponding stone age Cultures in Indian.
    The barbarism of the first-food producers, Salient features of the Neolithic Cultures in general. The Neolithic complex in Indian.
    Stone Tool technology and typology during palaeolithic and Post Palaeolithic times.
    Meaning and general concepts of Urban Revolution and Civilization Mains centres of Civilization in the old world. Origin, extent, development and decay of the Indus Civilization.
    The distribution and Chief Characterstics of Indian Megalithic Culture, Its correlation with living tradition of Megalith builders.
    The main features of ameerican Indian Cultures.

    Books Recommended:
    Allchin, B & R : The Birth of Indian Civillization.
    Allchin, H : Prehistory of Africa.
    Binford, S.R & L (ed.) : New perspectives in Archacology.
    Borders, F. The Old Stone Age.
    Bhaidwood R.J. : Prehistoric Men
    Bhattacharya, D.K. Prehistoric Archeology.
    Childe, V.G. : Piecing Together the past Man Makes Himself.
    Fried, Morton (Ed.) : Readings in Anthropology Voil. I
    Jayaswal, Vadula,: Bharatiya Itihas Ka Adi Prastar Yug (Hindi):
    Bharatiya Itihas Ka Madhya Prastrar Yug (hindi).
    Majumdar, D.N. & Gopala Sarana: Pragitihasa (Hindi).
    Oakely,K.P.: Man and the Tool-Maker.
    Pandeya J.N. Puratattva Vimarasha (Hindi)
    Sankalia, H.B.: Stone Age Tools: Their techniques, Names and functions:
    Prehistory & Protohistory of Indian and Pakistan.
    Willey, Gordon R : An Introduction to american Archaeologh Vol-I
    Wheeler, M : Archacology from the Earth also Hindi trans. Prithvi Se Puratatta.
    Zeuner, F.E. Dating the Past.
    OR Paper IX (C)- Linguistic Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Language defined. Universals of language.
    Ferdinand de saussure and structure of language: Paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations. Pregue Linguistic circle.
    Phonetics : Acoustic and Asticulatory.
    Phonemics: The definition and identification of Phonomes, Phinemic analysis.
    The morpheme: Phonemes and morphemes distinguished.
    The identification of morphemes and classifying allomorphs into mrophemes.
    Dialetology and language geography.
    Syntactic strtuctures and Immediate Constituent (ICE) analysis. Phrase structure and transformational grammars.
    Chomsly's distinction between competence and performance.
    The Cultural settiing of language: The role of meaning.
    Sociolinguistics: Linguistic and anthropological perspectives. Ethnography of communication.
    Data acquisition procedure and formal semantic anallysis in etrhnoscience and cognitive anthropology.

    Books Recommended:
    Ariner, E. (Editor): Social Anthropology and Language.
    Burling, R.: Man's Many Voices.
    Gleason, H.A.: An Introduction of Descriptive Linguistics.
    Hackett,C.F. : A course in Modern Linguistics.
    Hymes, Dell (Editor) : Language in Culture and Society.
    Lyons, John : Chomsky (Modern Masters Services).
    Lyons, John : Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics.
    Cystal, David : Linguistics.
    Sapir, Edward : Language.
    Tyelr, Stephen A. (Editor): Cognitive Anthropology.
    OR Paper IX (d)- Kinship and Religion
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Section'A'

    The idea of kinship system and its place in social structure, Prespectives on the study of Kinship from L.H. Morgan to Mayer Forts. Recent trends in kinship studies. Formal semantic analysis of kinship terms and categories.
    The problem of incest. Different theories, accounting for incest and incest prohibition. The views of C.Levi Strauss and Leslie White to be examined.
    Marriage and alliance : Perferential and precriptive cross-cousin marriage: Leve Strauss and Needham.
    Decent and residence theory of kindship. Radcliffe-Brown, Evans Pritchard and Fortes. Kin terms, kin terms, groups and kinship behvious.
    modes of exchange, Restrictged exchange: harmonic and disharmonic regimes. Generalised exchange.

    Section'B'

    Theories of origin and development of religion.
    Conceptions of the supernatural beings and objects. Mana and Toboo.
    Function of religion in human society; the family economic action, political a ction and religion.
    Myth, ritual and totemism, Structural study of myth and totomism.
    Religious practitioners: shammans and priests.
    Magic and witchcraft. Maico-religious treatment of illness.
    Books Recommended:
    On Kinshop
    Evans-Pritchard, E.E.: Kinship and Marriage among the Nuer.
    Fortes. M: The Web of Kinship among Tallensi.
    Fortes. M : Dynamics of clanship among the Tallensi.
    Fox, Robin : Kinship and Marriage.
    Goddy, Jack (Ed): Kinship.
    Levi-Strauss, C : The Elementary Structures of Kinship.
    Needham, R. : Structure and Sentiment.
    Needham, R (Ed.) : Rethinking and Marriage.
    Radcliff-Brown, A.R. and c. Daryll Forde (Ed). : African system of Kinship and Marriage.
    White, L.A. Science of Culture (chapter on incest).
    On Religion:
    Evans-Pritchard, E.E. : Theories of Primitive Religion
    Firth, R. : Ritual and Belief in Tikopia.
    Goode, William J.: Religion Among the Primitives.
    Leach, E.R. ,(Ed.) : Structural Study of Myhth and Totemism.
    Leslie, Charles : Anthropology of Folk religion.
    Lessa, W.A. and E.Z. Vog (Ed): Reader in comparative Religion.
    Levi-Strauss, G.: Structural Anthropology (Selected Chapters)
    Levi Strauss, G.: Totemism.
    Norbeck,E. : Religion on Primitive Society.
    OR Paper IX (e)- Economic and Political Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Section'A'

