- A. Post Graduate Courses (I. Faculties of Atrs and Social Sciences:)
- Ancient Indian History, Culture & Archaeology (AIHCA)
- Master Of Communication And Journalism(M.C.J.
- Bachelor Of Library & Information Science (B.L.I.Sc.) / Master Of Library & Information Science (M.L.I.Sc.) 2 years Integrated Programme
- Islamic Studies
- Master Of Library And Information Science (M.L.I.SC.) (One Year Programme).
- Master Of Social Work(M.S.W.)
- Political Science
- Public Administration
- Theatre Arts
- A. Post Graduate Courses (II. Faculties of Commerce:)
- A. Post Graduate Courses (III. Faculties of Education:)
is conducted by Osmania University for admissions into various PG, PG diploma and Five year Integrated Programmes offered by Osmania, Telangana, Mahatma Gandhi and Palamuru Universities. Directorate of Admissions, OU has been successfully carrying out the gigantic task of conducting entrance tests and admissions to various courses offered by Osmania, Palamuru, Telangana and Mahatma Gandhi Universities and their affiliating institutions since 2000-2001 academic year.
A. Post Graduate Courses (I. Faculties of Atrs and Social Sciences:)
Ancient Indian History, Culture & Archaeology (AIHCA)
Part – A: (40 Marks)
Fundamentals of Indian Archaeology, Indian Art and Architecture
Part – B: (60 Marks)
Indian History from the earliest time to the present day including political, social, economic, religious and cultural aspects.
Part – A (40 Marks)
Grammar : The following topics: Kalima, Aqsam-ai-Kalima, Fail, Aqsama-ai-fail, Jumla ismia wa Failia, Murakkab Idafi, Murakkab Touseefi, Mubtada Khabar, Wahed, Tasnia Jama Muzakkar and Muannas, Zameer Zarf Zaman and Makan, Huroof Jarra. (Book prescribed: al-Nahwu-Al- Wadihatul Ibtedauya
Part–I Translation from the prescribed text book, Duroos-al-Lugha, al Arabia (Part-II by Dr. V.Abdur Raheem.)
Part – B (60 Marks)
Prose: I. The Prose book “Duroos-ul-Lughtil Arabiya Part II by Dr. V. Abdur Raheem
II. The following five surahs: Wadhuha, Insherah, Teen, Zilzal and Qadar
Poerty: 10 Poems: 1. Fazl-al-Lugath; 2. Al-Tair; 3.An-Naseedul-Mudarari; 4.Al-Kitab; 5.Unshudu Al-Sabah; 6.Nasheed Al-Kashafa; 7.Al-Zahiar; 8.Al-Tabiah; 9.Tahyi Al-Maktab; 10.Al- ustaz wal alwalid. History of Arabic Literature: Pre-Islamic Period: 1.Mazaya-al-Lugha-al-Arabia; 2.Al-Muallaqa- al-Saba; 3.Khasais Al-Shair Al-Jahili; 4.Tadween-al Quraan; 5.Mumayyizat Khitabat al Asr Jahili; 6.Mumayyizat Khitabad Asr Al-Khulfa Al-Rashideen.
Master Of Communication And Journalism(M.C.J.
Part – A (40 Marks)
Comprehension of a passage : (10 marks)
Sentence Construction : (5 marks)
Identifying Grammatical Errors :(5 Marks)
Spelling : (5 marks)
Antonyms and Synonyms : (10 marks
Logic and Reasoning : (5 marks)
Part – B (60 Marks)
Media Awareness : (20 Marks)
Current Affairs : (20 Marks)
General Awareness : (10 Marks)
Words Frequently used in Media : (10 Marks)
Bachelor Of Library & Information Science (B.L.I.Sc.) / Master Of Library & Information Science (M.L.I.Sc.) 2 years Integrated Programme
Part – A: (40 Marks)
Books, Periodicals, Reasoning, Mental Ability and Arithmetic: News Papers & Periodicals – their place of publication; Books – subjects, Books – Authors; Verbal Reasoning, Mental Ability; and General Arithmetic, Quantitative Ability.
Part – B (60 Marks)
General Knowledge, Awareness, and Current Affairs: Popular and Technical Terms in various fields – their subject and meaning; Famous Persons – their Specialization, filed of activity, Awards, honours etc.; Learned Regional, National and International Institutions, Societies, Associations – their location, activities, etc.; Current Affairs and Events – Regional, National and International (Social, Political, Economic, etc); sports and games – terms, specifications, rules and persons etc.; Geographical locations, names and terms – cities, countries, rivers, mountains, parks, forests, capitals, etc. Inventions, Discoveries, Explorations, etc.; and Questions relating to specific subjects – Arts, Social Sciences & Sciences (Literature, Economics, Medicine, Physics, Engineering, etc.
Part-A: (40 Marks)
Indian Economy and Economic Development: Meaning of Economic Growth & Development, Measures of Economic development – GNP PCI PQLI and HDI, Factors influencing economic development- Balanced and unbalanced growth. Choice of Techniques, Concept of Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth, Structure of the Indian Economy: Basic features; Natural resources Land, water and forest resources; Basic Demographic features – Growth of population – Rural and Urban population, Occupational distribution of population – distribution; National Income in India – Trends and composition Poverty and unemployment; Current Five year plan – Objectives and Allocation of Resources; L P G Policies in India. Indian Agriculture: Nature and importance, Trends in Agricultural area, Production and productivity; Factors determining Productivity; Irrigation; New agricultural strategy; Agricultural marketing and prices; Rural Credit- Micro Finance and SHGs. The problem of food security; Industry and Services; Structure Growth and employment of Industry; Industrial policies of 1956 and 1991, Growth and Problems of small scale industries, Foreign Capital and Aid, FEMA, Disinvestment policy in India –FDI; Growing importance of service sector in India – Education and Health. Telangana State Economy: Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) – Trends and Composition; Demographic features, Agriculture – Land Utilisation, Cropping pattern and irrigation; Industry – Growth structure and employment of Industry; Poverty and Unemployment in Telangana State; Service sector in Telangana State.
Part-B: (60 Marks)
Micro Economics: Introduction: Nature, Definition and Scope of Economics – Methodology in Economics – Micro and Macro; Static and Dynamic, Normative and positive, Inductive and Deductive Analysis, Partial and General Equilibrium – Choice as an economic problem.Consumer Behaviour; Utility Analysis – Cardinal and Ordinal Approaches – Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility, Law of Equi-Marginal Utility, Indifference-Curves – Properties of indifference curves – Price (Budget) line – Equilibrium of the consumer with the help of indifference curves, Consumption Curve and Income Consumption Curves – Derivation of Demand Curve from Indifference Curves. Demand Analysis – Law of Demand, Elasticity of Demand – Price, Income and Gross elasticity; Demand forecasting – meaning and factors influencing demand – Consumer surplus – Engel curve, Theory of Production and Costs: Objectives of a firm – Production function – Cobb-Douglas Production function – Isoquant – Factor Substitution – Law of variable proportions, Law of Returns to Scale – Expansion path – Different Concepts of Revenue and Costs and their interrelationship Equilibrium of the firm – Break – Even analysis. Market Structure: Markets forms – Perfect and imperfect markets, Perfect Competition – Price Determination – Equilibrium of a firm and industry under perfect competition – Monopoly – Price determination under monopoly – Price discrimination – Monopolistic competition – Price determination. Oligopoly (Kincked demand curve). Factors Pricing: Marginal productivity theory of distribution – Theories of wage determination – Wages and collective bargaining, Minimum Wage – Rent – Scarcity rent; Differential rent – Quasi rent. Interest – Classical and Neo- Classical theories, Profit – Dynamic, Innovations, Risk and Uncertainty theories.
Macro Economics: National Income: Meaning, Definition and Importance of Macro Economics – National Income; Meaning, Definitions; National Income, GNP & NNP, GDP, Personal Income (PI), Disposable Income (DI), Per Capita Income (PCI), Real National Income (RNI) – Methods of Estimation of National Income (NI) – Measurement of National Income and trends in India: Simple Numerical illustrations. Theories of Employment: Classical theory of employment- Say’s law of markets – Keynesian theory of employment – Consumption function – APC, MPC, APS & MPS, factors influencing consumption – Investment function MEC and Rate of Interest and the concept of Multiplier – Accelerator with simple Numerical illustrations. Money – Gresham’s Law – R.B.I. Classification of Money– M1, M2, M3, M4, Theories of Money – Fisher’s quantitytheory of Money, Cambridge approach (Marshall and Keynes), Liquidity preference. Trade Cycles and Inflation: Trade cycles – Meaning and definition – Phases of a trade cycle – Inflation – Concept & Measurement of Inflation. Types of Inflation – Causes and effects of inflation – Measures to control inflation & Recession. Elements of Financial System: Banking, Basic concepts, Functions of Commercial banks – The process of credit creation – Concept of Non Banking Finance Companies (NBFCs) – Functions of the Reserve Bank of India – Methods of Credit control – Quantitative and Qualitative Methods – Concept of Stock Market – Meaning, functions and importance of Stock Market – Primary and Secondary Markets. Concepts of (a) Shares (b) Debentures, Role of SEBI in regulation of Stock Market, Insurance – Types of Insurance –Life Insurance and General Insurance
Part-A (40 Marks)
Vocabulary (Antonyms, Synonyms, Single word substitutes), Grammar, Correction of sentences (Spotting the error), Spelling.
Part-B (60 Marks)
History of Literature, Literary terms, Authors and Books, General Awareness of Literature in English.
Part-A (40 Marks)
Spelling of Words, Correct form of sentences, Basic Grammar (Gender, Case, Tense Number), Meaning of the words.
Part-B (60 Marks)
History of Hindi Literature; Basic Hindi Grammar (Theory); Hindi, Prose, Poetry and Fiction etc; General Awareness about Hindi Language and Literature.
Part – A: (40 Marks)
History of Modern Europe ( 1789 – 1960 A.D.) : Introduction : Brief outlines of Renaissance, Reformation, Geographical Discoveries, Rise of Nation States; French Revolution : Causes – Course – Constitutional Assembly – National Convention – Directory – Effects of the Revolution; Emergence of Napoleon Bonaparte – Expansion – Consolidation and Downfall; Vienna Congress – Concert of Europe – Metternich – Revolutions of 1830 – 1848; The Industrial Revolution – its effects ; Second Republic in France – Napoleon III – Paris Commune – The Rise of III French Republic; National Movements : Unification of Italy, Unification of Germany; Liberalism and Democracy in Britain; The Eastern Question – Crimean War – Berlin Congress; Revolution in Turkey – Balkan wars; Scramble for African and Asian Colonies – Theories and Mechanisms of Imperialism; Power blocks in Europe – Imperial Rivalry – Causes and System; First World War – Causes and Effects – Treaty of Versailles; Russian Revolution 1917 – Causes and Significance; World under Economic crisis – Great Depression and Recovery; Rise of Fascism and Nazism; League of Nations – Achievements and Failures; Second World War – Causes, Course and Effect; Post Second World War Developments – U.N.O. – Cold War – Rise of third block.
Part B : (60 Marks)
History and Culture of India up to 1950 A.D.
Unit 1: Introduction to History – Influence of Geography on History – Survey of the Sources- Pre-Historic period – Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic Cultures – Role of Technology. Indus Valley Civilization – Its Characteristic Features – Vedic Culture – Early and Later Vedic Periods – Post-Vedic period – Emergence of Varna and Jati – Rise of New Religious Movements – Jainism and Buddhism in 6th Century B.C. Impact on Society and Culture. Unit2: A Brief Survey of Political Conditions in Ancient Indian – Magadha, Alexaunder’s Invasion and Mauryas – Ashoka’s Dhamma, Its Nature and Propagation – Mauryan Administration, Society and Economy – Art and Architecture. Unit 3: Post-Mauryan period in North India – A Brief Political Survey of Kushans, Guptas, Pushyabuthi and Rajputs: Polity and Administration – Social Conditions – Caste System – Position of Women – Economy, Indian Feudalism – Art - Architecture – Education, Literature, Philosophy, Science and Technology. Unit 4: A Brief Political Survey of South India – Sangam Age – Satavahanas – Pallavas – Cholas – Chalukyas and Rastrakutas – Kakatiyas and Vijayanagara: Polity and Administration, Society, Economy Art, Architecture and Literature. Unit 5: Invasions of Arabs, Ghaznavids and Ghoris and Delhi Sultanate – A Brief Political Survey of Delhi Sultanate Polity and Administration, Reforms of Allauddin and Mohd. Bin Tuglaq. Society, Nobility – Status of Women, Economics and Technological Developments. Agriculture – Industry – Trade and Commerce – Urbanization, Art and Architecture – Fine Arts – Education and Literature. Unit 6: Impact of Islam on Indian Society and Culture – Bhakti and Sufi Movements – Emergence of Composite Culture. Unit 7: Survey of Sources – Establishment of Mughal Empire – Shershah Sur – Brief Survey of Political History up to A.D. 1707 – Polity and Administration – Society – Social Composition – Ulema – Nobility – Peasantry – Artisans – Slaves – Status of Women – Economy: Agriculture Industries, Trade and Commerce – Economic and Technological Developments. Religion – Hindu-Muslim Relations – Composite Culture. Education, Literature, Art, Architecture and Fine Arts. Decline and Disintegration of Mughal Empire – Rise of Regional Powers – Marathas and Sikhs. Unit 8: Advent of European Powers – Portugese, Dutch, English and French Expansion and Consolidation of British Empire – Wars – Diplomacy – Policies Pursued – Subsidiary Alliance – Doctrine of Lapse; Economics Policies and Changes – Mercantilism and Free Trade Policies – Land Revenue Settlements – permanent – Ryotwari – Mahlawari Systems – Irrigation – Commercialization of Agriculture – Condition of Peasants – Famines – Decline of Cottage Industries. Unit 9: Anti-colonial Upsurge – Peasant and Tribal Revolts, Revolt of 1857 – Causes – Nature and Results. Unit 10: Factors for Social Change – Christian Missionaries – Western Education – Emergence of New Middle Classes – Growth of Press – Socio-Religious Reforms Movements – Brahma Samaj – Arya Samaj – Theosophical Society – Ramakrishna Mission – Aligarh Movement – Jyotiba Phule – Narayana Guru, Periyar’s Self-Respect Movement – Dr.B.R Ambedkar. Unit 11: National Movement – Factors for the Growth of Nationalism – Indian National Congress – Three Phases of Freedom Struggle – Revolutionary Movements – Left Wing Movements – Peasant and Workers Movements. Unit 12: Emergence of Communal Trends – Partition of India – Integration of Princely states into Indian Union – Formation of Indian Republic.
Part – A (40 Marks)
1. Fundamental beliefs and practices of Islam. Prophethood, Revelation. Compilation of the Qur’ an. Economic, Political and Ethical teachings of the Qur’ an. Hadith: Definition, Compilation and types of Hadith. 2. Source of Islamic Law, Schools of Islamic Law, Marriage, Dissolution of marriage, Inheritance
Part – B (60 Marks)
3. Pre-Islamic Arabia: Geo-political, Social and religious conditions. Life of the Prophet and Early caliphate. 4. The Umayyads and the Abbasids: Administration, Society, Contribution to Science, Literature, Fine Arts & Architecture, Petty Dynasties. 5. Concepts of Ummah, Khilafah and
Imamah. Muslim Philosophy: Mutalzilities, Asharites. Sufism: Origin and development. Sufis and Sufi orders.
Part-A (40 Marks)
Finding of correct form of words and sentences, meanings of words, basic grammar and composition.
Part-B (60 Marks)
History of Literature, Literary works and authors, grammar, Prosody and general awareness about the language.
Part – A (40 Marks)
Popular ideas and beliefs about language. Countries/States and their official languages. Languages and the scripts in which they are written. Names of the language families to which a given language belongs to. Largest/Second largest spoken language in a country/region. Awareness of language related subjects. Famous authors of the world and the language in which they wrote/have been writing. World famous books and the language in which they are written. General English: awareness of English alphabets and the sounds they represent, spelling, basic knowledge of English grammar, synonyms and antonyms.
Part – B: (60 Marks)
This section consists of 60 bits based on the natural/hypothetical language data to test the Analytical ability of the candidate.
Part-A: (40 Marks)
History of Marathi Literature.
Part-B: (60 Marks)
Forms of Literature: Poetry, Short Story, Novel, Drama, Essay, Biography, Autobiography.
Master Of Library And Information Science (M.L.I.SC.) (One Year Programme).
Part – A (40marks)
1. Library Classification 2. Library Cataloguing 3. Library Management
Part – B (60 Marks)
1. Reference and Information Sources and Services 2. Library and Society 3. Introduction to Computers.
Master Of Social Work(M.S.W.)
Part – A (40 Marks)
Social Work profession, philosophy and concepts social science concepts for social workers:
- Nature, scope and definition of social work, goals of social work developmental/ promotion/ remedial/ameliorative. Values of social work profession, social welfare, social services, social development and social change.
- Evolution of social work in India – religious roots of charity and philanthropy: role of traditional institutions such as joint family, caste and panchayat.
- Emergence of rationalistic and humanistic traditions, concepts of social reform: major social reform movements in India.
- Fundamentals rights and duties under the Indian constitution- directive principles of state policy, role of social work in relation to human rights and social justice.
- Professional commitment and code of conduct for social workers.
- Basic psychological processes- motivation, perception, learning, adjustments, attitudes, stereo types, prejudice, etc. Personality, stages of human developments-prenatal and postnatal stages.
- Society and culture, process and socialization, agencies of socialization, social control, social deviance, social groups social inequality and social stratification, urban, rural and tribal society,social change.
- Origin and development of the state role of the state in social welfare.
- Relationship between economics and social work, economics of under development, role of state in planning and economic development, relationship of anthropology to social work, social and economic development programme for tribal.
- Social science concepts for social work: community development and modernization, definitions and processes, minorities- demographic
and socio economic characteristics-the politics of minority status, human diversity and modern society.
Part - B (60 Marks)
Social work intervention – methods, strategies and fields of social work practice:
- Social group work as a method of a social work specified objectives, values and principles of social group work. Types of groups process of group work, approaches and models in group work practice – therapeutic/social treatment, development group and task-oriented group.
- community organization as a method of intervention and its scope: definition and principles of community organization.
- Meaning and scope of social action, social action as a technique and method of social work.
- Social work research, social work research process, tools of social work research.
- Introduction, scope and need to different fields i.e. family and child welfare.
- Medical social work – concept of health and illness, relationship between body and mind and psychological components in Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and other social diseases and conditions. Psychiatric social work, community health and health education, role of group workers in working with mentally and physically challenged.
- Urban and rural community development – programmes of urban and rural community development,
- Criminology and correctional administration – social legislation, role of correctional social worker in prison.
- Weaker sections development, definition of weaker section, programs and services of weaker sections. 10. Labour welfare and personnel management.
Part-A: (40 Marks)
Part-B: (60 Marks)
Life histories of the following Poets and Authors: Rudaki, Firdausi, Unsari, Nizami, Attar, Rumi,Khayyam, Amir Khusro, Saidi, Hafiz, Iqbal, Chahar Maqala by Nizami aroozi Samarqerndi, Anwar-e-soheli by Mulla Waiz Kashif. Translation: Lessons prescribed for second language.
Part – A (40 Marks)
- Definition of Philosophy – Different branches of Philosophy Introduction to Greek Philosophy
- Characteristics of Indian Philosophy – Vedas, Upanishads and Bhagvad Gita.
- Definition, nature and scope of Ethics. Moral concepts – Relation of Ethics to Religion and Politics.
- Definition, scope and value of logic – knowledge and its sources – Forms of knowledge – The uses of logic.
Part – B (60 Marks)
- Problem of substance –problem of Being and Becoming sophists – Socrates and his method – Plato and his theory of ideas – Aristotle and his theory of causation.
- Modern Western Philosophy – Rationalism of Descartes, Spinoze and Leibnitz. Empiricism of Locke, Berkeley and Hume. Synthesis of rationalism and empiricism in Kant.
- Hegal’s Dialectical method. Marxian approach to History. Existentialism – Linguistic analysis and Pragmatism.
- Carvaka Philosophy, Buddhism and Jainism. Sankhya and Yoga School of Thought
- Nyaya and Vaisesika’s theory of knowledge. Mimamas and Vedanta School of Philosophy
- Ethics of Bhagavad Gita – Ashramadharmas – Doctrine of Purusharthas – Ethics of Gandhi – Concept of Ahimsa and Satyagraha.
Part-A: (40 Marks)
Political Thought:1. Ancient Indian Political Thought: a) Sources of Ancient Indian Political Thought b) Manu: Varnadharma and Dandaneeti c) Kautilya: State and Society d) Goutama Budha: Dharma and Sangha. 2. Modern Indian Political Thought: a) Gandhi: Ahimsa and Satyagraha b) Nehru: Democratic Socialism c) Ambedkar: Annihilation of Caste d) M.N. Roy: Radical Humanism. 3. Western Political Thought: Plato, Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas, Machiavelli, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J Rousseau, Jermy Benthom, J.S. Mill, Hegel, Marx and Gramsci. International Relations: 1) International Relations: Evolution, Nature, Scope and Significance. 2) History of International Relations: Rise of Sovereign Nation State System. First World War, Second World War – Impact on International Relations. 3) Concepts of International Relations: Power – Elements of National Power, Cold War, Super Power, Regional Power, Unilateral Hegemony – Uni- Polarity, Bipolarity, Multipolarity & Security. 4) International Political Economy: i) Historical Overview: Colonialism, Decolonisation, Developing Nations and problems. ii) International Financial Institutions: World Bank, WTO Functions and Role iii) Globalisation and its Impact on Developing Nations. 5) International organizations: United Nations, Structure and Role, Need for revision of the charter, Regional Organisations, European Union, SAARC and ASEAN. 6) International Security: Arms Race,Arms Control and Disarmament, Issues in Nuclear Politics. 7) Foreign Policy: India’s Foreign Policy, Determinants and Features, Non-Alignment, Evaluation and Relevance – Recent Trends. 8) Contemporary Issues in International Relations: Environment, Human Rights and Terrorism.
Part-B : (60 Marks):
Political Science Concepts, Theories and Institutions:
1. Introduction: Definition, Scope and Importance of Political Science.
2. Approaches to the Study of Political Science: Liberal and Marxist.
3. State: Nation and Civil Society.
4. Sovereignty: Monism and Pluralism.
5. Theories of Origin of the State: Social Contact and Evolutionary (Historical).
6. Concepts:a) Law: Sources of Law and Concepts of Rule of Law. B) Liberty and Equality – Their Relationship. C) Theories and kinds of Rights; Human Rights. d) Power and Authority.
7. Ideologies: Individualism, Anarchism, Fascism and Socialism.
8. Forms of Government: a) Democracy: Direct (Direct and Democratic Devices) and Indirect. b) Unitary and Federal c) Parliamentary and Presidential
9. Theory of Separation of Powers:
10. Organs of Government: a) Legislature: (i) Unicameral and Bi-cameral (ii) Powers and Functions b) Executive: (i) Powers and Functions c) Judiciary: (i) Powers and Functions (ii) Independence of Judiciary and Judicial Review.
Indian Government and Politics:
- Salient Features of Indian Constitution: A Comparative Perspective with the Constitutions of UK, USA and Switzerland
- Evolution of Indian Constitution – Nationalist Movement and Philosophical Foundations
- Indian Federation – Centre – State Relations – Recent Trends
- Fundamental Rights and Duties, Constitutional Remedies with special reference to writs - Directive Principles of State Policy
- President – Election, Powers and Functions – Prime Minister and Council of Ministers
- Parliament-Composition, Powers and Functions
- Judiciary-Supreme Court, Composition, Powers, Functions and Judicial Review – Judicial Activism
- Party System: National and Regional Parties; Coalitional Politics
- Election Commission – Electoral Reforms and Voting behaviour
- State Government – Governor, Chief Minister and Council of Ministers- Powers and Functions
- Social and Economic Factors – Language, Religion, Caste and Regional Identities
- Social Movements: Agrarian, Working Class, Women, Tribal, Dalit and Environmental
- Challenges to National Integration – Communalism and Terrorism 14.Local Government Institutions – 73rd & 74th Constitutional Amendments.
Part – A (40 Marks)
- Introduction: The Nature of Modern Psychology-psychological conception of Man-Branches of Psychology. Methods of Psychology-Experimental method, observation of method, case study method; survey method.
- Biological basis of behaviour: (a) Nervous system and its organization – The structure of neuron-Central nervous system-Brain and Spinal Cord-Localization of Brain functions-Autonomic nervous systems (b) Harmonal basis of behaviour-The major endocrine glands and their functions; Mechanisms of heredity – Chromosomes and genes. Influence of heredity and environment on behaviour.
- Sensation and perception (a) Sensory processes – vision, audition, Chemical senses, sense of equilibrium and kinesthetic sense (b) Perceptual processes: Principles of perceptual organization- Attention and perception-perception of space, perception of Movement-Perceptual constancies Illusions.
- Motivation: Psychological motives-psycho social motives – unconscious motivation – Maslow’s theory of motivation.
- Emotion: Primary emotions-Development of emotions – Psychological changes in emotion-Theories of emotions-James-Lange, Cannon-Bard and Schachter.
- Learning: Conditioning- Classical conditioning and operant conditioning-Cognitive learning-Motivation and learning-Transfer of training.
- Memory and Forgetting: Kinds of retention-Retrieval processs-Nature of forgettingImproving memory.
- Thinking: Concept formation-Reasoning: problem-solving-creative thinking.
- Development of Behaviour: Principles of development-stages in development-developmental tasks.
- Intelligence and Aptitude: Nature of Intelligence-Measurement of intelligence-Distribution of Intelligence-genetic basis of Intelligence-Theories of Intelligence-Sp; earman, Thurstone-Guilford- Aptitude-Aptitude tests.
Part – B (60 Marks)
- Personality: Approaches to the study of personality-Psychoanalytic – Behavioristic –Humanistic-Trait factor approach – Personality assessment.
- Psychology of Adjustment: Dynamics of Adjustment- Conflict-Frustration-Anxiety - Defense Mechanisms.
- Abnormal Behaviour: Neurotic Reactions: Anxiety reactions-Obsessive and compulsive reactions Phobias – Dissocitive reactions conversion
reactions - Neurotic Depression.
- Abnormal Behaviour, Psychotic reactions: Schizophrenia, Manic- depressive Psychosis, organic and toxic psychosis.
- Applications of Psychology-Educational Psychology, Clinical, organizational Psychology.
- Altered states of consciousness: Sleeping and dreaming-Hypnosis-Meditation –Drug induced states.
- Elementary Statistics: Frequency distribution- Measures of Central tendency-Measures of variability-Coefficient of Correlation.
- Nature of scope of Social psychology, Relation to General Psychology, Sociology and Anthropology, Methods of Social Psychology.
- Socialization: Some common features of all Societies-The Transformation of non-social neonate into social adult; problems involved in Socialization.
- Social norms, roles and status: Features of Social norms – formation of norms. Social role-Features-Social status, Social perception.
- Communication: Nature of Communication-Communication-process-Communication among animals, Mass media communication.
- Social motivation and Social incentives. Social drives,Need for affection. Dependences, aggression, self assertion, achievement motive, Social incentives- Rewards and punishment.
- Social attitudes: Importance of social attitudes-Distinctive features of social attitudes-Formation of attitude, Measurement; method of equal appearing intervals-Likert method of summated ratings-Method of social distance.
- Public Opinion: Basis steps in opinion formation-Guaging public opinion-Analysis of editorials: letters to the editors etc.
- Propagandas propaganda and education; propaganda and suggestion, techniques of propaganda.
- Prejudice: Stereotypes and social distance-Growth of Prejudice; Methods of reducing prejudice.
- Collective behaviour: Crowds; Blumer’s classification-Brown’s classification-a Mobs and audience. Characteristic of Mob behaviour-varying thresholds of mob behaviour, kinds of mobs. Audience, other mass phenomena Rumours and mass hysteria.
- Kinds and formation of groups. Kind of groups: Primary and Secondary, formal and informal, In groups and out-groups. Memberships groups and reference groups. Essential properties of small information groups. Group dynamics.
- Types of leaders. An experimental study of leadership-Important kinds of leadership-Authoritative and democratic leadership; Theories of leadership-Trait theories, Behavioristic Theories; Contingency theories.
Part-A Management Of Resources
I: Human Resources Management:
- Meaning, Nature, Scope and Significance of Human Resource Management
- Human Resource Strategy and Planning
- Recruitment, Selection, Appointment and Promotion
- Pay – Components, principles of Pay & Pay Commissions
II: Capacity Building:
- Performance Appraisal – Rewards and Incentives Management
- Human Resource Development-Concept of HRD; Training-Objectives, Types, Evaluation
- Employee Capacity Building Strategies and Total Quality Management
- Human Resource Management Effectiveness and Human Resource Audit
- Issues in HRM-Downsizing, Outsourcing, