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Yogi Vemana University Common Entrance Test (YVUCET) Syllabus

Yogi Vemana University Common Entrance Test (YVUCET) is a yearly exam conducted for admissions to PG Courses, 5-year Integrated M.Sc, Bachelor of Fine Arts and PG Diploma in Theatre Arts courses in constituent at Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa and affiliated colleges of Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa.

Test 01-Advanced Life Sciences

Section – A

Structure and reactivity: Structural theory of organic chemistry – Principles underlining chemical bonding – covalent bonds and covalent character of carbon compounds single and multiple bonds. Types of organic reagents and reactions, fission of electrophylic mesophilic and fre radical reagents. Explanation of substitution, addition and elimination reactions with examples. Bond plarisation, Electromeric, Inductive, conjugative, Hyper conjugative and meromeric effectrs.

Nomenclature: IUPAC and CA systems of names based on fuctional substitutive, additive, conjugative and radio – functional characterstics.

Alkanes: Isomerism including conformational Isomersism, chemical reactivity free radical halogenations (mechanism).

Alkenes: Preparation, Dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halldes and dehydration of alcohols (Mechanism of E1 and E2 climinations) Mechanism of electro phylic addition reactions.

Alkynes:Preparation and properties, mechanism of electrophylic addition, Acidity of acetylinic hydrogens, nucleophilic addition of acetylide.

Arenes:Coal, source of aromatic compounds, structure of benzene, concept of aromaticity – mechanism of electrophi8lic substitution reactions effects. Alkyl benzenes, Napthalene,Anthracene.

Hydroxyl compounds: Preparation of alcohols and phenols, Physical properties and hydrogen bonding, chemical properties, comparison of reactivity of alcohols and phenols. Polyhydroxy compounds: Ethylene glycol and glycerol.

Ethers: Preparation, Properties, Properties, functional isomerism – cyclic ethers.

Aldehydes and Ketones: Preparation and properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, alcohol condensation, cannizzaro, benzoan condensation Grignard reaction condensation, Perkin reaction, addition of NaHSO3 and HCN differences in the reactivity of aliphatic and aromatic alhehydes and ketones.

Monocarbonylic acids: Preparation, properties, acidic nature of carbonylic group, mechanism of esterification and ester hydrolysis, preparation and reactivity of acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, esters and amides.

Section - B

Carbohydrates: Classification, monosaccharides, D and L designation, open chain and cyclic structures, epimers and anomers, mutarotation, reactions of carbohydrates. Structure and biological importance of disaccharides, structural polysaccharides and storage polysaccharides.

Proteins and Amino Acids: Classification, structure, stereochemistry, chemical reactions of amino acids. pKa values. Peptide bond -nature and conformation. Proteins: Classification based on solubility, shape and function. General properties of proteins, denaturation and renaturation of proteins. Structural organization of proteins-primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures, forces stabilizing the structure of protein.

Lipids: Classification, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, structure and properties of fats and oils (acid, saponificition and iodine values, rancidity). General properties and structures of phospholipids, sphingolipids and cholesterol. Prostaglandins-structure and biological role of PGD2,PGE2 and PGF2 .

Nucleic acids: Nature, Structure of purines and pyrimidines, nucleosides, nucleotides. Stability and formation of phosphodiester linkages. Effect of acids, alkali and nucleases on DNA and RNA. Structure of Nucleic acids-Watson-Crick DNA double helix structure, Types of RNA and DNA.

Enzymes: Nomenclature and classification of enzymes. Enzyme specificity. Active site. Principles of energy of activation, transition state. Interaction between enzyme and substratelock and key, induced fit models. Definition of holo-enzyme, apo-enzyme , coenzyme, cofactor. Fundamentals of enzyme assay, enzyme units.

Metabolism: Glycolytic pathway, energy yield. Citric acid cycle, regulation, energy yield,Glycogenolysis and glycogenesis. Pentose phosphate pathway. Gluconeogenesis. Photosytnthesis- Light and Dark reactions, Calvin cycle, C4 Pathway. General reactions of amino acid metabolism- transamination, decarboxylation and deamination, Urea cycle. Inborn errors of aromatic and branched chain amino acid metabolism.

Microbiology: Introduction to brief history of microbiology. Classification of microorganisms- prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Isolation and cultivation of bacteria. Selective media and enriched media. Bacterial growth curve and kinetics of growth. Batch, continuous and synchronous cultures. Nutritional groups of microorganisms. Gram’s staining- Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, motility and sporulation. Sterilization and disinfection techniques Principles and methods of sterilization. Microorganisms of industrial importance.

Immunology: Organs and cells of immune system. Innate and acquired immunity. Cell mediated and humoral immunity. Classification of immunoglobulins, structure of IgG. Epitopes / antigenic determinants. Concept of haptens. Adjuvants. Theories of antibody formation- clonal selection theory. Monoclonal antibodies.

Molecular Biology: DNA replication- models of replication, Meselson-Stahl’s experimental proof for semi-conservative model. DNA polymerases I, II and III of E.coli, helicase, topoisomerases, primase, ligase. Bidirectional replication model. Okazaki fragments, leading and lagging strands of DNA synthesis. Inhibitors of DNA replication. Transcription -RNA synthesis, RNA polymerases. Promoters, Initiation- sigma factors and their recognition sites. Termination- rho dependent and rho independent. post-transcriptional modifications. Inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Translation - Ribosome structure. Initiation, elongation and termination of protein synthesis. Post- translational modifications, signal hypothesis. Inhibitors of protein synthesis.

Section – C

Mendelian principles of inheritance; non - mendelian inheritance. Sex determination, Sex linked inheritance. Meiosis, chromosomal basis of inheritance, Linkage and crossing over with reference to 2 point and 3- point cross, chromosome maps (outlines). Inheritance of Blood groups. General account of mutations and their significance, physical and chemical mutagens. General account of polyploidy, Somatic hybrids and cybrids, chromosomal aberrance and human diseases.

Elementary idea of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. Ultra structure of animal cell. Structure and function of cell organelles. Nutrition, types of nutrition in animals, autotrophic, heterotrophic. Definition of digestion and types of digestion - extra and intracellular. Respiration; Brief
accounts of types of respiratory mechanism, respiratory pigments, gas transport with reference to mammals. Circulation; composition and functions of blood, Coagulation of blood. Mammalian heart – structure and function, blood pressure and its role and exchange of materials in capillaries. Osmoregulation; aquatic and terrestrial animals. Excretion: classification of animals based on excretory end products. Formation of nitrogen waste, Kidney structure and function. Nerve transmission: Structure of neuron, action potential, production and propagation of nerve impulse and synaptic transmission.

Endocrinology: Classification of hormones. Outlines of chemistry, physiological role and disorders of hormones. Gastrointestinal hormones. Endocrine control of mammalian reproduction - Male and female hormones. Spermatogenesis, Oogenesis and Fertilization.

Section - D

Mendelian and Non-mendelian inheritance, Modern concept of gene, Fine structure of gene,gene interactions, gene transfer, operon concept, muton, recon, cistron. DNA repair mechanisms. General concepts of genetic engineering and biotechnology, Recombinant DNA technology, Gene cloning, Gene transfer, Transformation and selection of recombinants. Blotting techniques, RFLP, RAPD, PCR and its applications in biotechnology. Plant Biotechnology - Invitro methods – culture media, Micropropagation, Embyo culture. Application of biotechnology in relation to agriculture, medicine and human welfare.

Salient features of algae, fungi, bryophytes, pteridophytes, angiosperms and gymnosperms. Biological Macromolecules- Carbohydrates, Lipids, Aminoacids-Proteins, Enzymes, Nucleic acids, Porphyrins and vitamins. An outline of enzyme action and enzyme kinetics. Elementary account of bioenergetics and entropy, Concept of free energy and thermodynamic principles. Photosynthesis – ultra structure of chloroplasts, photo phosphorylation, diversity in carbon reduction pathways – C3, C4 and CAM, photorespiration.

Plant Physiology and Ecology: Glycolysis, krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, anerobic respiration and fermentation, Nitrogen metabolism – biological nitrogen fixation, nitrate reduction, aminoacids, protein synthesis. Elementary stress physiology, concepts of water potential and physiology of stomatal and transpiration. Growth and development – patterns of growth, phyto hormones, auxins, gibberellic acid, cytokinins, growth inhibitors, phytochromes. Physiology of fruit ripening and storage. Concepts of Ecology- definitions, Cycles of elements, food pyramids, Ecosystem.

Test- 02: Botany


Microbial Diversity, Cryptogams and Gymnosperms

  1. Origin and evolution of Life ‐ an outline.
  2. Viruses: Structure, replication and transmission; plant diseases caused by viruses and their control.
  3. Bacteria: Structure, nutrition, reproduction and economic importance. An outline Of Plant diseases of important crop plants caused by bacteria and their control.
  4. Brief account of Archaebacteria, Chlamydia, Actinomycetes and Mycoplasma.
  5. Cyanobacteria: Cell structure, thallus organisation and their prospecting (uses)– Biofertilizers
  6. Algae: General account, thallus organisation, structure, reproduction, classification and economic importance.
  7. Fungi: General characters, classification and economic importance.
  8. Structure, reproduction and life history of Albugo, Penicillium, Puccinia, Alternaria, General account of plant diseases caused by Fungi and their control.
  9. Lichens: Structure and reproduction; ecological and economic importance.
  10. Bryophytes: General characters, classification and alternation of generations.
  11. Pteridophytes: General characters, classification, alternation of generations and evolution of sporophtyte.
  12. Evolution of stele, heterospory and seed habit in Pteridophytes.
  13. Gymnosperms: General characters, structure, reproduction and classification.
  14. Distribution and economic importance; endangered Gymnosperms.
  15. Palaeobotany: Introduction, Fossils and fossilization; Geological time scale; Importance of fossils. Bennettitales: General account


Anatomy, Embryology, Taxonomy and Medicinal Botany

  1. Meristems: Types, histological organisation of shoot and root apices and theories.
  2. Tissues and Tissue Systems: Simple and complex.
  3. Leaf: Ontogeny, diversity of internal structure; stomata and epidermal outgrowths.
  4. Stem and root: Vascular cambium ‐ Formation and function. Anomalous secondary growth.
  5. Wood structure: General account.
  6. Introduction: History and importance of Embryology. Anther structure, Microsporogenesis and development of male metophyte.
  7. Ovule structure and types; Megasporogenesis; types and development of female gametophyte
  8. Pollination ‐ Types; Pollen ‐ pistil interaction. Fertilization.
  9. Endosperm ‐ Development and types. Embryo ‐ development and types; Polyembryony and Apomixis ‐ an outline.
  10. Palynology: Principles and applications.
  11. Introduction: Principles of plant systematics, Systematics vs Taxonomy, Types of classification: Artificial, Natural and Phylogenetic.
  12. Systems of classification: Salient features and comparative account of Bentham & Hooker and Engler & Prantle. An introduction to Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG).
  13. Current concepts in Angiosperm Taxonomy: Embryology in relation to taxonomy, Cytotaxonomy, Chemotaxonomy and Numerical Taxonomy.
  14. Nomenclature and Taxonomic resources: An introduction to ICBN, Vienna code ‐ a brief account. Herbarium: Concept, techniques and plications.
  15. Systematic study and economic importance of plants belonging to the following families: Annonaceae, Capparaceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae (Faboideae/papilionoideae, Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae), Cucurbitaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Orchidaceae and Poaceae.
  16. Ethnomedicine: Scope, interdisciplinary nature, distinction of Ethnomedicine from Folklore Medicine. Outlines of Ayurveda, Sidda, Unani and Homeopathic systems of traditional medicine. Role of AYUSH, NMPB, CIMAP and CDRI.
  17. Traditional medicine vs Modern medicine: Study of select plant examples used in traditional medicine as resource (active principles, structure, usage and pharmacological action) of modern medicine.
  18. Pharmacognosy: Introduction and scope. Adulteration of plant crude drugs and methods of identification ‐ some examples. Indian Pharmacopoeia.
  19. Plant crude drugs: Types, methods of collection, processing and storage practices. Evaluation of crude drugs.


Cell Biology, Genetics, Ecology and Biodiversity

  1. Plant cell envelops: Ultra structure of cell wall, molecular organisation of cell membranes.
  2. Nucleus: Ultrastructure, Nucleic acids ‐ Structure and replication of DNA; types and functions of RNA.
  3. Chromosomes: Morphology, organisation of DNA in a chromosome, Euchromatin and Heterochromatin. Karyotype.
  4. Special types of chromosomes: Lampbrush, polytene and B ‐ chromosomes.
  5. Cell division: Cell cycle and its regulation; (mitosis, meiosis for practical observation)
  6. Mendelism: Laws of inheritance. Genetic interactions ‐ Epistasis, complementary, supplementary and inhibitory genes.
  7. Linkage and crossing over: A brief account, construction of genetic maps ‐ 2 point and 3 point test cross data.
  8. Mutations: Chromosomal aberrations ‐ structural and numerical changes; Gene mutations,transposable elements.
  9. Gene Expression: Organisation of gene, transcription, translation, mechanism and regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes (Lac.and Trp Operons ).
  10. Extra nuclear genome: Mitochondrial and plastid DNA, plasmids.
  11. Concept and components of Ecosystem. Energy flow, food chains, food webs, ecological pyramids,
  12. Plants and environment: Ecological factors ‐ Climatic (light and temperature), edaphic. Ecological adaptations of plants.
  13. Population ecology: Natality, mortality, growth curves, ecotypes, ecads.
  14. Community ecology: Frequency, density, cover, life forms, biological spectrum, ecological succession (Hydrosere, Xerosere).
  15. Production ecology: Concepts of productivity, GPP, NPP, CR (Community Respiration) and secondary production, P/R ratio and Ecosystems. Biodiversity: Concepts, Convention on Biodiversity ‐ Earth Summit. Types of biodiversity.
  16. Levels, threats and value of Biodiversity.
  17. Hot spots of India – Endemism, North Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats.
  18. Agro‐biodiversity: Vavilov centres of crop plants.
  19. Principles of conservation: IUCN threat‐categories, RED data book ‐ threatened & endangered plants of India. Role of organisations in the conservation of Biodiversity ‐ IUCN, UNEP,WWF, NBPGR, NBD.

Physiology, Tissue Culture, Biotechnology, Seed Technology and Horticulture

  1. Water Relations: Diffusion, Imbibition, Osmosis; water, osmotic and pressure potentials; ascent of sap; transpiration; Stomatal structure and movements.
  2. Mineral Nutrition: Essential macro and micro mineral nutrients and their role; symptoms of mineral deficiency; absorption of mineral ions; passive and active processes.
  3. Enzymes: Nomenclature, characteristics, mechanism and regulation of enzyme action, enzyme kinetics, factors regulating enzyme action.
  4. Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic pigments, absorption and action spectra; Red drop and Emerson enhancement effect; concept of two photosystems; mechanism of photosynthetic electron transport and evolution of oxygen; photophosphorylation; Carbon assimilation pathways: C3, C4 and CAM; photorespiration.
  5. Translocation of organic substances: Mechanism of phloem transport; source‐sink relationships.
  6. Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic; Glycolysis, Krebs cycle; electron transport system, mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation, pentose phosphate pathway.
  7. Nitrogen Metabolism: Biological nitrogen fixation, nitrate reduction, ammonia assimilation, protein synthesis.
  8. Lipid Metabolism: Structure and functions of lipids; conversion of lipids to carbohydrates, β‐ oxidation.
  9. Growth and Development: Definition, phases and kinetics of growth. Physiological effects of phytohormon‐ auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ABA, ethylene and brassinosteroids; Physiology of flowering and photoperiodism, role of phytochrome in flowering.
  10. Stress Physiology: Concept and plant responses to water, salt and temperature stresses.
  11. Tissue culture: Introduction, sterilization procedures, culture media ‐ composition and preparation; explants.
  12. Callus culture; cell and protoplast culture, Somatic hybrids and cybrids.
  13. Applications of tissue culture: Production of pathogen free plants and somaclonal variants, production of stress resistance plants, secondary metabolites and synthetic seeds.
  14. Biotechnology: Introduction, history and scope.
  15. rDNA technology: Vectors and gene cloning and transgenic plants.

Test- 03 : Chemistry

Section- A

  1. s‐block elements:

    General characteristics of groups I &II elements, diagonal relationship between Li & Mg, Be & AI.

  2. p‐block elements:

    General characteristics of elements of groups 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17
    Group – 13: Synthesis and structure of diborane and higher boranes
    (B4H10 and B5H9),boron‐nitrogen compounds(B3N3H6 and BN)
    Group – 14: Preparation and applications of silanes and silicones.
    Group – 15: Preparation and reactions of hydrazine, hydroxylamine.
    Group – 16: Classifications of oxides based on (i) Chemical behavior and (ii) Oxygen Content.
    Group – 17: Inter halogen compounds and pseudo halogens

  3. Organometallic Chemistry:

    Definition and classification of organometallic compounds, nomenclature, preparation, properties and applications of alkyls of Li and Mg elements.

  4. Chemistry of d‐block elements:

    Characteristics of d‐block elements with special reference to electronic configuration, variable valence, magnetic properties, catalytic properties and ability to form complexes. Stability of various oxidation states and e.m.f.Comparative treatment of second and third transition series with their 3d analogues.

  5. Chemical Bonding:

    Valence bond theory, hybridization, VB theory as applied to ClF3, BrF5, Ni(CO)4, XeF2. Dipole moment –orientation of dipoles in an electric field, dipole moment, induced dipole moment, dipole moment and structure of molecules. Molecular orbital theory – LCAO method, construction of M.O. diagrams for homo‐nuclear and hetero‐nuclear diatomic molecules (N2, O2, HCl, CO and NO).

  6. Chemistry of f‐block elements:

    Chemistry of lanthanides – electronic structure, oxidation states, lanthanide contraction, consequences of lanthanide contraction, magnetic properties, and separation of lanthanides by ion exchange and solvent extraction methods. Chemistry of actinides – electronic configuration, oxidation states, actinide contraction, position of actinides in the periodic table, comparison with lanthanides in terms of magnetic properties.

  7. Theories of bonding in metals:

    Valence bond theory, Explanation of metallic properties and its limitations, Free electron theory, thermal and electrical conductivity of metals, limitations, Band theory, formation of bands, explanation of conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

  8. Metal carbonyls and related compounds:

    Effective Atomic Number (EAN) rule, classification of metal carbonyls, structures and shapes of metal carbonyls of Fe, Co and Ni.

  9. Coordination Chemistry:

    IUPAC nomenclature, bonding theories – review of Werner’s theory and Sidgwick’s concept of coordination, Valence bond theory, geometries of coordination numbers 4‐tetrahedral and square planar and 6‐octahedral and its limitations, crystal filed theory, splitting of d‐orbitals in octahedral, tetrahedral and square‐planar complexes – low spin and high spin complexes – factors affecting crystal‐field splitting energy, merits and demerits of crystal‐field theory. Isomerism in coordination compounds – structural isomerism and stereo isomerism, stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers.

  10. Spectral and magnetic properties of metal complexes:

    Types of magnetic behavior, spin‐only formula, calculation of magnetic moments, experimental determination of magnetic susceptibility – Gouy method.

  11. Reactivity of metal complexes:

    Labile and inert complexes, ligand substitution reactions – SN1 and SN2, substitution reactions of square planar complexes – Trans effect and applications of trans effect.

  12. Stability of metal complexes:

    Thermodynamic stability and kinetic stability, factors affecting the stability of metal complexes, chelate effect, determination of composition of complex by Job’s method and mole ratio method.

  13. Hard and soft acids bases (HSAB):

    Classification, Pearson’s concept of hardness and softness, application of HSAB principles –Stability of compounds / complexes, predicting the feasibility of a reaction.

  14. Bioinorganic chemistry:

    Essential elements, biological significance of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and chloride(Cl_).Metalloporphyrins – haemoglobin, and function, Chlorophyll, and role in photosynthesis.

Section- B (Physical Chemistry)

  1. Gaseous State

    Compression factors, deviation of real gases from ideal behavior. Van der Waal’s equation of state. P‐V Isotherms of real gases, Andrew’s isotherms of carbon dioxide, continuity of state. Critical phenomena. The van der Waal’s equation and the critical state. Relationship between critical constants and van der Waal’s constants. Joule Thomson effect. Liquefaction of gases: i) Linde’s method and ii) Claude’s method.

  2. Solid state

    Symmetry in crystals. Law of constancy of interfacial angles. The law of rationality of indices. The law of symmetry. Definition of lattice point, space lattice, unit cell. Bravis lattices and crystal systems. X‐ray diffraction and crystal structure. Bragg’s law. Determination of crystal structure by Bragg’s method and the powder method. Indexing of planes and structure of NaCl and KCl crystals. Defects in crystals. Stoichiometric and non‐stoichiometric defects. Band theory of semiconductors. Extrinsic and intrinsic semiconductors, n‐ and p‐type semiconductors and their applications in photo electrochemical cells.

  3. Solutions

    Liquid‐liquid ‐ ideal solutions, Raoult’s law. Ideally dilute solutions, Henry’s law. Non‐ideal solutions.Vapour pressure – composition and vapour pressure‐temperature curves. Azeotropes‐HCl‐H2O, ethanol‐water systems and fractional distillation. Partially miscible liquids‐phenol‐water, trimethylamine‐water, nicotine‐water systems. Effect of impurity on consulate temperature. Immiscible liquids and steam distillation. Nernst distribution law. Calculation of the partition coefficient. Applications of distribution law.

  4. Colloids and surface chemistry

    Definition of colloids. Solids in liquids(sols), preparation, purification, properties‐kinetic, optical, electrical. Stability of colloids, Hardy‐Schulze law, protective colloid. Liquids in liquids (emulsions) preparation, properties, uses. Liquids in solids (gels) preparation, uses. Adsorption: Physical adsoption, chemisorption. Freundlich, Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Applications of adsorption

  5. Phase rule

    Concept of phase, components, degrees of freedom. Derivation of Gibbs phase rule. Phase equilibrium of one component – water system. Phase equilibrium of two‐component system, solid‐liquid equilibrium. Simple eutectic diagram of Pb‐Ag system, desilverisation of lead.– NaCl‐ water system. Freezing mixtures.

  6. Dilute solutions

    Colligative properties. Raoult’s law, relative lowering of vapour pressure, its relation to molecular weight of nonvolatile solute. Elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point. Derivation of relation between molecular weight and elevation in boiling point and depression in freezing point. Experimental methods of determination. Osmosis, osmotic pressure, experimental determination. Theory of dilute solutions. Determination of molecular weight of non‐volatile solute from osmotic pressure. Abnormal Colligative properties.

  7. Electrochemistry

    Specific conductance, equivalent conductance, measurement of equivalent conductance. Variation of equivalent conductance with dilution. Migration of ions, Kohlrausch’s law. Arrhenius theory of electrolyte dissociation and its limitations. Ostwald’s dilution law. Debye‐Huckel‐Onsagar’s equation for strong electrolytes (elementary treatment only). Definition of transport number, determination by Hittorf’s method. Application of conductivity measurements‐determination of dissociation constant (Ka) of an acid, determination of solubility product of sparingly soluble salt, conductometric titrations. Types of reversible electrodes‐ the gas electrode, metal‐metal ion, metal‐insoluble salt and redox electrodes. Electrode reactions, Nernst equation, single electrode potential, standard Hydrogen electrode, reference electrodes, standard electrode potential, sign convention, electrochemical series and its significance. Reversible and irreversible cells, conventional representation of electrochemical cells. EMF of a cell and its measurements. Computation of cell EMF. Applications of EMF measurements, Determination of pH using quinhydrone electrode,Solubility product of AgCl. Potentiometric titrations.

  8. Chemical kinetics

    Rate of reaction, factors influencing the rate of a reaction‐concentration, temperature, pressure, solvent, light, catalyst. Definition of order and molecularity. Derivation of rate constants for first, second, third and zero order reactions and examples. Derivation for time half change. Methods to determine the order of reactions. Kinetics of complex reactions (first order only): opposing reactions, parallel reactions, consecutive reactions and chain reactions. Effect of temperature on rate of reaction, Arrhenius equation, concept of activation energy.

  9. Photochemistry

    Difference between thermal and photochemical processes. Laws of photochemistry‐Grothus‐Draper’s law and Stark‐Einstein’s law of photochemical equivalence. Quantum yield. Photochemical hydrogen‐ chlorine, hydrogen‐bromine reaction. qualitative description of fluorescence, phosphorescence, Photosensitized reactions‐ energy transfer processes (simple example)

  10. Thermodynamics

    The first law of thermodynamics‐statement, definition of internal energy and enthalpy. Heat capacities and their relationship. Joule’s law‐Joule‐Thomson coefficient. Calculation of w, q, dU and dH for the expansion of perfect gas under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for reversible processes.State function. Temperature dependence of enthalpy of formation‐Kirchoff’s equation. Second law of thermodynamics. Different Statements of the law. Carnot cycle and its efficiency. Carnot theorem. Concept of entropy, entropy as a state function, entropy changes in cyclic, reversible, and irreversible processes. Entropy changes in spontaneous and equilibrium processes.

  11. Molecular spectroscopy

    Electronic spectroscopy:Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with molecules and types of molecular spectra. Potential energy curves for bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals. Energy levels of molecules (σ,π, n) . Selection rules for electronic spectra. Types of electronic transitions in molecules, effect of conjugation. Concept of chromophore. Infra red spectroscopy: Energy levels of simple harmonic oscillator, molecular vibration spectrum, selection rules. Determination of force constant. Qualitative relation of force constant to bond energies. Anharmonic motion of real molecules and energy levels. Modes of vibrations in polyatomic molecules. Characteristic absorption bands of various functional groups. Finger print nature of infrared spectrum. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1H‐NMR): Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance, equivalent and non‐equivalent protons, position of signals. Chemical shift, NMR splitting of signals – spin‐spin coupling, coupling constants. Applications of NMR with suitable examples – ethyl bromide, ethanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1,2‐ tribromo ethane, ethyl acetate, toluene and acetophenone.

  12. Macromolecules

    Classification of polymers, chemistry of polymerization, chain polymerization, step polymerization, coordination polymerization – tacticity. Molecular weight of polymers‐number average and weight average molecular weight, degree of polymerization, determination of molecular weight of polymers by viscometry, Osmometry methods. Preparation and industrial application of polyethylene, PVC, Teflon, polyacrylonitrile, terelene and Nylon66.

Section-C Organic Chemistry

  1. Structural theory in Organic Chemistry

    Types of bond fission and organic reagents (Electrophilic, Nucleophilic, and free radical reagents including neutral molecules like H2O, NH3 & AlCl3 ). Bond polarization : Factors influencing the polarization of covalent bonds, electro negativity – inductive effect. Application of inductive effect (a) Basicity of amines (b) Acidity of carboxylic acids (c) Stability of carbonium ions. Resonance or Mesomeric effect, application to (a) acidity of phenol, and (b) acidity of carboxylic acids. Hyperconjugation and its application to stability of carbonium ions, free radicals and alkenes, carbanions and carbenes. Types of Organic reactions : Addition – electrophilic, nucleophilic and free radical. Substitution – electrophilic, nucleophilic and free radical. elimination‐ Examples.

  2. Acyclic Hydrocarbons

    Alkanes– IUPAC Nomenclature of Hydrocarbons. Methods of preparation: Hydrogenation of alkynes and alkenes, Wurtz reaction, Kolbe’s electrolysis, Corey‐ House reaction. Chemical reactivity – inert nature, free radical substitution mechanism Ex. Halogenation. Alkenes – Preparation of alkenes (a) by dehydration of alcohols (b) by dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides (c) by dehalogenation of 1,2 dihalides (brief mechanism), Saytzef’s rule. Properties: Addition of hydrogen – heat of hydrogenation and stability of alkenes. Addition of halogen and its mechanism. Addition of HX, Markonikov’s rule, addition of H2O, HOX, H2SO4 with mechanism and addition of HBr in the presence of peroxide (anti – Markonikov’s addition ). Oxidation – hydroxylation by KMnO4, Dienes – Types of dienes, reactions of conjugated dines – 1,2 and 1,4 addition of HBr to 1,3 – butadiene and Diel’s – Alder reaction. Alkynes – Preparation by dehydrohalogenation of dihalides, dehalogenation of tetrahalides, Properties; Acidity of acetylenic hydrogen (formation of Metal acetylides). Preparation of higher acetylenes, Physical properties. Chemical reactivity – electrophilic addition of X2, HX, H2O (Tautomerism), Oxidation with KMnO4, OsO4, reduction and Polymerisation reaction of acetylene.

  3. Alicyclic hydrocarbons (Cycloalkanes)

    Nomenclature, Preparation by Freunds methods, heating dicarboxylic metal salts. Properties – reactivity of cyclopropane and cyclobutane by comparing with alkanes, Stability of cycloalkanes – Baeyer’s strain theory, Sachse and Mohr predictions and Pitzer’s strain theory. Conformational structures of cyclohexane.

  4. Benzene and its reactivity

    Concept of resonance, resonance energy. Heat of hydrogenation, heat of combustion of Benzene, mention of C‐C bond lengths and orbital picture of Benzene. Concept of aromaticity – aromaticity, Huckel’s rule – application to Benzenoid (Benzene, Napthalene) and Non – Benzenoid compounds (cyclopropenyl cation, cyclopentadienyl anion and tropylium cation) Reactions – General mechanism of electrophilic substitution, mechanism of nitration. Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation. Orientation of aromatic substitution – Definition of ortho, para and meta directing groups. Ring activating and deactivating groups with examples (Electronic interpretation of various groups like NO2 and Phenolic). Orientation of (i). Amino, methoxy and methyl groups (ii). Carboxy, nitro, nitrile, carbonyl and Sulfonic acid groups. (iii). Halogens.

  5. Stereochemistry of carbon compounds

    Stereoisomerism, Stereoisomers: enantiomers, diastereomers‐ definition and examples.Conformational and configurational isomerism‐ definition. Conformational isomerism of ethane and n‐butane.

    Enantiomers: Optical activity‐ wave nature of light, plane polarised light, interaction with molecules, optical rotation and specific rotation. Chiral molecules‐ definition and criteria‐absence of plane, center, and Sn axis of symmetry‐ asymmetric and disymmetric molecules. Examples of asymmetric molecules (Glyceraldehyde, Lactic acid, Alanine) and disymmetric molecules (trans ‐1,2‐dichloro cyclopropane).

    Chiral centers: Definition‐ molecules with similar chiral carbon (Tartaric acid), definition of mesomers‐ molecules with dissimilar chiral carbons (2,3‐dibromopentane). Number of enantiomers and mesomers‐ calculation. D,L and R,S configuration for asymmetric and disymmetric molecules. Cahn‐Ingold‐Prelog rules. Racemic mixture‐ racemisation and resolution techniques.

    Diastereomers: Definition‐ geometrical isomerism with reference to alkenes‐ cis, trans and E,Z‐configuration.

  6. Halogen compounds

    Nomenclature and classification of alkyl (into primary, secondary, tertiary), aryl, aralkyl, allyl, vinyl,benzyl halides. Chemical reactivity, formation of RMgX, Nucleophilic aliphatic substitution reaction‐ classification into SN1 and SN2. Energy profile diagram of SN1 and SN2 reactions.
    Stereochemistry of SN2 (Walden Inversion) and SN1 (Racemisation). Explanation of both by taking the example of optically active alkyl halide – 2-bromobutane. Ease of hydrolysis – comparision of alkyl, benzyl, allyl, vinyl and aryl halides

  7. Hydroxy compounds

    Nomenclature and classification of hydroxy compounds. Alcohols: Preparation with hydroboration reaction, Grignard synthesis of alcohols. Phenols: Preparation i) from diazonium salt, ii) from aryl sulphonates, iii) from cumene. Physical properties‐ Hydrogen bonding (intermolecular and intramolecular). Effect of hydrogen bonding on boiling point and solubilitiy in water. Chemical properties: (a) acidic nature of phenols. (b) formation of alkoxides/phenoxides and their reaction with RX. (c) replacement of OH by X using PCl5, PCl3, PBr3, SOCl2 and with HX/ZnCl2. (d)esterification by acids ( mechanism). (e) dehydration of alcohols. (f) oxidation of alcohols by CrO3, KMnO4.(g). special reaction of phenols: Bromination, Kolb‐Schmidt reaction, Riemer‐Tiemann reaction, Fries rearrangement, azocoupling. Identification of alcohols by oxidation with KMnO4, ceric ammonium nitrate, lucas reagent and phenols by reactionwithFeCl3.Polyhydroxy compounds: Pinacol‐Pinacolone rearrangement.

  8. Carbonyl compounds

    Nomenclature of aliphatic and aromatic carbonyl compounds, structure of the carbonyl group. Synthesis of aldehydes from acid chlorides, synthesis of aldehydes and ketones using 1,3‐dithianes, synthesis of ketones from nitriles and from carboxylic acids. Physical properties: absence of hydrogen bonding, keto‐enol tautomerism, reactivity of carbonyl group in aldehydes and ketones. Nucleophilic addition reaction with a) NaHSO3, b) HCN, c) RMgX, d) NH2OH, e)PhNHNH2, f) 2,4-DNP, g) Alcohols‐formation of hemiacetal and acetal.Halogenation using PCl5 with mechanism. Base catalysed reactions: a) Aldol, b) Cannizzaro reaction, c) Perkin reaction, d) Benzoin condensation, e) Haloform reaction, f) Knoevenagel reaction. Oxidation of aldehydes‐ Baeyer‐Villiger oxidation of ketones. Reduction: Clemmensen reduction, Wolf‐Kishner reduction, MPV reduction, reduction with LiAlH4 and NaBH4. Analysis of aldehydes and ketones with a) 2,4‐DNP test, b) Tollen’s test, c) Fehling text, d) Schiff test, e) Haloform test (with equation).

  9. Carboxylic acids and derivatives

    Nomenclature, classification and structure of carboxylic acids. Methods of preparation by a) hydrolysis of nitriles, amides and esters. b) carbonation of Grignard reagents. Special methods of preparation of aromatic acids by a) oxidation of side chain.b) hydrolysis by benzotrichlorides. c) Kolbe reaction. Physical properties: Hydrogen bonding, dimeric association, acidity‐ strength of acids with examples of trimethyl acetic acid and trichloroacetic acid. Relative differences in the acidities of aromatic and aliphatic acids. Chemical properties: Reactions involving H, OH and COOH groups‐ salt formation, anhydride formation, acid chloride formation, amide formation and esterification (mechanism). Degradation of carboxylic acids by Huns‐ Diecker reaction, decarboxylation by Schimdt reaction, Arndt‐Eistert synthesis, halogenation by Hell‐Volhard‐ Zelinsky reaction. Derivatives of carboxylic acids: Reaction of acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, acid amides, esters (mechanism of the hydrolysis of esters by acids and bases).

  10. Active methylene compounds

    Acetoacetic esters: preparation by Claisen condensation, keto‐enol tautomerism. Acid hydrolysis and ketonic hydrolysis. Preparation of a) monocarboxylic acids. b) dicarboxylic acids. Reaction with urea Malonic ester: preparation from acetic acid. Synthetic applications: Preparation of a) monocarboxylic acids (propionic acid and n‐butyric acid). b) dicarboxylic acids (succinic acid and adipic acid) c) α,ß‐unsaturated carboxylic acids (crotonic acid). Reaction with urea.

  11. Nitrogen compounds

    Nitro hydrocarbons: Nomenclature and classification – nitro hydrocarbons – structure. Tautomerism of nitroalkanes leading to acid and keto form. Preparation of Nitroalkanes. Reactivity – halogenation, reaction with HONO (Nitrous acid), Nef reaction and Mannich reaction leading to Michael addition and reduction. Amines (Aliphatic and Aromatic): Nomenclature, Classification into 10, 20, 30 Amines and Quarternary ammonium compounds.

    Preparative methods ‐1. Ammonolysis of alkyl halides 2. Gabriel synthesis 3. Hoffman’s hypobromide reaction. Reduction of Amides and Schmidt reaction. Physical properties and basic character – Comparative basic strength of ammonia, methyl amine, dimethyl amine, trimethyl amine and aniline – comparative basic strength of aniline, N‐methylaniline and N,N‐dimethyl aniline (in aqueous and non‐aqueous medium), steric effects and substituent effects. Use of amine salts as phase transfer catalysts. Chemical properties: a) Alkylation b) Acylation c) Carbylamine reaction d) Hinsberg separation e) Reaction with Nitrous acid of 10, 20, 30(Aliphatic and aromatic amines). Electrophilic substitutions of aromatic amines –
    Bromination and Nitration. oxidation of aryl and 30 amines. Diazotization.

  12. Heterocyclic Compounds

    Introduction and definition: Simple 5 membered ring compounds with one hetero atom Ex.Furan. Thiophene and pyrrole. Importance of ring system – presence in important natural products like hemoglobin and chlorophyll. Numbering the ring systems as per Greek letter and Numbers. Aromatic character, Tendency to undergo substitution reactions. Resonance structures: Indicating electron surplus carbons and electron deficient hetero atom. Explanation of feebly acidic character of pyrrole, electrophillic substitution at 2 or 5 position, Halogenation, Nitration and Sulphonation under mild conditions. Reactivity of furan as 1,3‐diene, Diels Alder reactions. Sulphonation of thiophene purification of Benzene obtained from coal tar). Preparation of furan, Pyrrole and thiophene from 1,4,‐ dicarbonyl compounds only, Paul‐Knorr synthesis, structure of pyridine, Basicity – Aromaticity – Comparison with pyrrole – one method of preparation and properties – Reactivity towards nucleophilic substitution reaction

  13. Carbohydrates

    Monosaccharides: All discussion to be confined to (+) glucose as an example of aldo hexoses and (‐) fructose as example of ketohexoses. Chemical properties and structureal elucidation: Evidences for straight chain pentahydroxy aldehyde structure. Number of optically active isomers possible for the structure, configuration of glucose based on D‐glyceraldehyde as primary standard. Evidence for cyclic structure of glucose. Cyclic structure of glucose. Decomposition of cyclic structure (Pyranose structure, anomeric carbon and anomers). Proof for the ring size (methylation, hydrolysis and oxidation reactions). Different ways of writing pyranose structure (Haworth formula and chair conformation formula). Structure of fructose: Evidence of 2 – ketohexose structure. Same osazone formation from glucose and fructose, cyclic structure for fructose Furanose structure and Haworth formula. Interconversion of Monosaccharides: Aldopentose to aldo hexose – eg: Arabinose to D‐Glucose, D‐Mannose (Kiliani ‐ Fischer method). Epimers, Epimerisation – Lobry de bruyn van Ekenstein rearrangement. Aldohexose to Aldopentose eg: D‐glucose to D‐arabinose by Ruff’s degradation. Aldohexose (+) (glucose) to ketohexose (‐) (Fructose) and Ketohexose (fructose) to aldohexose (Glucose)

  14. Amino acids and proteins

    Introduction: Defination of amino acids, classification of amino acids into alpha, beta, and gama amino acids. Natural and essential amino acids – efinition and examples, classification of alpha amino acids into acidic, basic and neutral amino acids with examples. Methods of synthesis: General methods of synthesis of alpha amino acids (specific examples – glycine, Alanine, valine and leucene) by following methods: a) from halogenated carboxylic acid b) Malonic ester synthesis c) Strecker’s synthesis. Physical properties: Zwitterion structure – salt like character ‐ solubility, melting points, amphoteric character , definition of isoelectric point. Chemical properties: General reactions due to amino and carboxyl groups – lactams from gamma and delta amino acids by heating peptide bond. Structure and nomenclature of peptides and proteins.

  15. Test-04: Commerce


    Business Economics

    Introduction: Economic activities‐Distinction between economic and non‐economic activities‐Definitions, scope, significance, nature of business economics.

    Demand‐Utility analysis and theory of productions: Meaning of demand‐types of demand, individual, company market and industry demand. Derived demand‐Demand function‐Law of demand‐Law of diminishing marginal utility‐Law of equiv‐marginal utility consumers'surplus‐Elasticity of demand‐factors influencing elacticity of demand. Law of production‐Law of variable proportion.Returns to scale,Internal and external economics. Cost‐output relation ‐ Cost functions and concepts ‐ Law of supply.

    Market Structure and Pricing: Types of competitions‐Perfect competition Monopoly and price discrimination‐ monopolistic competition‐oligopoly‐Meaning and significance of pricing‐Price determination under different competitive market conditions.

    Theories of Distribution and Business Cycles: Definition and phases of Business cycles ‐ Causes ‐ Consequences ‐ Measures to solve the problems arising out of business cycles‐ National income‐Concept and measurement.

    Financial Accounting

    Introduction to Accounting: Need for Accounting ‐ Definition and scope of accounting‐Book keeping and Accounting‐Branches of Accounting‐Advantages‐limitations ‐Accounting process ‐ Journalizing ‐ Classification of Accounts ledger ‐ Interpretation of Balances of ledger Accounts ‐ Subsidiary Books including different types of cash books.

    Bank Reconciliation Statement & Bills of Exchange : Bank Reconciliation statement ‐Need ‐Reasons for difference between cash book and pass book balances ‐ problems on favorable and over daft balances ‐ Ascertainment of correct cash book balance. Bill of Exchange ‐ Definition ‐
    Promissory Notes and Bills of exchange ‐ recording of transaction relating to Bills ‐ Books of Drawer and Acceptor ‐ Honour and Dishonour of bills ‐ Renewal of bills.

    Preparation of Trial Balance, Final Statements of Accounting ‐ errors and Rec ectification: Final Accounts of sole trader ‐ Trial Balance ‐ Capital and Revenue Expenditure and Receipts ‐ Trading Account ‐ Manufacturing Account ‐ Profit & Loss Account and balance Sheet ‐ Adjusting and Closing entries. Errors and their Rectification ‐ Their of Errors ‐ Rectification before and after preparations of final statements of Accounts‐Suspense account‐ Effect of Errors on profit.

    Consignments and Joint Ventures: Consignments ‐ Features, Proforma invoice - Delecredere commission ‐ Accounting treatment in the books of the consigner and the consignee ‐Valuation of consignment stock ‐ Normal and abnormal Loss ‐ Invoice of goods at a price higher than cost price. Joint ventures ‐ Accounting Procedures ‐ Joint Bank Account.

    Depreciation ‐ Provisions and Reserves: Meaning of depreciation ‐ Causes ‐ Objects of providing depreciation- Straight line method – Diminishing Balance Method – Annuity Method ‐Depreciation Fund Method. Provisions and Reserves ‐ Reserve Fund ‐ Different Types of Provisions and Reserves

    Industrial Organization And Management

    Introduction Concept of Business, Industry, Commerce, Trade, Plant and firm objectives of business ‐ Forms of Business Organisation and their salient features ‐ Sole Trader, Partnership, H.U.F. Companies and Co‐ peratives ‐ Company Promotion and documentation.

    Structure and size of Industry. Industrial structure ‐ Public, Private, Joint and Co‐Operative sectors. Definition of size of industrial unit ‐ Measurement of size Optimum size of firm ‐ Different Optima ‐ Representation firm.

    State and Industry and Industrial Finance. Factors affecting industrialsations ‐ Industrial Policy ‐ Liberative and consequences, Globalisation ‐ Privatisation ‐ Role of M.N.Cs in industrial development ‐ definition of S.S.I ‐ problems and prospects of S.S.I. Long term and short term finances ‐ Fixed and Working capital finances‐Sources of Finance ‐ Stock Exchanges ‐ Functions and services.

    Introduction to Management. Definition and significance of Management‐Different approaches to management ‐ Functions of Management.

    Planning and Organisation. Meaning ‐ Importance and steps in planning ‐ Types of plans.

    Meaning and forms of organization. Authority and power‐Distinction‐ Delegation.


    Introduction to banking

    Types of Banks ‐ Branch Banking ‐ Unit Banking Group Banking ‐ Mixed Banking ‐Investment Banking. Banking system in India ‐ Organised and unorganized sectors ‐ Commercial Banks Types, functions and credit creation ‐ Nationalisation ‐ Banking Sector reforms‐impact of reforms ‐ Innovations in Banking ‐ Electronic Banking ‐ OnLine banking ‐ Credit cards.


    Indigenous Banking ‐ operations ‐ Defects ‐ Indigenous Banks and RBI ‐(1972) ‐ Futures of indigenous Bankers ‐ Co‐Operative Banking Institutions ‐ Regional Rural banks ‐ Functions and problems and activities ‐ Development Financial Institutions: Functions and structure, growth ‐ Emerging Financial Intermidearies ‐ Public sector development ‐ Finanacial Institutions: Functioning of IFCI, IDBI, ICICI, SIDBI and SFCS.

    Financial Services

    Indian money market ‐ Structure. Composition, Characteristics and weaknesses ‐ The Reforms of the Indian Money Market ‐ Bill market and RBI ‐ Indian capital Market ‐ Composition and Growth ‐ Primary and Secondary markets ‐ Capital market reforms in India ‐ Non Banking Finance companies (NBFCS) in the capital market-Merchant Banking and Financial Services.

    Banker and customer:

    Definition and Relationship between banker and Custmer ‐ Special types of Bankers customers Customers Deposit Accounts‐Dormant Accounts ‐ Insurance of Bank deposits pass Book ‐its features ‐ Legal position of entries the Pass Book negotiable instruments Act, 1981The Negotiable instruments ‐ Types and Features ‐ Cheques: Classification and characteristics of cheeques ‐ Crossing of Cheques ‐ Types and Essential Features of endorsement ‐ Payment of cheques-Liabilities of paying Banker ‐ Consequences of wrongful dishonour: Collection of cheques Liabilities of collection Banker.

    Financial Accounting II

    Royalties ‐ Hire Purchase and Installment Purchase System-Royalites ‐ Explanation of terms ‐ Accounting Treatment in the books of both the parties ‐ Sub lease: Hire purchase and Installment system ‐ Features ‐ Accounting treatment in the books of hire purchases and vendor ‐ default and Repossession ‐ installment purchase system ‐ Accounting Treatment in the Books of purchaser and Vendor.

    Single entry and accounts of Non trading concerns:

    Single entry ‐ Features ‐Ascertainment of profit ‐ Statement of Affairs ‐ Convension Method. Accounts of Non‐trading concern ‐ Features ‐ Preparation of receipts and payments account ‐ Income and Expenditure account and Balance sheet from the information.

    Partnership Accounts: Legal provisions in the absence of partenership deed ‐ Fixed and Fluctuating capital‐ profit and Loss appropriation Accounts ‐Treatment of goodwill. Admission Retirement and Death of a partner‐ Dissolution of firm (excluding sale to a firm, company and Amalganation).

    Branch and Departmental Accounts: Dependent Branches ‐ Slock and Debtors system ‐Distinction between wholesale profits and retail profits ‐ Independent Branch (Excluding foreign Branches) Departmental Accounts ‐ basics for allocation of exprnses ‐ Inter departmental transfer at cost or selling price ‐ Treatment of expenses which can not be allocated. Company Accounts: Issue of shares ‐ Issue at premium and Issue at Discount –Forfeiture and Re‐issue of shares ‐ Debentures ‐ Issue of Debentures ‐ Preparation of Final Accounts.

    Section ‐ C

    Business Laws

    Law of Contracts ‐ Definitions ‐ Essential elements of a valid contract ‐ classification of contracts ‐ offer ‐ acceptance ‐ communication and revocation of offer, acceptance and revocation ‐cosideration ‐ capacity of parties ‐ consent ‐ free consent ‐ Flaw in consent ‐ Coercion ‐Undue‐influence ‐ Fraud ‐ Misrepresentation ‐ Mistake ‐ legality of objects ‐. Contingent contracts ‐ Performance of Contracts ‐ Various modes of discharge of contract ‐ Breach of contracts ‐ Remedies for breach of contract.

    Special contracts: Contracts of Indemnity and Guarantee ‐ Definitions ‐ Distinction ‐Rights and Liabilities of Surety ‐ Discharge of Surety. Bailment Contracts ‐ Definition ‐ Essentials ‐ Rights and Duties of Bailor and Bailee ‐ Bailee's Lien ‐ Finder of lost goods ‐ Discharge of Bailment contracts. Agency contracts ‐ Creation and termination of agency ‐ various modes ‐ Types of Agents ‐ Rights and duties of Agents and Principals.

    The sale of goods act, 1930: Contract of scale ‐ Conditions and warranties ‐ Transfer of property and title of goods ‐ Rights and duties of seller and buyer ‐ rights of unpaid seller. Essential commodities Act, 1955, Definitions ‐ Objectives ‐ Power control production ‐ Supply ‐ Distribution ‐ Penalties for violation. Consume protection Act. 1986. Definitions ‐ Aims and objectives ‐ Consumer protection councils ‐ Consumer Disputes ‐ Redressal agencies at various levels ‐ District Forum ‐ State Commission ‐ National Commission ‐ Penalties for Mismanagement ‐ Windingup. The companies Act, 1956 ‐ Appointment of Directors ‐ Disqualifications ‐ Removal ‐Powers and duties of Directors.

    Income Tax And Practical Auditing

    Income Tax ‐ Basic concepts ‐ Income ‐ Total Income ‐ Casual Income ‐ Person assesse ‐Assessment year ‐ Previous year ‐ Residential status, Individual HUF ‐ Partnership firm ‐Company Scope of Total Income ‐ Income exempted form Tax ‐ Fully exempted Income ‐ Partially excempted Income. Computation of Income ‐ Salaries ‐ Income from House property ‐ Profits and gains of Business of profession.

    Assessment of Total Income of Individuals ‐ Computation of Tax ‐ Income ‐ Preparation of Return of Income ‐ Self assessment ‐ Set off and carry forward of Losses.

    Meaning ‐ Definition and objectives of auditing ‐ Types of Audit ‐ Audit process & Procedure ‐Audit Planning & Programming ‐ Prelimenaries in commencing a new audit ‐ Internal Check ‐Internal audit and internal control ‐ Vouching.

    Verification and valuation of Assets & liabilities qualifications, disqualifications,appointment and removal of company auditor Duties and rights of company auditor ‐ Liabilities of a company auditor ‐ Preparation of an audit report.

    Test‐05: Computer Science

    Section – A

    PC Software and Programming in 'C'

    Development of computers and types ‐ Logical organization of Digital Computers ‐ Memory ‐Main Memory ‐ RAM and Cache ‐ I/O Units ‐ Secondary Memory ‐ Operating Systems ‐ DOS Commands ‐ Windows 98 and Windows 2000 concepts ‐ Windows Explorer ‐ Working with files and folders ‐ Running Programs ‐ Using Recycle Bin.

    Microsoft Office ‐ MS Word Basics ‐ Headers, Footers, Tables ‐ Graphics ‐ Templates ‐ Macros ‐ Mail Merge. Power Point Basics ‐ Creating presentations ‐ Menus ‐ Tool Bar ‐ Opening a presentation ‐ Creating New Slide ‐ Deleting a Slide ‐ Copying a Slide ‐ Slide Numbering ‐ Saving ‐
    Closing ‐ Printing.

    MS Access ‐ Creating Databases ‐ Tables ‐ Queries ‐ Forms Reports ‐ Sorting, Displaying and Printing ‐ Relational Databases ‐ Creating Graph objects. MS Excel ‐ Work Sheets ‐ Formatting ‐Functions ‐ Charts ‐ Graphical ‐ Worksheets as Databases ‐ Linking.

    Introduction to C ‐ Data Types ‐ Flow of Control ‐ Functions ‐ Storage Classes ‐ Arrays, Pointers and Strings.

    Bitwise Operators and Enumeration types ‐ Preprocessor ‐ Structures and unions ‐ Structures and list processing ‐ Input/Output and Operating Systems

    Section – B

    Programming in C++ and Data Structures

    Fundamentals of Object Oriented Programming – History and Evolution of C++ ‐ C++ Programming – Constants, Variables and Data Types ‐ Comparing Java with C++ Operators and expressions – Decision making using branching and looping – Functions and Procedures.

    Java evolution – Java Programming – Constants, Variables and data types‐ class, objects and methods‐ Pointers and Arrays ‐ Binding Data and Functions ‐ Functions and Operator Overloading.

    Reusing Classes‐Managing errors and Exceptions – Virtual Functions and Polymorphism.

    Data Structures: Stacks‐ Queues‐Binary trees‐=Graphs.

    Section– C,

    Modern DBMS.

    Database Management: Basic concepts and definitions‐file processing systems‐the Range of Database applications ‐ Advantage of the Database approach ‐ Costs and Risk of the Database approach ‐ Components of the Database Environment.

    Data development Process:

    Database development within information system development ‐Database development process ‐ Three Scheme Architecture for database development ‐ Three Tiered Database Location Architecture.

    Modeling Data in the Organization:

    Modeling the rules of the organization ‐The ER model Entity ‐ Relationship Model Constructs, Relationships. Enhanced E.R. Model and Business Rules:
    Representing supertypes and subtypes‐ Specifying Constraints in supertype/subtype relations.

    Logical Database design and the relational Model: The Relational data model‐Integraty constraints ‐ Transforming EEK diagrams into relations ‐ Introduction to normalization. The basic normal forms ‐ Merging relations.

    Advanced Normal forms:

    Boyce ‐ Codd normal form ‐ Fourth normal form ‐ Higher normal forms ‐Physical Database design and performance: Physical Database disign process ‐ Designing folds ‐ Designing Physical records and denormalization ‐ Designing Physical files ‐ Using and selecting indexes ‐ Designing Databases ‐ optimizing for query performance.

    The SQL Environment defining a database in SQL ‐ Inserting, updating and deleting data internal scheme definitions in RDBMS ‐ Processing single Tables.

    Advanced SQL:

    Processing Multiple tables ‐ Ensuring transaction integrity ‐ Data dictionary facitilies ‐ SQL 99 enhancements and Extension to SQL ‐ Triggers and Routines ‐ Embedded SQL and Dynamic SQL.

    The Client/Server Database Environment ‐ Client/server Architecture ‐ three tier architecture ‐ Partitioning ‐ Application ‐ Role of the mainframe using parallel computer architecture ‐ using Middlewave establishing client/server security ‐ Client/server issues Data and database administration: The roles of data and database administration, Modeling Enterprise data ‐ Planning for databases ‐ Managing data security ‐ Backing of databases ‐ Controlling concurrent access ‐ Managing data quality ‐ Data dictionaries and repositories ‐ Overview of turning the database for performance.

    Test‐06: Economics

    Section – A

    Micro Economics

    1. Introduction

    Definitions and scope of economics, Micro and macro‐economics, statics and dynamics, inductive and deductive analysis, partial and general equilibrum, Choice as an economic problem.

    2. Consumer's Behaviour:

    Cardinal and ordinal utility approaches, Law of Diminishing marginal utility, Law Of Equi‐marginal utility, Indifference curve: Consumer's equilibrium (Hicks and Slutsky); Giffins goods, demand analysis, Elasticity of demand‐Price, Income and cross elasticities: consumer's surplus;
    Engel curve.

    3. Theory of Production and Costs:

    Production function; Isoquant; Factor substituion; Law of variable proportions, Returns to scale; Economies of scale; Different concepts of costs and their interrelation; Equilibrium of the firm; Expansion path.

    4. Market Structure:

    Perfect and imperfect markets; Equilibrium of a firm‐Perfect competition, Monopoly and price discrimination, Monopolistic competition, Duopoly (Cournot's model), Oligopoly (kinky demand curve), controlled and administered prices.

    5. Factor Pricing:

    Marginal Productivity theory of distribution, Wages and collective bargaining: Wage differentials; Rent‐Scarcity rent; Differential rent; Quasi rent; Interest‐Classical, Neo‐classical and Keynesian theories; Profits ‐ Innovation, risk and uncertainty theories.

Section– B

Macro Economics

1. National Income and Social Accounts :

Meaning, definition and importance of macro economics, concepts and measurement of national income : Limitations of national income, income as an indicator of economic welfare, Circular flow of Income, Social accounting

2. Theories of Output and Employment:

Say's Law of Markets and classical theory of employment; Keynes objection to classical theory, Aggregate demand and Aggregate supply functions; The Principle of effective demand ‐ Average and Marginal propensity to consume; Factors influencing consumption spending; the investment multiplier. Theory of investment ‐ Autonomous and induced investment; Marginal efficiency of capital; Phases of trade cycle.

3. Money:

Meaning, function and classification of money; Gresham’s Law; Role of Money in capitalist, Socialist and mixed economies; Budgets and money supply, money supply in an open economy, control of money supply.

4. Quantity Theories of Money:

Quantity theory of money ‐ Transactions and cash balance approaches; The Keynesian approach; Definition, types, causes and effects of inflation; Demand pull and cost ‐ push inflation; measures to control inflation.

5. Banking:

Types of commercial banks; Functions of commercial banks; the process of credit, purpose and limitations; Liabilities and assets of commercial banks; Functions of the Reserve Bank of India; Quantitative and qualitative methods of credit control.

Section – C

Indian Economy

1. Economics of Development:

Meaning and definition of economic development, Measures of economic development ‐ GNP, PQLI and HDI ‐ Factors affecting development; Capital formation and Labor; Growth of population, poverty and income inequalities in developing economies, Technology and environment, resource depletion and pollution, concept of sustainable development, Balanced and unbalanced models of growth, the role of choice of goods and techniques in economic development.

2. Current Structure of the Indian Economy and Economic Planning:

Basic features, Natural resources‐ Land, Water and Forest resources; Broad demographic features ‐ Population size and growth rates, sex composition, rural urban migration. Occupational distribution; Population Policy, Infrastructure development, National Income, Trends, composition and structure in India, Poverty Inequalities and unemployment ‐ Causes and consequences, Current Five Year Plan ‐ Objectives, allocation and argets; New economic reforms ‐ Liberalization, Privatization and Globalisation in India.

3. Indian Agriculture:

Nature and Importance; Trends in agricultural production and productivity; Factors determining productivity, New Agricultural strategy and green revolution, Rural Credit, Agricultural Marketing, Agricultural Price Policy, Agricultural Infrastructure and Food security.

4. Indian Industry and Services:

Present structure and growth of Indian Industry since Independence; Industrial Policy of 1956 and 1991, FEMA, Growth and Problems of small scale industries. Role of Public, Private and Foreign sector enterprises in India's Industrialization, Disinvestment policy in India. Growing importance of Social Sector in India.

Test– 07 Education

Section – A

Foundations Of Education

Philosophy And Education

a) Meaning of Philosophy and Education,

(b) Meaning and Scope of Philosophy of Education,

(c) Aims of Education

Educational Implications Of The Following Schools Of Thought With Indian And Western Perspectives

  1. Idealism,
  2. Naturalism,
  3. Pragmatism,
  4. Existentialism

Sociology Of Education

  1. Nature of Sociology,
  2. Meaning and Scope of Sociology of Education
  3. Culture, Socialization and education
  4. Social Stratification and Education

Social Change And Education

  1. Meaning and Factors of Social Change,
  2. Meaning and attributes of Modernization,
  3. Modernity and Indian education

Economics Of Education

  1. Nature of Economics,
  2. Meaning as Human Capital,
  3. Education as Human Capital,
  4. Education and Human Resource Development

Environmental Education

  1. Meaning and Scope of Environmental Education,
  2. Aims and Objectives of Environmental Education,
  3. Concept of sustainable development
  4. Role of teacher, School, Government and NGO in the Development of Environment and protection of Environment.

History Of Indian Education

  1. A brief introduction to Ancient Education,
  2. A brief introduction to Medieval Education,
  3. A brief introduction to Modern Education,
  4. A brief introduction to Contemporary Education

Child Rights Education

  1. Overview of child rights convention,
  2. Categories of Rights: Right to Survival, Protection, Development, Participation,
  3. Child Rights Convention (CRS) and its implications to Education

The State And Education

  1. A Relationship between politics and Education,
  2. Democracy and Education,
  3. Equality and Equity,
  4. Constitutional frame of reference for Indian Education with special reference to the preamble.

Contemporary Issues In Education

  1. Liberalization and Education,
  2. Privatization and Education,
  3. Globalization and Education,
  4. Value crises and Peace Education,
  5. Nationalism and Education

ii) Communicative English

Listening Comprehension

Speaking ‐ Para language: Sounds, stress, intonation, rhythm, voice quality Conference ‐ Briefing, addressing, seminar, role‐play, group‐discussion, comparing.

Reading Comprehension
Writing‐Paragraph, letter‐Writing, notices, incitation’s, resume‐writing

Study skills & reference skills


Psychological Foundations Of Education

Unit‐I: Nature and Methods of Educational Psychology

1. Meaning, nature and Scope of Educational Psychology,

2. Methods of educational psychology‐ Introspection, observation, Experimental & Case Study,

3. Utility of Educational psychology to the teacher.

Unit‐II: Development of the Learner

1. Concept of Growth, Development & Maturation,

2. Readiness to Learn

3. Factors affecting readiness,

4. Principles of development

5. Stages of development‐Infancy, Childhood. Adolescence with reference to Physical, Cognitive(Piaget), Affective, Social, Emotional and Moral (Kohlberg) development.

Unit‐III: Individual differences and areas of individual differences

1. Concept of individual differences,

2. Inter and intra individual differences,

3. Factors responsible for individual differences

4. Areas of individual difference in

a) Intelligence ‐ concept ‐definition ‐types of intelligence ‐ (Thorndike and Gardner)‐ intelligence tests ‐ individual/group intelligence tests ‐ verbal. Nonverbal and performance tests of intelligence and its administration and using intelligence tests in schools.

b) Aptitude ‐ concept ‐ definition ‐ Aptitude tests ‐ Differential Aptitude tests (DAT) and its administration ‐ using aptitude test in schools.

c) Creativity ‐ Concept ‐ Definition ‐ Creativity process – fostering creativity in school ‐ creativity tests.

d) Memory and Forgetting. Effective methods of remembering.

Unit‐IV: Education of Children with Special Needs

1. Nature, Scope and definition of special education

2. Characteristics, causes, education of the following

a. Mentally handicapped (Mild, Moderate),

b. Learning disabled

c. Gifted/Talented,

d. Visually impaired,

e. Hearing impaired

f. Loco‐motor Handicapped

3.Special, integrated and inclusive education

Unit‐V: Psychology of Learning and Teaching

1. Concept and Principles of learning,

2. Factors influencing learning

a. Personal factors ‐ age, maturation, emotional condition, needs, interest, motivation, abilities, aptitude.
b. Environmental factors ‐ natural, social (home and school) and cultural, learning material, relationship with parents, teachers and peers, media influence on learning.

3. Theories of learning/teaching and its classroom implications

a. Trial and Error,
b. Classical Conditioning,
c. Operant conditioning
d. Insightful learning,
e. Social learning (learning by observation),
f. Bruner's Theory of Instruction

4. Transfer of learning‐concept and types of transfer.

Unit‐VI: Classroom Management and Motivation

1. Motivation, Concept, definition,

2.Types of motivation‐Intrinsic and extrinsic,

3.Objections to the use of punishment,

4.Classroom management and motivation

Unit‐VII: Classroom Management and Group dynamics

1. Importance of understanding of group dynamics for teacher,

2. The nature of classroom leadership‐participative, directive, permissive.

3. Development of Inter personal relationship‐in the classroom

4. Mental health of the teacher and taught‐role of home and school in its development.

Unit‐VIII: Classroom Management and Guidance

1.Definition of guidance and counseling,

2. Types of guidance‐educational, vocational and personal guidance,

3. Types of counseling‐directive, non‐directive and eclectic counseling,

4. Guiding backward, gifted, creative students,

5.Guidance and counseling for adolescents on: HIV/AIDS scenario in India and A.P. Adolescence and reproductive health‐process of growing up‐sexual health and hygiene (HIV/AIDS),sex education and drug abuse.

Unit‐IX: Factors influencing Development of Personality

1. Concept and nature of personality,

2. Factors influencing development of personality‐heredity and environmental factors,

3. Personal adjustment ‐ adjustment and maladjustment, causes of maladjustmentadjustment in schools,

4. Assessment of Personality a) Protective techniques, b) Non‐Projective techniques.

Unit‐X: Importance of Educational Statistics for Secondary School Teachers.

1. Concept of Statistics for Psychology and Education‐Knowledge of Educational Statistics for Classroom Teacher,

2. Tabulation of Data and its Educational Significance,

3.Measures of Central Tendencies, Variability, and Rank‐Correlation,

4.Normal Probability Curve, its Interpretation and Educational implications.

Interpersonal Skills

Unit – I Interpersonal Skills; ii) Personality Development

1 . Concept of Interpersonal Skills,

2. Working in a team,

3. Elements of Interpersonal skills: negotiating, being caring and empathetic, upward and downward communication, ability to handle diverse roles.

Unit‐II: Leadership

1. Concept of leadership,

2. Types of leadership ‐ Directive, supportive, Participative, achievement‐oriented, permissive,

3. Qualities of leadership ‐ Vision, passion, self‐sacrifice, confidence, role‐modeling

4. Functions of leadership ‐ Motivating, Confidence‐building, plan ning, co‐ordinating, decision‐making, interacting, negotiation, time‐management, mentoring.

Unit‐III: Creativity

1. Concept of creativity,

2. Characteristics of a creative person,

3. Creative methods‐Evolution, synthesis, revolution, reapplication, changing directions

Unit‐IV: Conflict Management

1. Concept of conflict,

2. Causes of conflict Intra‐individual‐adaptive policies, organizational structure, working conditions and other factors.

3. Strategies for resolution,

a)Avoidance, diffusion, Containment, Confrontationb.

b) Pro‐active & Reactive

Section C

Education Technology And Computer Education

Unit‐I: Elements of Educational Technology

1. Meaning and Nature of Educational Technology

2. Scope, classification and Objectives of Educational Technology

3. Instructional Design and Technology

Unit‐II: Teaching‐Learning and Techniques of Communication

1. Concept and Meaning of teaching and learning,

2. Structure and phases of teaching,

3.Elements,processes, types, barriers and Factors affecting Communication, 4. Mass Media Approach and Techniques of
communication in the classroom, 5. Classroom Interaction Analysis.

Unit‐III: Teaching Aids and uses

1. Characteristics and importance of teaching aids,

2. Classification and types of teaching Aids,

3. Hardware and Software in Teaching aids,

4. Principles in the use of Teaching aids

Unit‐IV: Multimedia approach in Education

1. Edgar Dale's cone of Learning Experiences,

2. Multimedia Approach to Teaching‐learning process,

3. Instructional Resource Center for Educational Technology

Unit‐V: Developments in Educational Technology

1. Action Research,

2. Programmed Learning,

3. Micro‐teaching,

4. Systems Approach

Unit‐VI: Introduction to Computers:

1. Generations, Types and Characteristics of Computers,

2. Essential Components of a Computer; Input and Output devices,

3.Types of memory

4. Computer languages; Assembly language; Machine language; High level languages,

5. Uses and Applications of Computers

Unit‐VII: Introduction to Operating system

1. Concept and types of operating system,

2. Basis of MS‐DOS and Ms‐Windows,

3. Advantages of Windows over DOS.

Unit‐VIII: Introduction to MS‐office

1. MS WORD ‐ Word processing, saving and retrieving files from different drives, Text Editing, Spell check, Thesaurus, Text printing

2. MS EXCEL ‐ Statistical Applications, Measures of Central tendencies ‐ Mean, Mode, graphical representation ‐ bar graphs, Pie diagrams, Frequency curves

3. MS ACCESS ‐ Creating a file, Adding and changing information, Sorting, Searching and printing.

4. MS POWERPOINT ‐ Applications, Presentations, usage of Clipart, Slide show

5. MS PUBLISHER ‐ Newsletter, Brochure

Unit‐IX: Introduction to Internet

1. History of Internet,

2. E‐Mail and World Wide Web,

3. Accessibility and Retrieval of information,

4.Viruses and protection systems,

5. Internet applications in the field Education

Unit‐X: Computers in Education

1. Computers in teaching‐learning,

2. Computer in Evaluation,

3. Computers in Educational Administration

II) School Management And Systems Of Education

Unit‐I: Educational Management

1. Definition, Meaning and Aims of Educational Management,

2. Principle and Types of Educational Management,

3.Administrative Structure of Education in India and with special reference to Andhra Pradesh

Unit‐II: School as an Organization

1. Concept and Objectives of School,

2. Components of School and School Plant,

3. Physical, Human and Financial Resources,

4. School under different Management

Unit‐III: Head of the Organization ‐Importance and Different Roles

1. Academic Aspects: ‐ Supervision, Guidance, maintenance of Standards, Institutional Evaluation, Time Table, Subject Clubs, Co‐curricular Activities.

2. Administrative Aspects:Institutional Planning, Budgeting, mobilization of Resources, Supervision, Organization of Staff Meetings ‐ maintenance of different Registers & Records

Unit‐IV: The Role of the Teacher and School Management

1. Concept of Effective Teaching,

2.pre‐requisite characteristics of Effective Teacher,

3.Self Evaluation and Professional Growth of Teachers,

4.Significance of In‐service Programmes

Unit‐V: Child Rights Education

1. Child Rights and School Management,

2. Child Rights and Democratic Education,

3. Concept and Ladder of Child Participation,

4. Models of child Participation

Unit‐VI: Population Education

1. Meaning, Nature, Scope and significance of Population Education,

2. Causes and consequences of Population growth,

3. Determinants of Population growth,

4. Environment, sustainable development and population growth,

5. Population situation, policies and programmes in India,

6.Approaches to Population Education and role of School and Teachers

Unit‐VII: Non‐Formal Education

1. Types of Educational Systems,

2. Nature, Scope and Objectives of Non‐Formal Education,

3. Life‐long Education and open Learning Systems

4. Non‐formal Education and Universalization of Elementary Education,

5. Adult Education Programmes in post colonial India

Unit‐VIII: Elementary Education

1. Nature and Scope of Elementary Education,

2. Constitutional Provisions for compulsory Elementary Education,

3. Quality, Quantity Equity realizing UEE,

4. Problems in Elementary Education,

5. Recent policies and Initiatives of Government of India for the growth and development of Elementary Education

Unit‐IX: Teacher Education

1. A brief history of Teacher Education in India

2. Policies, practices and quality assurance in teacher education

3. National level organization for Teacher Education

4. Accountability, professional ethics and Teacher organizations

Unit‐X: Community Education

1. Nature and Meaning of Community in different socio‐Economic and Cultural Context

2. Relationship between school and community

3. Community and School Governance

4. Strategies for Community Mobilization

5. Role of teacher in bringing Co‐ordination between School and Community.

Test- 08: English


Title of the Poem Name of the Poet
1. Dover Beach Matthew Arnold
2. Insensibility Wilfred Owen
3. Poem36 Rabindranath Tagore
4. Home Coming Parthasararhy

Title of the Poem Name of the Poet
1. Spoken English and Broken English G. B. Shaw
2. Conjuror’s Revenge Stephen Leacock
3. Prospects of Democracy Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
4. I Have a Dream Martin Luther King

Short Stories
Title of the Poem Name of the Poet
1. How Far is the River Ruskin Bond
2. Little Girls are Wiser than Men Leo Tolstoy

One-Act Plays
Title of the Poem Name of the Poet
1. Sacrifice (The Last Act only) Rabindranath Tagore
2. Merchant of Venice (The Casket Scene only) William Shakespeare

Language Study

1.Comprehension Passage

2. Verb Forms (Tenses)

3. Synonyms, Antonyms,

4. Correction of sentences

5. Idioms

6.One-Word Substitutes


Title of the Poem Name of the Poet
1. Solitary Reaper William Wordsworth
2. The Road Not Taken Robert Frost
3. Refugee Mother and Child Chinua Achebe
4. I Will Embrace Only the Sun Tripuraneni Srinivas

Title of the Poem Name of the Poet
1. Film-Making Satyajit Ray
2. Not Just Oranges Isai Tobolsky
3. On Shaking Hands A. G. Gardiner
4. India’s Contribution to world Unity Arnold Toynbee


Short Stories
Title of the Poem Name of the Poet
1. Gajar Halwa Gita Hariharan
2. My Brother, My Brother Norah Burke

One-Act Plays
Title of the Poem Name of the Poet
1. The Never-Never Nest Cedric Mount
2. Refund Fritz Karinthi

Written Communication and Composition

1.Concord between subject and verb

2.Figures of Speech


4.Kinds of sentences

5.Transormation of Sentences

6.Basic Literary Terms

Section- C

Title of the Poem Name of the Poet
1. Othello William Shakespeare
2. Saint Joan George Bernard Shaw

Title of the Poem Name of the Poet
1. Pride and Prejudice Jane Austen
2. That Long Silence Shashi Deshpande

Test- 09: Geology


Physical Geology

General aspects, Definition of Geology – Basic assumptions of Geology. Its relationship with other sciences- Branches of Geology – Aim and Application of Geology. Earth as planet its shape, size, density movements and their effects.

Geological Processes: Exogenic and Endogenic; Definition of weathering – types of weathering of rocks – physical and chemical; definition of erosion and denudation; cycle of erosion; Erosion transportation and deposition; Agents of erosion.

Rivers: Erosion, transportation and deposition of river (fluvial) cycle in different stages- development of typical landforms by river erosion and deposition– V shaped valley. Waterfall, alluvial fans, meander, ox-bow Lake, flood plain, natural leeves, peneplain and delta. Types of rivers.

Wind: Development of characteristic features by winds (arid cycle) erosion and deposition – pedestal rock, mushroom topography, insel berg, ventifacts – loess and dunes.

Earthquakes: Causes seismograph and Richer’s seismogram. Effects of earthquakes, earth quake zones. Interior of earth: Structure and constitution of Volcanoes – Parts of a typical volcano, products of volcanoes, origin of volcanoes.

Mountains: Types, causes of mountain building; geo-synclines, Basic concepts of isostasy, continental drift and plate tectonics.


Definition of crystal – amorphous and crystalline states; morphology of crystals – face, edge, solid angle, interfacial angle Forms: Simple, combination, closed and open forms.

Symmetry: Plane, axis and center. Crystallographic axes, parameters, indices; Crystallographic Notation parameter system Weiss index system of Miller.

Classification of crystals in to 7 systems.

Morphological study of the following classes of symmetry.

I. Cubic system – Normal (Galena Type)

II. Tetragonal System- Zircon Type

III. Hexagonal System – Beryl Type

IV. Trigonal System – CalciteType

V. Orthorhombic System – Barytes Type

VI. Monoclinic System – Gypsum Type

VII. Triclinic System - Axinite Type

Mineralogy :

Definition of mineral – classification of minerals into rock forming and ore forming minerals. Physical properties of minerals – colour, streak, play of colours, Opalescence, asterism, transparency, luster luminescence, fluorescene; form, hardness, tenacity, cleavage parting, fracture; sp.ravity; magnetic properties.

Modes of mineral formation; occurrence and association of minerals. Descriptive Mineralogy study of physical properties, chemical properties and mode of occurrence of the following mineral groups Nesosilicate- Olivine& garnet,Aluminum Silicates, Sorosilicate – Epidote, Cyclosilicate- Beryl,Inosilicate – Pyroxene, Amphibole Phyllosilicate, Mica and Hyhdrous magnesium silicates; Tectosilicate – Feldspars, feldspathoid, and Miscellaneous- staurolite, Tourmalin Zircon,Calcite, Corundum,apatite.

Section – B


Petrology: Nature and scope of petrology- definition of rock; classification of rocks into igneous, Sedimentary and metamorphic; distinguishing features of the three types of rocks.

Igneous Rocks: Classification into plutonic, hypabyssal and volcanic rocks; forms – Lava flows, intrusionssills, Laccolith, lopolith,dykes, ring dykes, cone sheets, volcanic necks, phacolith, batholiths structures vesicular, amygdaloidal, block lava and ropy lava, pillow , flow, jointing sheeting, plates, columnar, prismatic. Textures –definition of textures, microstructures, devitrification, allotriomorphic. hypidiomorphic,pan idiomorphic, ophitic,intergraular, intersertal, trachytic, graphic micrographic. Reaction structures coronas, Myrmekite, Orbicular,Spherulitic, perilitic. orgin of igneous rocks; Bowen’s reaction principle; differentiation and assimilation Descriptive study of the following igneous rocks – granite, syenite, pegmatite, aplite, gabbro, dunite, dolerite, rhyolite, basalt.

Sedimentary rock: Sources of sediments – Mechanical and chemical weathering modes; of transportation, sedimentary environments.

Definitions of diagenesis: Llithificaiton and cementation, stratification.

Sedimentary structures:types of bedding, suface marks drformed bedding, solution structures. classification of sedimentary rocks clastic – rudaceous, arenaceous, argillaceous, non-clastic- calcareous, carbonaceous, ferruginous, phosphatic, evaporities. Descriptive study of the following sedimentary rocks- conglomerate, breccias, sandstone, grit,arkose, greywacke,Shale, lime stones, shellylimestone.

Metamorphic Rocks: Definition of metamorphism, agents of metamorphism, types of metamorphism, grades and zones of metamorphism, metamorphic minerals-stress and anti stress minerals granulose and gneissose textures of metamorphic rocks- Crystalloblastic, palimpsest, xenoblastic, idioblastic. Classification of metamorphic rocks- Thermal metamorphism argillaceous, arenaceous and calcareous(limestones) rocks. Dynamothermmal metamorphism of argillaceous, arenaceous and basic igneous rocks. Plutonic metamorphism, metasomatism and additive processes, Descriptive study of the following metamorphic rocks- gneiss schist, Slate, phyllite, quartzite, marble.

Structural Geology Indian Geology and Economic Geology

Structural Geology: Definition of structural geology, aims and objectives of the structural geology; importance of study of structures. Primary and secondary structures; outcrop, attitude of bell strike, dip, apparent dip; use of clinometers. Primary structures as markers, Folds- description geometric classification of folds, recognition of folds in the field. Joints -geometrical and genetic classification of joints. Faults Geometrical and genetic classification of faults, recognition of faults in the field effects of faults on the outcrops.

Unconformities-Definition of unconformity – types of unconformities recognition of unconformities in the field
distinguishing the faults from unconformities. Definition of overlap, of flap, outlier, inlier, cleavage, schistosity,
foliation and lineation.

Indian Geology: Definition of stratigraphy; stratigraphic principles; definitions of geologic timescales; principles of correlation a Brief study of type area, distribution in India, lithology, fossil content and economic importance of the following geological groups of India – Dharwards, Puranas- Cuddpaha, Vindhyans, Kurnools, Gondwanas, Deccan traps and their age.

Economic Geology: Definition of Economic Geology, mineral resources and their peculiarities, ore, gangue,tenor, syngenetic, deposits, epigenetic deposits, endogentic and exogentic deposits, Classification Mineral deposits- Processes of formation of mineral deposits- magmatic concentration, contanct metasomatism, hydrothermal – cavity fillings and replacement, sedimentation residual and mechanical(placer) concentration, oxidation and supergene enrichment, metamorphism; Study of important ores- their chemical composition Physical properties mode of occurrence, distribution in India and uses of the following metals-Gold, Copper, lead, Zinc, Aluminum, Iron and Manganese. Chemical composition, physical properties, mode of occurrence and distribution in India minerals required for the following industries. Refractories, Steel, Cement, Major mineral resources of Andhra Pradesh-asbestos, barites, coal, mica, clays, limestone.

Test-10: General Test

Section A - Current Affairs

  • Current events and happenings of Local, National and International importance.
  • Indian Geography – Physical, Social, Economic Geography
  • Indian Polity – Constitution, Political System, Policy issues
  • Indian Economy – Planning, Budget, Financial & Economic Policy
  • Environment & Ecology – Biodiversity, Sustainable Development
  • Sports and Games
  • Science & Technology
  • Persons & Places in News
  • Awards –National, International

Section B - General Knowledge

  • Arithmetic – Percentages, Ratios, LCM, GCD
  • Reasoning - Number series, letter series, codes, relationships, classification
  • Logical Reasoning – Understanding the structure of arguments, Deductive and Inductive Reasoning, Verbal analogy, Word analogy, analytical reasoning
  • Language and Comprehension- Grammar, Parts of Speech, Correction of Sentences.

Section – C

1. Journalism and Communication

  • General Media Awareness
  • Latest who is who in media industry
  • Print Journalism - Leading Circulation & Contemporary News papers in Telugu, English.
  • Radio Broadcasting – AM, FM Channels
  • Television Broadcasting – TV Channels – Local, National, and International –Types – Programming Formats.
  • Internet as a Communication Medium – Social Networking – Blogs. Applications, Uses.

2. Psychology:

  • Definition and nature of psychology - Branches of Psychology - Methods of Psychology-
  • Definition and classification of motives- Theories of Motivation- Physiological motives-
  • Definition of learning- nature of learning- Types of learning - Theories of Learning

3. History

  • Influence of Geography on History – Survey of the Sources – pre-historic period, Paleolithic. Mesolithic and Neolithic cultures – Role of technology. Indus valley Civilization –Its characteristic features – Vedic culture – Early and later Vedic Period – Post-Vedic period Emergence of Varna and caste system – Rise of new Religious Movements-Jainism and Buddhism in 6th Century B.C. Impact on Society and culture.
  • A brief survey of political conditions in ancient India – Magadha, Alexander’s Invasion and Mauryas – Ashoka’s Dhama, Its nature and propagation –Mauryan Administration – Economy – Art and Architecture.
  • Post-Mauryan period in North India-A brief political survey of Kushans, Guptas, Puswabuthi and Rajputs: Polity and Administration-SocialConditions Caste System – position of Women-Economy,-Indian Feudalism ArtArchitecture-Education, Literature, Philosophy, Science and Technology.
  • Establishment of Mughal Emprie – Sur Interrugnam – Brief Survey of Political History up to 1707 AD – Polity and administration – Society-Social
    Composition- Nobility-peasantry – artisans – Slaves-Status of Women - conomy: Agriculture Industries, Trade and Commerce .
  • Advent of European powers-Portuguese, Dutch, English and Expansion and consolidation of British Empire-Wars-Diplomacy-Policies Pursued-Subsidiary
    Alliance – Doctrine of Lapse.- Economic policies and changes-Mercantilism and Fee-trade policies-Land Revenue Settlements – Permanent – Ryotwari –
    Mahalwari Systems - Commercialization of Agriculture-Condition of peasants
  • Factors for social change-Christian Missionaries-Western Education Emergence of New Middle Classes-Growth of press-Socio-Religion Reform
    Movements-Brahma samaj, Arya Samaj-Theosophical Society-Ramakrishna Mission-Aligarh Movement-Self- respect movements, Jyotiba Phule – Narayana Guru, Periyar and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
  • Indian National Movement – Factors for the growth of Nationalism – Indian National congress-Three Phases of Freedom struggle-revolutionary
    Movements-Left-Wing movement- Peasant and workers movements. Emergence of Communal trends- partition of India-Integration of Princely States into Indian Union.

4. Political Science and Public Administration

  • Principles of Political Science - Nature & Scope, State & Society-Liberty Equality, Justice, Forms of Government, Political Parties, Electoral System Etc.
  • Sustainable Rural Development - Models of Development - Sustainable Development
  • Introduction to public Administration - Nature & Scope, New Public Administration, Administrative Behaviour
  • Panchayat Raj System - Historical Settings, Constitutional amendments
  • Human Rights: Concepts and Principles - Theories & Definitions, UNO Human Rights Commissions, Socio & Economic Rights

Test-11: Physics/ Material Science And Nano Technology

Section A

Mechanics, Waves and Oscillations

1. Vector Analysis: Scalar and vector fields, gradient of a scalar field and its physical significance. Divergence and Curl of a vector field and related problems.

2. Mechanics of particles: Laws of motion, motion of variable mass system, motion of a rocket, conservation of energy and momentum, Collisions in two and three dimensions, concept of impact parameter, scattering cross section, Rutherford scattering.

3. Central forces: Central forces- definition and examples, conservative nature of central forces, conservative force as a negative gradient of potential energy, equation of motion under a central force, gravitational potential and gravitational field, motion under inverse square law, derivation of kepler’s laws, Coriolis force and its expressions.

4. Special theory of relativity: Galilean relativity, absolute frames, Michelson-Morley experiment, Postulates of Special theory of relativity, Lorentz transformation.

5. Simple harmonic oscillations: Simple harmonic oscillator, and solution of the differential equation- physical characteristics of SHM, torsion pendulum, measurements of rigidity modulus, compound pendulum, measurement of ‘g’, combination of two mutually perpendicular simple harmonic vibrations of same frequency and different frequencies, Lissajous figures.

6. Damped and forced oscillations: Damped harmonic oscillator, solution of the differential equation of damped oscillator, energy considerations, comparison with undamped harmonic oscillator, logarithmic decrement, relaxation time, quality factor, differential equation of forced oscillator and its solution, amplitude resonance.

7. Complex vibrations: Fourier theorem and evolution of the Fourier coefficients, analysis of periodic wave functions- square wave, triangular wave, saw- tooth wave.

8. Ultrasonics: Ultrasonics, properties of ultrasonic waves, production of ultrasonics by piezoelectric and magnetostriction methods, detection of ultrasonics, determination of wavelength of ultrasonic waves.

Section B

Thermodynamics and Optics

1. Thermodynamics: Introduction – Reversible and irreversible processes – Carnot’s engine and its efficiency –Carnot’s theorem – Second law of thermodynamics, Kelvin’s and Claussius statements – Thermodynamic scale of temperature – Entropy, physical significance – Change in entropy in reversible and irreversible processes – Entropy and disorder – Entropy of universe – Temperature- Entropy (T-S) diagram – Change of entropy of a perfect gas-change of entropy when ice changes into steam.

2. Thermodynamic potentials and Maxwell’s equations: Thermodynamic potentials –Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations – Clausius- Clayperon’s equation –Ratio of specific heats – Expression for Joule Kelvin coefficient for perfect and Van der waal’s gas.

3. Low temperature Physics: Introduction – Joule Kelvin effect – liquefaction of gas using porous plug experiment. Joule expansion – Distinction between adiabatic and Joule Thomson expansion – Expression for Joule Thomson cooling – Liquefaction of helium, Adiabatic demagnetization – Production of low temperatures – Principle of refrigeration, vapour compression type. Working of refrigerator and Air conditioning machines. Effects of Chloro and Fluro Carbons on Ozone layer; applications of substances at low- temperature.

4. Quantum theory of radiation: Black body-Ferry’s black body – distribution of energy in the spectrum of Black body –Wein’s displacement law, Wein’s law, Rayleigh-Jean’s law – Quantum theory of radiation – Planck’s law – deduction of Wein’s law, Rayleigh-Jeans law, from Planck’s law –Measurement of radiation –Types of pyrometers– Disappearing filament optical pyrometer– Angstrom pyroheliometer - determination of solar constant, effective temperature of sun.

5. Aberrations: Introduction – Monochromatic aberrations, spherical aberration, methods of minimizing spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism and curvature of field, distortion. Chromatic aberration – the achromatic doublet –Removal of chromatic aberration of a separated doublet.

6. Interference: Principle of superposition – coherence – temporal coherence and spatial coherence – conditions for Interference of light Interference by division of wave front: Fresnel’s biprism – determination of wave length of light. Determination of thickness of a transparent material using Biprism – change of phase on reflection – Lloyd’s mirror experiment.

7. Diffraction: Introduction – Distinction between Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction Fraunhoffer diffraction:- Diffraction due to single slit and circular aperture – Limit of resolution – Fraunhoffer diffraction due to double slit – Fraunhoffer diffraction pattern with N slits (diffraction grating) Resolving Power of grating.

8. Polarization: Polarized light : Methods of Polarization, Polarization by reflection, refraction, double refraction, selective absorption , scattering of light – Brewster’s law – Malus law – Nicol prism polarizer and analyzer – Refraction of plane wave incident on negative and positive crystals (Huygen’s explanation) – Quarter wave plate, Half wave plate – Babinet compensator – Optical activity, analysis of light by Laurent’s half shade polarimeter.

9. Laser: Lasers: Introduction – Spontaneous emission – Stimulated emission – Population inversion. Laser principle – Einstein coefficients – Types of Lasers – He-Ne laser – Ruby laser – Applications of lasers.

Section C

Electrostatics, Magnato statics

1. Electrostatics: Gauss law proof and its applications- Uniformly charged sphere, an infinite conducting sheet of charge. Electric potential – Potential due to a charged spherical conductor, electric field strength from the electric dipole.

2. Capacitance: Capacitance of concentric spheres and cylindrical condenser, capacitance of parallel plate condenser with and without dielectric. Electric energy stored in a charged condenser – force between plates of condenser, construction and working of attracted disc electrometer, measurement of dielectric constant and potential difference.

3. Moving charge in electric and magnetic field: Hall effect, cyclotron, synchrocyclotron and synchrotron – force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field, force and torque on a current loop, Biot –Savart’s law and calculation of B due to long straight wire, a circular current loop and solenoid.

4. Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s law –Lenz’s law – expression for induced emf – time varying magnetic fields – Betatron –Ballistic galvanometer – theory – damping correction – self and mutual inductance, coefficient of coupling, calculation of self inductance of a long solenoid – toroid – energy stored in magnetic field – transformer – Construction, working, energy losses and efficiency.

5. Varying and alternating currents: Growth and decay of currents in LR, CR and LCR circuits – Critical damping. Alternating current relation between current and voltage in pure R,C and L-vector diagrams – Power in AC circuits. LCR series and parallel resonant circuit – Q-factor.

6. Basic electronics: Formation of electron energy bands in solids, classification of solids in terms of forbidden energy gap. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, Fermi level, continuity equation – p-n junction diode, Zener diode characteristics and its application as voltage regulator. Half wave and full wave rectifiers and filters, ripple factor (quantitative) – p- n- p and n- p- n transistors, current components in transistors, CB, CE and CC configurations – Transistor hybrid parameters determination of hybrid parameters from transistor (CE) characteristics.

7. Digital principles: Binary number system, converting Binary to Decimal and vice versa. Binary addition and subtraction (1’s and 2’s complement methods). Logic gates: OR, AND, NOT gates, truth tables, realization of these gates using discrete components. NAND, NOR as universal gates, Exclusive – OR gate, De Morgan’s Laws – statement and proof, Half and Full adders. and Parallel adder circuits.

Modern Physics

1. Atomic physics: Introduction – Drawbacks of Bohr’s atomic model - Sommerfeld’s elliptical orbits – relativistic correction (no derivation). Stern and Gerlach experiment, Vector atom model and Quantum numbers associated with it. L-S and j-j coupling schemes. Zeeman Effect

2. Matter waves: De Broglie’s hypothesis – wavelength of matter waves, properties of matter waves. Phase and group velocities. Davisson and Germer experiment. Double slit experiment. Standing de Brogile waves of electron in Bohr orbits.

3. Uncertainty principle: Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle for position and momentum (x and px), Energy and time (E and t). Gamma ray microscope. Diffraction by a single slit. Position of electron in a Bohr orbit. Particle in a box. Complementary principle of Bohr.

4. Schrodinger wave equation: Schrodinger time independent and time dependent wave equations. Derivates Wave function properties – Significance. . Application of Schrodinger wave equation to particle in one dimensional infinite box,

5. Nuclear physics: Nuclear structure: Basic properties of nucleus – size, charge, mass, spin, magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment. Binding energy of nucleus, deuteron binding energy,. Nuclear models –liquid drop model, shell model.

Alpha and beta decays: Range of alpha particles, Geiger – Nuttal law. Gammow’s theory of alpha decay. Geiger –Nuttal law from Gammow’s theory. Beta spectrum – neutrino hypothesis, Fermi’s theory of β-decay (qualitative).

Nuclear Detectors – GM counter, Wilson cloud chamber and Bubble chamber

Test- 12: Mathematics

Section – A

Differential Equations

Differential equations of first order and first degree

Linear differential equations; Differential equations reducible to linear form; Exact differential equations; Integrating factors; Change of variables; Simultaneous differential equations Orthogonal trajectories.

Differential equations of the first order but not of the first degree:

Equations solvable for p; Equations solvable for y; Equations solvable for x; Equations that do not contain x (or y); Equations of the first degree in x and y – Clairaut’s equation.

Higher Order linear differential equations

Solutions of homogeneous linear differential equations of order n with constant coefficients. Solution of the non homogeneous linear differential equations with constant coefficients by means of polynomial operators. Method of variation of parameters; linear differential equations with non –
constant coefficients; The Cauchy – Euler equation.

1. Scope and treatment as in “Differential Equations and their Applications” by Zafar Ahsan, Print ice- Hall of India.

2. Reference Book: Rai Singhania “Ordinary and partial differential equations”, S.Chand & Company.

Solid Geometry

The Plane:

Equation of a plane in terms of its intercepts on the axes, Equations of the plane through three given points, Length of the perpendicular from a given point to a given plane, Bisectors of angles between two planes, Combined equation of two planes, Orthogonal projection on a plane.

The Line:

Equations of a line, Angle between a line and a plane, the condition that a given line may lie in a given plane, the condition that two given lines are coplanar, Number of arbitrary constants in the equations of a straight line. Sets of conditions which determine a line. The shortest distance
between two lines. The length and equations of the line of shortest distance between two straight lines. Length of the perpendicular from a given point to a given line.

The Sphere:

Definition and equation of the sphere, Equation of the sphere through four given points, plane sections of a sphere. Intersection of two spheres Equation of a circle. Sphere through a given circle, Intersection of a sphere and a line. Power of a point, Tangent plane. Plane of contact. Polar plane. Pole of plane. Conjugate points. Conjugate planes; Angle of intersection of two spheres. Conditions for two spheres to be orthogonal, radical plane. Coaxial system of spheres Simplified from of the equation of two spheres.


Definition of a Cone, Vertex, guiding curve, enveloping cone, reciprocal cone, right circular cone.


Definition of a cylinder, enveloping cylinder of a sphere, the right circular cylinder.

1. Scope as in “Analytical solid Geometry” by Shanti Narayan and P.K.Mittal, S.Chand & company Ltd.

2. Reference Book: P.K.Jain and Khaleel Ahmed “A text Book of Analytical Geometry of three Dimensions”, Wiley eastern Ltd.

Section – B

Abract Algebra And Real Analysis


Binary operations – Algebraic Structure -Semi gro up-mono id- Groups Definition and elementary properties- Finite and infinite groups – examples-order of a group- composition tables with examples.


Complex definition-Multiplication of two complexes-inverse of a complex-Subgroup definition –examples-criterion for a complex to be a subgroups-criterion for the product of two subgroups to be a subgroup-union and intersection of subgroups.

Cosets and Lagrange’s Theorem

Cosets definition-properties of cosets-index of a subgroup of a finite groups-Lagrange’s Theorem.

Normal Subgroups

Definition of normal subgroup-proper and improper normal subgroup-Hamilton group-criterion for a subgroup to be a normal subgroup-intersection of two normal subgroups-subgroup of index 2 is a normal subgroup quotient group criteria for the existance of a quotient group.


Definition of homomorphism – image of homomorphism elementary properties of homomorphismIsomorphism-automorphism definitions and elementary properties – kernal of a homomorphismfundamental theorem on Homomorphism and applications.


Definition of permutation – permutation multiplication-inverse of a permutation-cyclic permutations transposition – even and odd permutations – Cayley’s theorem.

Cyclic Groups

Definition of a cyclicgro up -elementary pro perties-classificatio n of cyclic groups.


Rings definition and examples – Properties of rings – commutative rings, examples – Integral domain- Division -Ideals-Maximal Ideal-Prime Ideal-Principal Ideal– skew field, field – examples. – zero divisors and related theorems.

Sequences and Their Limits

Convergent and divergent sequences – sandwich theorem – convergence of {rn} for -1 < r < 1 monotonic sequence – necessary and sufficient condition for monotonic sequence to converge and related examples – Bolzano Weirstrass Theorem – Cauchy sequence – cauchy’s general principle of

Continuity –

Continuity and discontinuity of a function and examples – Heine’s theorem – Borel’s theorem – every continuous function is bounded – every continuous and bounded function defined on [a,b] attains its bounds – Bolzano’s theorem intermediate value theorem.

Derivative –

Every derivable function is continuous – example – Darboux’s Theorem increasing and decreasing functions – Rolle’s theorem and examples – Lagrange’s theorem and examples – Cauchy’s mean value theorem and examples – Taylor’s theorem with Lagrange’s and Cauchy’s form of remainder – Maclaurin’s theorem – Taylor’s and Maclaurins series – Power series representation of functions.

Riemann Integration – Riemann Integral, Riemann integral functions, Darboux theorem,properties of integrable functions,Fundamental theorem of integral calculus.

1. Scope as in “The first course in Abstract Algebra” by Johan B.Fraleigh, Narosa Publication House

2. Ref: 1. “Topics in Algebra,” I.N.Herstein, Wiley Eastern

3.”Contemporary Abstract Algebra” Joseph A Gallian, Narsa Scope as in “Introduction to Real Analysis”, Robert G.Bartle & Donald R Sherbet, John Wiley.

1. “A course of mathematical Analysis” Shanti Narayan & P.K.Mittal, S.Chand & Company

2. “ Mathematial Analysis” by S.C. Malik & Sanita Arora, Wiley

Section - C

Linear Algebra And Vector Calculus:

Linear Algebra:

Vector Space, General Properties of vector spaces, vector subspaces, linear combination of vectors. Linear sum of two subspaces, Linear independence and dependence of vectors. Basis of vector space. Finite dimension of a subspace. Linear transformations, linear operators Range and null space of linear transformation, Rank and nullity of linear transformation. Invertible linear transformation. The adjoint or transpose of a linear transformation, Sylvester’s law of nullity, characteristic values and characteristic vectors, Cayley – Hamilton theorem. Inner product spaces, Euclidean and unitary spaces, norm or length of a vector, Schwartz inequality, Orthogonality, orthonormal set, complete orthonormal set, Gram – Schmidt orthogonalisation process.

Vector calculus

Vector differentiation, ordinary derivatives of vectors, Differentiability - Gradient – Divergence - Curl operators – formulae involving these operators (Excluding Serrett- Frennett formulae and related problems).-Line integral-surface integral-volume integral with examples-vector integration – Theorems of Gauss and Stokes , Green’s theorem in plane and applications of these theorems.

Test-13: M.P.Ed

Section : A

Principles Of Physical Education

Chapter – 1: The scope of Physical Education.

a. Meaning of the terms Physical Culture, Physical Training and physical Education

b. Definition of Physical Education.

c. The Scope, Principles and importance of Physical Education.

d. The Relationship between Physical Education, Recreation and Health Education.

e. Profession of Physical Education – Professional Interest and growth – Nature of work of Physical Education – An ideal teacher of Physical Education.

Chapter – 2: The Aims and Objectives.

a. The meaning of the terms – Aid and Objectives.

b. The Aims of Physical Education.

c. The Objectives of Physical Education.

Chapter – 3:

a. The Biological basis of life.

b. Growth and development.

c. The effect of heredity and environment.

d. Principles of use, disuse and overuse.

e. Chronological, Anatomical, Physiological and Mental Ages.

f. Body types of Physique.

g. Difference in males and females.

h. Unsynchronized development(Natural and Naturalized, Activities).

Chapter – 4: Sociological foundations of Physical Education:

a. The social learning’s of man – Physical Education and Recreation as socializing factors.

b. Traditions with particulars reference to aspects of India Culture – their influence on behavior Pattern.

c. Competition and Co – operation.

d. Development of different traits and ideas. Social inheritance in Physical Education.

History Of Physical Education

Chapter – 1: Physical education in Ancient Greece:

a. Homeric Age,

b. City Leagues.

c. Sparta and Athens.

d. The origin and development of ancient Olympic Games - Modern Olympic Games-Asian Games, Common wealth games - SAARC & SAF Games .

Chapter – 2: Physical Education among the Ancient Romans

Physical and mental education among Romans, The Circus, Gladiatorial, Contests etc,

Chapter – 3:

1. History of physical Education in India.

2. Recent developments of physical Education in India.

3. Sports Bodies – A.I.U- SAI. SAAP other sports Federations and Associations.

Anatomy And Physiology Of Exercise

Chapter-I: The cell and its parts and functions

Chapter-2: Skeletal System : Form and general structure, classification of bone skeletal system, differences between male and female – classification of joints, effect of exercise of skeletal system.

Chapter-3: Muscular System: Classification, functions of muscle effect of exercise on Muscular System.

Chapter-4: Digestive System: Mouth, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, pancreases, liver – Digestion of good – Effect of exercise on digestion.

Chapter-5: Respiratory System: Mechanism of inspiration and expiration and the muscle involved-Gases exchange – internal and external. Effect of exercise on respiratory system.

Chapter-6: Circulatory System – The blood and its constituents, functions of the blood. The Heart its position, structure and working arteries, veins, capillaries, circulation of the blood, general, pulmonary, and cardiac effects of exercise on circulatory system.

Chapter-7: Excretory System-Kidneys - structure, function of kidneys competition of urine – the skin and its structure and functions – effects of exercise on excretory system.

Chapter-8: Endocrine System : Hormones, role of endocrines in growth and development, position structure, function and the common disorder caused by the following endocrine glands.

a. Pituitary b. Thyroid c. Parathyroid d. Adrenals e. Islets – Longerhans.

Chapter-9: Nervous System : Central nervous system – parts of the brain (name and position only) – structure of the spinal card.

Chapter-10: Physiology of exercise; mechanism of contraction and relaxation.

Detailed study of Structure of myofibril – the neuro muscular function – Fatigue – muscle Training – Warming up – conditioning.

Section : B

Body Mechanics And Kinesiology

Chapter-1 : Physical principles concerning Human Motion : Equilibrium, center of gravity, force- Contrifugal force – centripetal force – Energy work and its measurements-Efficiency- Motion-laws of motion-Friction – levers and its -Types and velocity.

Chapter-2 : Physicological principles concerning human motion-Warmingup-resistance-fatigue and performance, posture types of muscular contractions – application of physiological principles to the efficiency of human motion.

Chapter-3 : Basic mechanical principles underlying efficient movement, efficient movement, movement education, kinds or pattern of movement of objects – linear – Rotary – Curvilinear – Reciprocation pendulum – ballistic.

Application of mechanical principles of fundamental physical skills, running, hopping, jumping, leaping and landing, throwing and catching, striking, handling swinging and vaulting


Chapter-1: Introduction, Aims and Objectives:

Anatomic fundamentals – Terminology of various types of movements around joints –Brief description of the structure, physical capacities and movements of the joints. Structural variations and their effects on the human motion.

Chapter-2: Relation of function to structure, structural classification of muscle, relation of gravitational force to muscular action, muscular attachments – direction of pull – angle of pull – reversal of muscle’s customary function – two joint muscles.

Sessional Work

1. The Trunk : Sternocleido mastoid – leveator seapulae – Spenius – Erector spine – Rectus abdominus – external obligue – Internal oblique – Transversu abdominus – Quadratus Lumborum- Muscular analysis of the fundamental movements of the head and trunk.

2. shoulders : Muscles of the shoulder girdle and shoulder joint – Trapazius – Levator scapular rhomboidus – Serratus Anterior – Pectoralls minor – Deltoid Suprespinetus- Pectoralis major Latisimus Dorsi – Teres Major –infraspinatus – Teres minor – Subscoapularis – Biceps co- operative action of the shoulder joint and shoulder girdle – Muscular analysis of the fundamental movement of the arm at the shoulder girdle and shoulder joint.

3. Muscles of the elbow joint: Biceps Brachii – Pronator Teres – Brachioradialis – Brachialis – Triceps – Pronator Quadratus Supinator – Muscular Analysis of the forearm at the elbow joint.

4. HIP Joint : Psoas Major and Minor – lliacus poctineous Sartorius – Tensor fasical tac – Rectus Femoris – Somitondinesus – Semimembraneous – Biceps Femoris – Gluteus Maximus – Gluteus Medius – Gluteus Minimus – Abductor Magnus – Abductor Longus – Abductor Brevis Gracillis – The six deep outward rotators. Muscular analysis of the fundamental movements of the Thigh.

5. The Knee joint : Vastus Lateralis (Easternus) – Vastus Medialis (Internus) – Vastus intermedius – Popliteus – Biceps Femoris – Semimembranosus-Semitendiousus-Rectus Femoris- Gastrocnemius– Muscular Analysis of the fundamental movements of the leg at the knee-ankle and foot.

6. Application of Kinesiology in sports activities teaching of natural movements.

Health Education

Chapter-1: Definition of Health Education, Factors influencing on health Hereditary, habits and environment – physical health, Mental Health, - Psycho Physical unity – personal hygiene – Nutrition – Constituents balanced diet, Caloric Value – Habits.

Chapter-2: Co-ordinated school health programme – health services – health instruction supervision of health maintenance of school defects and common diseases of the school going children – AIDS – Hepatitus.

Sessional work: i. Administration of school health programme – Charts ii. Inspecting of health in school. iii. Records, charts etc., of Anatomy and Physiology

Section: C

Organization And Administration

Chapter-1 : Meaning and scope of organisation and administration, objectives of organisation, guiding polices of administration, guiding principles of organization of physical education programme.

Chapter-2: Organisation at different levels : The physical education department set up in i. School, ii. College and iii. University-scheme of organisation at National, State, District, Taluk and Village levels for non school going population.

Chapter-3: Facilities and standards : Physical education plant:

i. Play Grounds-Gymnasium, Swimming Pools Construction and Maintenance
ii. Equipment Purchase, Supplies, care and unkeep.
iii. Leadership-Tranded and class teachers, pupil leaders: Teaching load- Qualifications, Responsibilities, duties and professional ethics
of physical education teachers.

Chapter-4 : Programming : Needs and characterisation of Elementary school, high school and college students-elementary school

programme - Junior High School Programme - Senior High School
Programme - College programme-Place of competitions in the
Programme - improvise programmes - Programmes evaluation.

Chapter-5: Time table : Principles and factors influencing time table-types of physical education periods and time allotment for them as well as intramurals, Extramurals and special programmes like play days, demonstration and exhibition Maintenance of records and registers.

Chapter-6: Finance : Budget - income and Expenditure - rules regarding Expenditure – preparation and administration of budgets – accounting and auditing.

Chapter -7 : Organization and conducting tournament and competitions tournaments

1.Simple elimination seeding etc.
2.Double elimination for consolidation
3.League Types
4.League Cum Knock cut
6. Spider

Chapter -8: Intramurals : Need and importance-objectives-Methods of grouping-Rules; fixtures, conduct and awards and incentives. Extramurals : Place of extramurals-section and coaching of game care participation, safe guarding the health.

Chapter-9: Presentation techniques-Introudction, scope and importance preparation presentation and organization of subject matter class management-personal and technicalpreparation. Methods of teaching-meaning of methods-factors influencing method-methods of teaching –Criteria for judging method

Chapter-10 : Lesson Planning – Types of lesson plans and preparation of notes of lesson-Demonstration lessons.


Chapter-11 : Meaning,definition, need, scope and importance of supervision in physical education-guiding principles of supervision supervisior, his relationship with the administrator and physical education teacher-functions of the supervisor, administrative duties, facilities,equipment and supplies, instruction and professional growth-qualities and qualifications of good supervisor

Chapter-12: Methods or Techniques of supervision-

a. Visits-Purpose types, planning
b. Demonstrations
c. Conference and meetings
d. Inservice training
e. Workshop
f. Seminars
g. Bulletins and circulars
h .Course of study
i. Surveys
j. Evaluation measures

Chapter-13 : Curriculum-Need and Importance-Principles of Curriculum of planning-preparation and development of physical activity syllabus.

Tests In Physical Education

Chapter-1: Characteristics of a Good Test, Terminology and Classification of Tests.

Chapter-2: Methods of scoring, tests, sources of unreliability in test, measures of increasing reliability, analysis of some existing tests.

Chapter-3: What is Physical Fitness? Cardio Anthropometric Measurements, Physical Fitness test, Cardio Vascular Test, General motor Ability Tests, Skill Tests, knowledge tests rating scales.

Chapter-4: Development of tests and measurements in India. Collection and treatment of date to develop measuring device

Measurements In Physical Education

Chapter-5: Elementary Statistical Methods : The Frequency distribution, Measures of Central Tendency, Quartiles and Percentiles Measures of variability Reliability and correlation (Pearsons) Elementary Graphical Methods – Frequency polygon, Column Diagram (Histogram) Bar Diagram. Ogive (Cumulative frequency Graph), Normal Probability Curve, Skewness.

Chapter-6: Development of Measurement of physical education

Advanced Coaching

Psychology of Coaching

1. Qualities and qualifications of a good Coach

2. Coaching of individual in activities with reference to

a. Fundamental skills – Strategies – Offensive and defensive – Scouting – Rating and selection of a player
b. Leader up games
c. Positional play
d. Team Techniques
e. Selection of a team
f. Discipline, control and management of terms g. Coaching camps


Ground and equipments (construction and maintenance of all play areas including track & field)

1. Marking

2. Officiating System – Positioning – Hand Signals

3. Method of scoring and score sheets

4. Field work-officiating in local meets under supervision – evaluation of work charts.

Rules of games and officiating of the following games and sports :

A. Men & Women

  1. Track and Field
  2. Cricket
  3. Football
  4. Hockey
  5. Handball
  6. Basketball
  7. Volleyball
  8. Softball
  9. Kabaddi
  10. Kho-Kho
  11. Tennis
  12. Table-Tennis
  13. Badminton
  14. Ball – Badminton
  15. Teni-Koit
  16. Aquatics
  17. Combatives

B. Origin and development of each game:

Test-14: Telugu

Section A


Studied Under Part-1 (B) Telugu : Prachina Padya bhagamu, Adhunika Padya Bhagamu, Novel and Grammer

Section B


Studied Under Part-1 (B) Telugu : Prachina Padya Bhagamu, Adunika Padya Bhagamu, Gadya Bhagamu, Drama, Alankaras, Grammer and Essay

Section C

Paper-II (History of Literature) and paper III (History of Telugu language, Grammar and Dialects) Studied under part II Telugu of B.A.

Test - 15: Zoology

Section –A

Biology of Invertebrates and Cell Biology

1.General Characters and classification of Major Invertebrate phyla with examples upto orders

2. Protozoa i) Polystomella -type study, ii) Trypanosoma life cycle only.

3. Porifera: Canal system, Histology & Spicules

4.Coelenterata: i) Obelia type study, ii) Polymorphism in Siphonophora, iii) Corals and Coral reef formation

5. Helminths - Fasciola - Detailed type Study

6. Annelida - i) Metamorphism, Comparative study of the following systems of Leech and Nereis,External Characters, Digestive System, Reproductive System, Coelom and Coelomoducts.

7.Arthropoda: Comparative study of: External features-Appendages-Respiration-Circulation -Excretion of Palaemon and Scorpion, Peripatus structure and affinities.

8.Mollusca-i) External Characters of Pila and Fresh Water Mussel (Shell, Mantle Complex and Foot-Comparative study), ii) Pearl formation, iii) Torsion in gastropoda

9.Echinodermata: Starfish: detailed study

10.Hemichordata: Balanoglossus-External Features, Tornaria larva-Affinities of Hemichordata

11.Important Invertebrate larval forms: Amphiblastula, Ephyra larva, Trochophore, Nauplius,Zoea, Mysis, Veliger, Glochidium, Echinopluteus, Ophiopluteus, Auricularia and Doliolaria

Cell Biology

1.Ultra structure of Animal Cell

2.Structure and function of the following cell organelles (i) Plasma Membrane: Membrane, Transport of small molecules, Cell Junctions and Cell adhesion. (ii) Cytoskeleton. (iii) Golgi Complex, (iv) Lysosomes, (v) Role of mitochondria in cellular energy transactions. (vi) Chromosomes-Structure and type, Salivary gland chromosomes.

3.Microscopic techniques for the study of cells-fixation, sectioning, staining and preparation of microslide.

Biomolecules of the cell :


Classification of Carbohydrates, Structure of Monosaccharides(Glucose and Fructose), Structure of Disaccharides (Lactose, Sucrose and Maltose), Structure of Polysaccharides (Glycogen) Proteins and Amino acids: General properties, nomenclature, classification and structure, lassification of proteins based on peptide bond and structure (primary, secondatry, tertiary and quaternary structures. Lipids Classification.

Nucleic acids:

Watson and crick model of DNA – Nucleoside, Nucleotide, Structure of RNA, Types of RNA – r RNA, tRNA and mRNA

Section : B

A. Biology Of Chordates

1.General characters and outline classification upto the level of order.


a) Structure and Affinities of Amphioxus. b)Life history of an Ascidian.

(ii)Cyclostomata : General characters of cyclostomes and differences between Myxin and Petromyzon.

(iii) Comparative study of the following systems with reference to Scoliodon (pisces), Rana (Amphibia) Calotes (Reptilia), Columba (Aves) and Lagomorpha (Mammalia).

1.Skeletal system: skull of Reptiles, Aves and Mammals.

2.Respiratory system: Aquatic and Terrestinal animals.

3.Circulatory system: Heart and aortic arches comparative study.

4.Nervous system - Brain

General Topics: 1.Parental care in Amphibia, 2. Dentition in Mammals

Developmental Biology:

1.Gastrulation in Amphioxus, Frog and Chick.

2.Foetal membranes of chick,

3. Development of chick upto 24 hrs,

4. Placenta in Mammals (Formation and types)


1. Gene interaction with 3 examples,

2.Sex determination.

3.Sex linked inheritance.

4.Blood group inheritance.

5.Fine structure of gene. Concept of function of person gene. Cloning lethal genes.

6.Chromosomes and human diseases

C.Evolution And Zoo Geography:

1. Modern synthetic theory of Evolution, Mutations, Genetic basis of Evolution, Genetic Drift (Hardy Weinberg’s Law), Isolation and speciation.

2. Characteristics of the following Zoogeographic regions and their fauna.

1.Oriental Region, 2. Ethiopian Region, 3.Austraian Region

Section: C

Animal Physiology

Animal Physiology pertaining to

1. Nutrition: Types of nutrition in animals, Autotrophic, Heterotrophic, Vitamins and Minerals.

2. Digestion in Mammals.

3. Respiration: Brief account on types of respiratory mechanisms, respiratory pigments, gas transport with reference to mammals.

4. Circulation: Composition and functions of blood, Coagulation of blood: Myogenic and Neurogenic hearts, mammalian heart - structure and function, Blood pressure and its role and exchange of materials in capillaries.

5. Osmo-regulation: Pertaining to aquatic animals only.

6. Excretion: 1) Classification of animals based on end products of excretion. 2) Formation of nitrogen wastes, 3) Nephron : Structure and Function.

7. Nervous transmission: Structure of neuron, action potential, production and propagation of nerve impulse and synaptic transmission.

8. Muscle contraction

9. Endocrine glands: Pineal body, Hypophysis, Hypothalamus, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Thymus, Adrenal, Gut, Pancreas, Testis and Ovary-in mammals.

10. Hormonal control of reproduction in mammals.

11. Concept of Homeostasis.

B.Animal Behaviour

Taxis, reflexes, instinctive behaviour, motivated behaviour, learning, imprinting, habituation, classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning, trial and error learning, physiology and phylogeny of learning, biological rhythms - circadian, lunar and circannual rhythms.

C.Animal Ecology

1. Physico-chemical factors of the animal Environment: Temperature, light, pressure, atmospheric gases i.e., oxygen and carbondioxide, biogeochemical cycles: nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus cycles.

2. Animl community and Animal population: Ecosystems (Ecological succession, Ecological pyramids, energy flow in an ecosystem), Animal associations (Parasitism, Commensalism, Symbiosis, Environment and adaptive features of animals inhabiting, deep sea, cave, and desert.

3. Environmental pollution.

4. Wild life, wild life sanctuaries and national parks of India

Test-16 -5 Year Integrated Biotechnology and Bioinformatics / Earth Sciences

First and Second Year Intermediate Syllabus approved by Board of Intermediate Education, Government of A.P., Hyderabad

Section – A


Section – B


Section – C

Mathematics/Biology (Botany & Zoology)

Test-17: Fine Arts

Section – A

Early Civilization of India - Famous temples in Andhra Pradesh and India – Architectural monuments and locations – Historical places in Andhra Pradesh and India. –– Craft centers –Dance forms

Section – B

great masters during the period 7th century AD to 12th century A.D. and 13th Century A.D to 20th Century A.D– Social reformers – their contributions Tribal art centers of Andhra Pradesh and India – Indian Kings their art and architecture – locations – Artists of Andhra Pradesh

Section – C

Famous Telugu movies and Directors – Awards, Famous poets and novelists and writers and their works of Andhra Pradesh and in India. Sports personalities and Awards. – General knowledge.

Test-18: PG Diploma In Theatre Arts

No Written Examination– Oral Performance Test Will Be Conducted


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