    Development of Economic Anthropology.
    Modern economic theory and its relevance to economic anthropology: the debate between formalists and substantivists.
    Economy in its socio-cultural settings. Deterministic theories. The relevance of encironmental and culture factors in equilibrium theory.
    Nature of economic transactions and economic process in primitive societies, bater, trade and market exchange.
    Economic growth and cultural change.
    Section'B'

    The scopoe and signiticance of polotical anthropology. The equity polotical process and the functions of legitimate authority.
    Political organizatiion in equilitarion and stratified societies. Locus of power and the topology of polotical structure in different societies.
    Leadership and social structure. The concept of the state and the anthropological point of view.
    Anthropological study of political process among emerging nations and complex societies, Concepts of Political Culture and political development The study of nation buiding processes.
    Books Recommended:
    Banton, M. (Editor) : Political Systems and distribution of Power.
    Belshaw, C : Traditional Exchange and Modern Man.
    Chammer, J. (Ed.) : The New Economic Anthropology.
    Cohn, R and J. Middleton (Editor): Comparative Political System.
    Dalton, George : Tribal and Peasant Economics.
    Dalton, George : Economic Development and Social Change.
    Firth Raymond (Editor) : Themes in Economic Anthropology.
    Geertz, Clifford (Editor) : Old Societies and New States.
    Leclair, E.E. and M.R. and M.R. Schneider (Editors) : Economic Anthropology : Readings in Theory and Analysis.
    Middleton, J. and D. Tate (Editor) : Tribes without Rulers.
    Pye, Lucian W. and S. Verba (Editors): Political Anthropology.
    OR Paper IX (f)- Medocal Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. History, Nature, Scope of Medical Anthrolpology.
    2. Concepts of Health Illness (Physical and mental) and their cultural specification
    3. Omdogemepis and Exogeneous medical systems: Folk and ethno medicine (herbal medicine), Ayurvedic,Naturopathy Homoepathy, Unani, Allopaty.
    4. Traditional healers: Sorcery, witchcrft, magicians, Shamans Bhopas
    5. Critical understanding of Health care programmes and policies-Roe of Government and non-Government organizations.

    Readings Recommended:

    1. David Landy : Culture, Disease and Healing
    2. Foster GM, Anderson BC : Medical Anthropology
    3. Paul B.D.: Health, Culture and Community
    4. Logan M.H. & E.E. Hunt Jr.: Health and Human condition Perspectives on Medical Anthropology.
    5. Chaudhry Buddabeb :Tribal Health Socio-Cultural Dimensions.

    OR Paper IX (g)- Visual Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. Visual Anthropology-definition,scope and uses with special refernce to India.
    2. Visual Anthropology as one of the documentation methods in Anthropology - Photography as an effective Medium of Communciation and its role in Visual Anthropology. Still Photography Vs Movie Photography-their advantages and limitations.
    3. Movie films: feature films, ethnographi films documentary films, research films: instructional films-Their scope and relevance to visual Anthropology.
    4. Visual Anthropology and analysis of cultural style. Film as an art from-the-film language. Film review, appreciation and cirticism Realistic and 'Nes Wave' feature films in Indian and /visual Anthropology.
    5. Televison and Visual Anthropology-Videotape; New Techniques of observation and analysis in Anthropology.

    Suggested Readings:

    1. K.N. Sahay : Visual Anthropology in India and its development.
    2. Paul Hockings(ed) : Principles of Visual Anthropology.
    3. John Collier (Jr) : Visual Anthropology : Photography as a Reseaarth Method.
    4. Satyajit Roy : Our films Their Films.
    5. Margaret Mead & F.C. Macgrigor : Growth and Cultures : A Photographic study of Balenese Childhood.
    6. Firoze Rangoconwala : Seventy five years of Indian Cinema.

    Scheme of Examination
    Each Theory Paper
    Dissertation/Thesis/
    Surve Report/Field 3 hrs. duration 100 Marks
    Work,if any. 100 Marks

    1. The number of papers and the maximum marks for each paper/practicalshall be shown in the syllbus for the subject concerned.It will benecessary for a candidate to pass in the theory part as well as in thepractical part (wherever prescribed) of a subject/paper separately.
    2. A candidate for a pass at each of the previous and the Final Examination shall be required to obtain:
    1. Atleast 36% marks in the aggregate of all the papers prescribed for the examination and
    2. Atleast 36% marks in practical(s) wherever prescribed at the examination provided that if a candidate fails to secure atleast 25% marks ineach individual paper at the examination and also in the desertation/survey report/ field work,wherever prescribed,he shall be deemed to have failed at the examination notwithstanding his having obtained the minimum percentage of marks required in the aggregate for the examination.No division shall be awarded at the end of the Final Examinationon the combined marks obtained at the previous and the Final Examination taken together,as noted below:
    First Division
    Second Division 60% of the aggregate marks taken
    48% together of the Previous and
    the Final Examinations.

    3. All the rest shall be declared to have passed the examinatin. If a candidate clears any Paper(s)Practical(s)Dissertation prescribed atthe previous and/or Final Examination after a continuous period of threeyears,then for the purpous of working out his divison the minimum pass marks only viz.25% (35% in the case of practrical) shall be taken intoaccount in respect of such Paper(s)/Practical(s)/Dissertion are cleared after the expiry of the aforesaid period of three years;providedthat in case where a candidate requirs more than 25% marks in order to reach the minimum aggregate as many marks out of those actuall secured by him will be taken into account as would enable him to make upthe deficiency in the requisite minimum aggregate.
    4. The Thesis/Dissertation/Survey Report/Field Work shall be type-writte and submitted in triplicate so as to reach the office of the Registrar atleast 3 weeks before the commencement of the theory examinations.Only succandidates shall be permitted to offer Dissertation/Field Works/Survey Report/Thesis(if provided in the scheme of examination) in lieu of a papers prescribed for the previous examination in the case of annual scheme irrespective of the number of papers in which a candidate actually appeared at the examination.

    N.B.: Non-collegiate candidate are not eligible to offer dissertation as per previsions of O.170-A.
    Distribution of Papers
    M.A./M.Sc. ANTHROPOLOGY

    Note:

    1. .There will be Five Papers in the Previous and Five papers in the Final.
    2. Each Paper shall carry 100 marks.

    M.A./M.Sc. (Previous)

    Scheme: Max.Marks.
    Paper I Social Anthropology 100
    Paper II Physical And Archeological Anthropology
    (A) Physical Anthropology 50
    (B) Archeological Anthropology 50
    Paper III Field work and practical 100
    Paper IV Tools and Techni9ques of Anthropoological Rasearch 100
    Paper V Folk Culture and Folklore 100

    M.A./M.Sc. (Final)
    Paper I Methods and Theory in Social Cultural Anthropology 100
    Paper VII Development Anthropology 100
    Paper VIII Indian Anthropology 100

    Paper IX

    1. Rural Communities and Peasand societies
    2. OR Archaeological Anthropology
    3. OR Linguistic Anthropoology
    4. OR Kinship and Religion
    5. OR Economic and Political Anthropology
    6. OR Medical Anthropoology
    7. OR Visual Anthropology

    Paper X Field Work and Field Report.
    Note : A Field Report shall be prepared by each student on the basis of field work conductyed by him/her under the supervision of a teacher by actually staying in the field for not less than thiry days in place at least 20 miles away form the Municipal Corporation Limits of the Jaipur City.
    the scheme of evaluation of the Field work Report to be evaluated jointly by the Internal and External Examiners will be as follows:
    1 Field Work Report 70 Marks
    2 Viva Voce on the field work report 30 Marks

    M.A. Previous
    Paper I- Social Anthropology

    Horizons of Anthropology.

    1. Basic Consept : Institution and group; community, society and culture, status and role; social structure and social organisation. Social function.
    2. Marriage: The problems of universal definition; incest and prohibited categories; preferential forms of marriage. Marriage regulation and marriage payments: dowry and bride wealth.
    The familly as the corner stone of human society: universality of the family. Functions of the family. Diverse forms of family nuclear extended joint family system in India.
    Kunship the idea of kunship system and its place in social structure Classificatory and descriptive terms/systems according to Morgan and Murdock Privaleged famiharily avoidance and joking relatioship. Unilateral bilateral and double descent systems. Virilocal uxorilocal and meolocal residence paterns. Corporate kin group: lineage, clan, Kinbred. Structural implication of crosscousin marriage.
    3. Economic anthropology : meaning, scope and differences from economics, Modes of exchange; barter; ceremonial exchange (kula, patlatch), reaprocity and redistribution; market and trade, Production. The debate between formalists and substranitivists about the relevance of economic theory for understanding primitive and peasant economics
    4. Political Anthropology: meaning, scope and difference from political science. The locus power and functions of legitimate authority in different societies. Difference between state and stateless political systms. The rise of the state. Leadership patterns. Law and anthropological approach to its study. The cultural back ground of law. Extra-legal devices of social control.
    5. Religion theories of origin,e.g. animism,animation Magic religion and science, Myth and ritual, Totemism and tabboo. Relation of religion to other social institutions. The contemporary anthropological perspective on the study of religion.
    6. Social Stratification : caste, class and estate. The major features of caste system and its place in contemporary India,The impact of caste on non-Hindus in India.

    Book for compulsory reading: B.Malinowski's Crime and Custom in Savage Society.
    Readings Recommended:
    Battie, John: Other Cultures
    Bohannan, Paul: Social Anthropology
    Dumont, Louis: Homo-Hierarchicus
    Firth, Raymond: Eleements of Social Organisation
    Rirth,Raymond : Elemments of Social Organisation
    Fried, M (ed): Readings in Anthropology Voll. II
    Hammond, Peter B (ed) : Culture and social Anthropology
    Krober,A.L. and other's : 'Horizons of Anthropology'. Current Anthropology(1961).
    Leach,E.R. Aspects of caste in south India,Ceylon & North West Pakistan.
    Lessa,W.S. and E.Z. Vogt (ed) : Reading in Comparative Religion.
    Lienhardt, G.: Social Anthropology
    Nadel,S.F. : Foundation of Social Anthropology
    Reddeliffe-Brown,A.R. : structure and Functions in Primitive Sociedty.
    Sarana,Gopala : Sociology and Anthropology & Other Essays.
    Tumin,M.: Social Stratification
    Kessing,Reger M: Cultural Anthropology A Contemporary Perspective.
    Ember & Ember : Anthropology.
    A R N Srivastave : What is Anthropology
    Dr. A. R. N. Shrivastava : Social Anthropology
    Dr. Sudha Mutthaal : samazik manav vigyan saidhantik vyavhaar
    Paper II-Physical and Archaeological Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks
    (A) Physical Anthropology 50 Marks

    1. Meaning and scope of Physical Anthropology : Its relation to the other pranches of anthropology and to other sciences.
    2. Foundations of the theory of organic evolution: Lamarckism, Neo-Lamarckism,Drawinism and synthetic theory. Human evolution: biological and culural dimension. Micro-evolution.

    The Order Primate: Its evolutionary.K tendencies,(i.e. characteristics.) classification and distribution. A comparative study of primates with special reference to the anthropological aspects and man.
    3. Fossil eveidence for human evolution: Dryopethecus,Ramapithecus Australopithrecines, Homo erectus Pithecanthropines, Homo-sapiens, Neaderthalensis and Homo sapiens. Genetics: Definition: The Mendelian principles and their application to human populations.
    4. Human variation : Racial differentiation of man bases of Recial classification, morphological,serological and genetic.Rolo of heredity and environment i the formation of races.

    Book for compulsary reading:
    T. Dobzhansky's : Mankind Evolving
    Brace, C.Loring: The stages of Human Evolution : Human and Cultural Origins.
    Buttner-Janusch J.: Origins of Man.
    Dobzhansky,T.: Mankind Evolving.
    Emeral,S. and Devore,J.: The Primates (Life Nature Libary)
    Hammond,Pater,B. (Editor) : Physical Anthropology and Archaeotogy
    Introductory Readings.
    Howell,F. Clark and Editors of Life : Early Man (life Nature Libary)
    Howells, W.W. : Mankind in the Making.
    Kraus, Bertrum: The Basis of Human Evolution
    Sarkar S.S.: Aboriginal Races of India.
    Simpson.G.G. : The Meaning of Evolution.
    Singh R.D. : Sharirik Manavavigyan (Hindi).
    Dr. A.R.N. Shrivastava : Saririk manav vigyan
    Shri R.K. Shukl & Sudha Rastogi : Manav Udvikas

    (B) Archaeologial Anthropology

    The meaning and scope of Archacological Anthropology.
    Archacology in relation to other Social and Natural Sciences Concep of Prehistoric, Protohistoric and Historical Archaeology.Retrieval Archaeological date and its analysis.Dating in Archaeologyh.
    Salient features of palacolithic,Mesolithic and Neolithic and Neolithi cultures with special refreence of India. Harappan Civilization post Harappa Chalcolithic cultures of Northern India Megaliths and associated meateriaculture.
    Reading List:
    Allchin,B & R : The Birth of Indian Civilization
    Bhattacharya,D.K. : Prehistoric Archacology.
    Majumdar,D.N. & Gopala Sarana: Pragitihasa (Hindi)
    Pandaya,J.N. : Puralattva Vimarsha (Hindi)
    Sankalia,H.P.: Pre-history and protohistory of India and Pakistan
    Wheeler,M.: Archaeology from the Earth (Also Hindi translation Prithi se Puratattva).
    Zeuner,F.E. : Dating the Past.
    Section (A) Physical Anthropology and Section(B) Archaeologica Anthropology will be evaluated separately by the separate examiners and the examinees shall use two separate answer books for the two sections. Each section contains five questio out of which atleast two questions are to be attempted by the examinee. One question containing five short notes of the five marks each shall form a compulsory question.
    Paper III-Field Work and Practicals
    100 Marks
    (A) Physical Anthropology(Practical) 50 Marks

    Duration 3 hrs.
    Identification and description of the major bones of human skeleton. Aging and sexing of lhuman bones with special reference of suture closure ossification centers and epiphyseal unions.
    Measurements on the Cranium:

    1. Maximum cranial length.
    2. Maximum cranial breadthy
    3. Maximum frontal breadthy
    4. Bi-curricular breadth.
    5. Greatest occipical breadth.
    6. Bimastoid breadth.
    7. Basion bregma height.
    8. Horizontal circumference of the skull.
    9. Frontal arc.
    10. Paristal arc.
    11. Occipital arc.
    12. Frontal chord.
    13. Parietal chord.
    14. Orbital breadth.
    15. Orbital Height
    16. Bizygomatic Breadth.
    17. Upper facial height.
    18. Rasal height.
    19. Nasal breadth.

    Measurements on the mandible:

    1. Bicondylar breadth.
    2. Bigonial breadth.
    3. Heights of the ramus.
    4. Breadth of the ramus.

    Indices:

    1. Cranial index
    2. Frontal index.
    3. Upper facial index.
    4. Orbital index.
    5. Rasal index.

    Somatometric Measurements:

    1. Height vertex.
    2. Sitting height vertex.
    3. Upper arm length.
    4. Fore arm hebngth
    5. Hand length.
    6. Hand breadth.
    7. Foot length.
    8. Foot breadth.
    9. Biacromial breadth.
    10. Biacromial breadth.
    11. Chest breadth.
    12. Chest depth.
    13. Chest girth.
    14. Arm girth in the middle
    15. Body weight.

    Book Recommended:
    Singh I.P and M.K. Bhasin : Anthropmetry.
    B. Field Work 50 Marks.

    This will inclube conducting of field work of sometopic relevant to social or cultural Anthrpology under the supervision and guidance of some faculty mkembers in the leading to the writing and submission of a short field report,before the commencement of theory examinations.
    N.B. There woll be two separate external examiners invited to donduct the Practicals in Physical Anthropology i.e. section-A and assess the 'Field work' done in social/cultural Anthropology i.e. section 'B' respectively.
    Paper IV- Tools and Techniques of Anthropological Research
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. Field work tradition in Anthropology. Teh main features of field work-getting acquatinted with the field; establishment of report, learning and use of native language. The use of informations Key-informants role in anthrpological field work.
    2. Technique, method and methodology in Anthropological research.
    3. Definition and delimitation of the problem, hypothesis, concept of research design, and sampling.
    4. Basic data-gathering techniques : interview observation, schedule, quedstionnaire, case study method, extyended case method the genealogical method, the use of personal, official and historial documents in anthropological research.

    Simple statistical Techniques - avarages; data analysis and report writing.
    Readings Recomended:

    1. Bartleett, F.C(Ed): The study of Society.
    2. Casagrande, J. (Ed.) : In the Company of Man
    3. Epstein,A.L (Ed.) : In The Craft of Social Anthroplogy.
    4. Evans-Pritchard,E.E.: Social Anthropology and other Essays.
    5. Firth,Raymond(Ed.): Nabd Culture.
    6. Gottschalk, L. and others: use of Personal Documents in History, Anthropology and Sociology.
    7. Rusell Bcmard: Research Method in Cultural Anthropology.
    8. Basu,M.N. : Field methods in Anthropology and other social science.
    9. Kroeber,A.L. (Ed.) : Anthropology Today.
    10. Lewis Oscar: La Vida.
    11. Muller and Schuler: Statistical Reasoning in Sociology.
    12. Murdock, G.P. and others Outlines of Culture Marerial.
    13. Percto, Perti J : Anthropological Research; Structure of Enquiry.
    14. Royal Anthropological Institute: Notres and Queries on Anthropology.

    Paper V- Folk Culture and Folklore
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    The concept of Folk and Folk Culture.
    Redifield's view of folk society and folk culture.
    George M. Foster's concept of folk culture.
    Redfiedid's ideas about peasant society and peasand culture.
    The nature of Folklore.
    The devolutionary permose in folklore theory.
    The study of folklore in literature and culture.
    The problems of collecting folklore.
    Indentification and Interpretation.
    Significance of the study of folklore in peasant civilization. Taxonomy and social bacground of folk literature folk songs.
    Narrative of folk peotry-Ballads, Epic play's
    Prose Narrative-Folktales, Myths,legends
    Proverbs,Riddles,Charm & Other short pieces.
    Social content of folk literature: Woman,Family,Castes,Religion,Beliefs and attitude to Life,Recent Social Changes.
    Social Function of Folklore: Social control,Education,Recreation,Ritual.
    The Traditional Culture.
    The concept of Elite Tradition.
    Nature of Elite Tradition in Peasant civilizations.
    Changes in Elite tradition in Pre modern times.
    Changes in elite tradition in contemporary times.
    Sociological interpretation of Elite tradition.
    Interaction between folk and elite tradition with special reference to India.
    The future of folklore and folk culturte.

    Suggestyed Readings:
    Robert Redfield: Peasant Society and Culture
    Robert Rdfield: The Little Community.
    Alan Dundes: The study of Folklore
    Cecil Sharpe: The English Folk song.
    Stith Thompson: The Foplklore.
    M.J.C. Hodgert: The Ballads.
    Archer Taylor: The Proverbs.
    C.M. Bowra : Heroic Poetry
    C.M. Foster: Traditional Cultures and the Impact of Technological Change.
    J.G. Frazer: The Golden Bough
    Verier Elwin: Myths of Middle India.
    V. Elwin and S. Hiwale : Folk Culture and Oral Tradition.
    S.L. Srivastava : Folk Literature of Bengal
    D.C. Sen: Folk Literature of the Punjab.
    G.D. Upreti: Proverbs and Folklore of Kuimayun and Garhawal
    R.C. Temple: Lengends of the Punjab.
    W.G. Archer: The Blue Grove
    H.Zimmerman: Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization.
    Y.Singh: Images of man: Ideology and Theory in Indian society.Rural Studies.
    M.A./M.Sc. Final
    Paper VI-Methods and Theory in Social & Culture Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. Technique, method and methodology.
    2. The comparative methods of the unilinear (ninteeth century) evolutionists. Its critisims by the diffusionists and Franz Boss. The nature,purpose and methods of comparison in social-cultural anthropology: illustrative comparison,complete-universe comparison and hologeistic sampled (or cross-cultural) comparison.Comparison and control.
    3. Social anthropology and history, A critical examination of ple for the unity ofmethod in the natural and social sciences. Scientific and humanistic approaches to be distinguished. The nature of anthropological method and nation of its autonomy.
    4. The philosophical perspective on explanation in science and in history hempelian covering law' model of explanation. The nature of explanatio in social cultural anthroplolgy and the possibility of covering law model of explanation in the subject.
    5. Distinction between restudy and reinterpretation. The methodological implications of the difference between 'interpreatation' of the work of nineteenth century amateur ethnographers and rfeinterpretation of the contemporary ethnographies: Leach, Lounsbury, Needham,etc.
    6. Meansing of evolution: biological and cultural Ninteenth century unilinear evolutionism and its basic assumptions, Neo-evolutionism and the contemporary prespective on socio-cultural evolutionism.
    7. Diffusion and tradition. Diffusionism: British helecentric and German-Austrian kulturkreise approaches and their basic concepts. Culture area,age area and American distributionism.
    8. Relevance of psychological categories and approaches for anthropology. Patterns of culture, basic personality structure and model personality. Anthropological studies of culture at a distance: anthropological contribution to nation character studies. Recent trends in psychological anthropology : John whting and Anthony Wallac.
    9. Malinowski's contribution to functionalism in social anthroplogy: the theory of needs. Relevance of term like manifest latent function and eufunction/dysfunctiion. Functionalism, teleology and causality. Function and structujres: Radcliffe-Brown, Firth,Fortes and Nadel, Social structure or societal structure.
    10. Relationship and cross-fertilisation of liguistics and anthropology: structurealism in the two disciplines. Structures as model: Leach's and Levi-strauss's views. The structuralist method in the study of myth, totemism and alliance. Ethnography and formal semantic analysis.

    Books Recommended:
    Evans-Pritcard, E.E. : Social Anthropology and Other Essays.
    Firth, Raymond: Elements of Social Organisation.
    Firth, Raymond (Ed); Man and Culture (Selected chapters)
    Harris, Marian: The Rise of Anthropologica Theory.
    Eemple,Carl G.: Aspects of Scientific Explanation.
    Kroeber, A.L. : The Nature of Culture.
    Leach, E.R. : Lev-Strauss.
    Levi-strauss,c.: Structural Anthropology, Volume I & II.
    Menners, R. and d. Kaplan (Ed.) : Theory in Anthropology.
    Merton,R.K. Social Theory and Social Structure.
    Nagel,E. : The Structyure and Function in Primitive Society.
    Redcliffe-Brown,A.R.: Structyure and Function in Primitive Society.
    Redfield,Robert: Human Nature and the Study of Society.
    Saran, Gopala : Sociology and Anthropology and other Essays.
    Spancer, R.F. (Ed.) Method and Theory in Anthropology.
    Stocking, G.R. : Evolution, Race and Culture.
    Tyler, Stephen (Ed.) : Cognitive Anthropology.
    Write, L.A.: Evolution of Culture.
    Paper VII: Development Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1.
    1. Concepts of 'development','change' and 'modernization.
    2. 'Development' and the 'developing' Societies'The issue of cultural pluralism Vs.Colonialism.
    3. Anthropological perspective on 'development' ;'applied','action' and 'development' perspectives. perspectives. Anthropology and survival in an age of crisis.
    4. Cevelopment and Environment relationshop the present crists.
    5. Indian notion of development -Gandhiam Sarvoday a model and its relevance.
    2. Process of development : The Rural, Urban and Tribal scenarios-Trends Problems of 'development' in India: Demographic, social-cultural, Techno-economic and ecological aspects of 'development'.
    3. 'Development' areas and strategies: Poverty eradication and cultgure of poverty, eduction, environment-conservation and technological growth. "Development"perspective and the Status of Woman with special reference to Women in India.

    Books Recomonded:
    Roger M. Keesing: Cultural Anthropology: A Contemporary Perspective Hari Mohan Mathur: Anthropology and Development in Traditional societies. E.B Leacock (ed.) : The Culture of Poverty : A critique.
    G.M Foster : Traditional societies and Technological Change
    J.A. Clifton (ed.) : Applied Anthropology : Readings in the uses of the science of Man.
    E. Friedl: Wineb abd Neb: An Anthropologist's view
    Glynn Cocharane: Development Anthropology
    Everett Rogers : Modemization among peasants
    Atal Yogesh : Development : Cultural interface.
    Paper VIII- Indian Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. the origin and growth of Indian Anthropology.
    1. Distinctiveness of anthropological contribution in the study of tribal and peasant sections of the Indian population- study of Indian village.
    2. Theoretical-methodological issues involed in studying Indian Social-cultural reality. The Indian world-View and its cognitive construction-importance of studying classical texts along with the field view of reality.
    3. Critical understanding of the basic concepts and approaches of the study of Indian Civilization : Little tradition and great tradition; Universalization and Parochialization : Sanskitization, Westernization Tribe-cast continuum. Ethno-sociological and Traditional Indian cosmocentric perspective.
    2. Ethnogrtaphic profiles of Indian tribes: demographic, racial linguistic, economic and social organisational dimensions.
    3. Problems of tribal people : land-alienation; bonded labour indebtendess; shifting cultivation; irrigation; forests and tribal unemployment; agricultural labour, tribal revlots, minor tribes, Different approaches and measureasa adopted to solve tribal problems including constitutional provisions.
    4. Issues relating to national integration. Regionalism, lingustic cleaveges ethnic and communal riots.

    Books Recommended:

    1. Bose N.K.: Tribal India
    2. Bose N.K.: Tribal Life in India
    3. Bose N.K.: National Integration
    4. Elwin, Verrier : A New Deal for Tribal India
    5. Elwin, Verrier : A Philosophy for NEFA
    6. Fuchs, S.: The Aboriginal Tribes of India
    7. Ghurye, G.S. : The Scheduled Tribes
    8. Lynch, O.: The POolitics of Untoujchability
    9. Mamoria, O.: Tribal Demography
    10. Stephen A. Tyler: Indian : An Anthropological Perspective
    11. Madam, T.N.: Non-renunciation
    12. Marriott, Mackim : Village India
    13. Singh, Y.: Modernization of Indian Tradition
    14. Jain R.K. : Text and Context.
    15. Madan T.N. : Religion in India.
    16. Dube S.c. Understanding Change: Anthropological and Sociological perspective.

    Either Paper IX (a) -Rural Communities and Peasant Societies
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Concepts:
    Peasant Society, Peasantry, Rural,Community, folk-Urban Continuum; Tonnies Concepts of Community and Society.Characteristics of Peasants Society-Cultural,Social and Econoimic.
    Peasant Societies in India and other south Asian countries, Development Programmes, Rural communities and Peasant societies.
    Readings:
    Robert Redifield : Peasant Society and Culture- and anthropological approach to civilization.
    N.K. Bose : Culture and Society in Indian.
    Mackim Marriot (ed) : Village Indian.
    Louis Comont and Pecock: 'Village studies'-contribution to Indian Socilogy Vol 1957.
    Andre Beteille : Six Essay in Comparative Socilogy.
    Daniel Throner : Peasantry Encyclopedia of Social Sciences: Theordre Shanine.
    Andre Beteille-Caste, Class and Power.
    OR Paper IX (b)- Archaeological Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Meaning,Scope methods and kinds of Archaeology, Archaelogical traditions of the old world and the New Worls Archaeology as Anthropology, Methods of dating in Archaeology.
    Man and the Quaternary (Great) Ice age. Stratigraphic and other evidences of Ice Age : river terraces, moraines, eustation fluctuations, Alpine and Himalayan glaciation cycles.
    The age of palaeolithic savegery: Main subdivisions of West European and Indian Palaeolithic Cultrures with special refernce to their statigraphic horizon, chronology, tool-types and technique. Upper Palaeolithic Art of Europe Chief characteristics and significance. A brief account of stone age Africa.
    Mesolithic Cultures of Northern and Western Eujrope and corresponding stone age Cultures in Indian.
    The barbarism of the first-food producers, Salient features of the Neolithic Cultures in general. The Neolithic complex in Indian.
    Stone Tool technology and typology during palaeolithic and Post Palaeolithic times.
    Meaning and general concepts of Urban Revolution and Civilization Mains centres of Civilization in the old world. Origin, extent, development and decay of the Indus Civilization.
    The distribution and Chief Characterstics of Indian Megalithic Culture, Its correlation with living tradition of Megalith builders.
    The main features of ameerican Indian Cultures.

    Books Recommended:
    Allchin, B & R : The Birth of Indian Civillization.
    Allchin, H : Prehistory of Africa.
    Binford, S.R & L (ed.) : New perspectives in Archacology.
    Borders, F. The Old Stone Age.
    Bhaidwood R.J. : Prehistoric Men
    Bhattacharya, D.K. Prehistoric Archeology.
    Childe, V.G. : Piecing Together the past Man Makes Himself.
    Fried, Morton (Ed.) : Readings in Anthropology Voil. I
    Jayaswal, Vadula,: Bharatiya Itihas Ka Adi Prastar Yug (Hindi):
    Bharatiya Itihas Ka Madhya Prastrar Yug (hindi).
    Majumdar, D.N. & Gopala Sarana: Pragitihasa (Hindi).
    Oakely,K.P.: Man and the Tool-Maker.
    Pandeya J.N. Puratattva Vimarasha (Hindi)
    Sankalia, H.B.: Stone Age Tools: Their techniques, Names and functions:
    Prehistory & Protohistory of Indian and Pakistan.
    Willey, Gordon R : An Introduction to american Archaeologh Vol-I
    Wheeler, M : Archacology from the Earth also Hindi trans. Prithvi Se Puratatta.
    Zeuner, F.E. Dating the Past.
    OR Paper IX (C)- Linguistic Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Language defined. Universals of language.
    Ferdinand de saussure and structure of language: Paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations. Pregue Linguistic circle.
    Phonetics : Acoustic and Asticulatory.
    Phonemics: The definition and identification of Phonomes, Phinemic analysis.
    The morpheme: Phonemes and morphemes distinguished.
    The identification of morphemes and classifying allomorphs into mrophemes.
    Dialetology and language geography.
    Syntactic strtuctures and Immediate Constituent (ICE) analysis. Phrase structure and transformational grammars.
    Chomsly's distinction between competence and performance.
    The Cultural settiing of language: The role of meaning.
    Sociolinguistics: Linguistic and anthropological perspectives. Ethnography of communication.
    Data acquisition procedure and formal semantic anallysis in etrhnoscience and cognitive anthropology.

    Books Recommended:
    Ariner, E. (Editor): Social Anthropology and Language.
    Burling, R.: Man's Many Voices.
    Gleason, H.A.: An Introduction of Descriptive Linguistics.
    Hackett,C.F. : A course in Modern Linguistics.
    Hymes, Dell (Editor) : Language in Culture and Society.
    Lyons, John : Chomsky (Modern Masters Services).
    Lyons, John : Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics.
    Cystal, David : Linguistics.
    Sapir, Edward : Language.
    Tyelr, Stephen A. (Editor): Cognitive Anthropology.
    OR Paper IX (d)- Kinship and Religion
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Section'A'

    The idea of kinship system and its place in social structure, Prespectives on the study of Kinship from L.H. Morgan to Mayer Forts. Recent trends in kinship studies. Formal semantic analysis of kinship terms and categories.
    The problem of incest. Different theories, accounting for incest and incest prohibition. The views of C.Levi Strauss and Leslie White to be examined.
    Marriage and alliance : Perferential and precriptive cross-cousin marriage: Leve Strauss and Needham.
    Decent and residence theory of kindship. Radcliffe-Brown, Evans Pritchard and Fortes. Kin terms, kin terms, groups and kinship behvious.
    modes of exchange, Restrictged exchange: harmonic and disharmonic regimes. Generalised exchange.

    Section'B'

    Theories of origin and development of religion.
    Conceptions of the supernatural beings and objects. Mana and Toboo.
    Function of religion in human society; the family economic action, political a ction and religion.
    Myth, ritual and totemism, Structural study of myth and totomism.
    Religious practitioners: shammans and priests.
    Magic and witchcraft. Maico-religious treatment of illness.
    Books Recommended:
    On Kinshop
    Evans-Pritchard, E.E.: Kinship and Marriage among the Nuer.
    Fortes. M: The Web of Kinship among Tallensi.
    Fortes. M : Dynamics of clanship among the Tallensi.
    Fox, Robin : Kinship and Marriage.
    Goddy, Jack (Ed): Kinship.
    Levi-Strauss, C : The Elementary Structures of Kinship.
    Needham, R. : Structure and Sentiment.
    Needham, R (Ed.) : Rethinking and Marriage.
    Radcliff-Brown, A.R. and c. Daryll Forde (Ed). : African system of Kinship and Marriage.
    White, L.A. Science of Culture (chapter on incest).
    On Religion:
    Evans-Pritchard, E.E. : Theories of Primitive Religion
    Firth, R. : Ritual and Belief in Tikopia.
    Goode, William J.: Religion Among the Primitives.
    Leach, E.R. ,(Ed.) : Structural Study of Myhth and Totemism.
    Leslie, Charles : Anthropology of Folk religion.
    Lessa, W.A. and E.Z. Vog (Ed): Reader in comparative Religion.
    Levi-Strauss, G.: Structural Anthropology (Selected Chapters)
    Levi Strauss, G.: Totemism.
    Norbeck,E. : Religion on Primitive Society.
    OR Paper IX (e)- Economic and Political Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    Section'A'

    Development of Economic Anthropology.
    Modern economic theory and its relevance to economic anthropology: the debate between formalists and substantivists.
    Economy in its socio-cultural settings. Deterministic theories. The relevance of encironmental and culture factors in equilibrium theory.
    Nature of economic transactions and economic process in primitive societies, bater, trade and market exchange.
    Economic growth and cultural change.
    Section'B'

    The scopoe and signiticance of polotical anthropology. The equity polotical process and the functions of legitimate authority.
    Political organizatiion in equilitarion and stratified societies. Locus of power and the topology of polotical structure in different societies.
    Leadership and social structure. The concept of the state and the anthropological point of view.
    Anthropological study of political process among emerging nations and complex societies, Concepts of Political Culture and political development The study of nation buiding processes.
    Books Recommended:
    Banton, M. (Editor) : Political Systems and distribution of Power.
    Belshaw, C : Traditional Exchange and Modern Man.
    Chammer, J. (Ed.) : The New Economic Anthropology.
    Cohn, R and J. Middleton (Editor): Comparative Political System.
    Dalton, George : Tribal and Peasant Economics.
    Dalton, George : Economic Development and Social Change.
    Firth Raymond (Editor) : Themes in Economic Anthropology.
    Geertz, Clifford (Editor) : Old Societies and New States.
    Leclair, E.E. and M.R. and M.R. Schneider (Editors) : Economic Anthropology : Readings in Theory and Analysis.
    Middleton, J. and D. Tate (Editor) : Tribes without Rulers.
    Pye, Lucian W. and S. Verba (Editors): Political Anthropology.
    OR Paper IX (f)- Medocal Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. History, Nature, Scope of Medical Anthrolpology.
    2. Concepts of Health Illness (Physical and mental) and their cultural specification
    3. Omdogemepis and Exogeneous medical systems: Folk and ethno medicine (herbal medicine), Ayurvedic,Naturopathy Homoepathy, Unani, Allopaty.
    4. Traditional healers: Sorcery, witchcrft, magicians, Shamans Bhopas
    5. Critical understanding of Health care programmes and policies-Roe of Government and non-Government organizations.

    Readings Recommended:

    1. David Landy : Culture, Disease and Healing
    2. Foster GM, Anderson BC : Medical Anthropology
    3. Paul B.D.: Health, Culture and Community
    4. Logan M.H. & E.E. Hunt Jr.: Health and Human condition Perspectives on Medical Anthropology.
    5. Chaudhry Buddabeb :Tribal Health Socio-Cultural Dimensions.

    OR Paper IX (g)- Visual Anthropology
    3 hrs Duration 100 Marks

    1. Visual Anthropology-definition,scope and uses with special refernce to India.
    2. Visual Anthropology as one of the documentation methods in Anthropology - Photography as an effective Medium of Communciation and its role in Visual Anthropology. Still Photography Vs Movie Photography-their advantages and limitations.
    3. Movie films: feature films, ethnographi films documentary films, research films: instructional films-Their scope and relevance to visual Anthropology.
    4. Visual Anthropology and analysis of cultural style. Film as an art from-the-film language. Film review, appreciation and cirticism Realistic and 'Nes Wave' feature films in Indian and /visual Anthropology.
    5. Televison and Visual Anthropology-Videotape; New Techniques of observation and analysis in Anthropology.

    Suggested Readings:

    1. K.N. Sahay : Visual Anthropology in India and its development.
    2. Paul Hockings(ed) : Principles of Visual Anthropology.
    3. John Collier (Jr) : Visual Anthropology : Photography as a Reseaarth Method.
    4. Satyajit Roy : Our films Their Films.
    5. Margaret Mead & F.C. Macgrigor : Growth and Cultures : A Photographic study of Balenese Childhood.
    6. Firoze Rangoconwala : Seventy five years of Indian Cinema.

    Faculty Of Anthropology, University Of Rajasthan,
    Jaipur

    http://www.uniraj.ernet.in/syllabi/Anthro/masyl.html

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    Faculty Of Anthropology, University Of Rajasthan, Jaipur offers 2 Years Full Time Masters Degree in M.A Anthropology

    View Details Duration: 2 Years    Learning Mode: Full Time    Course Level: Masters Degree
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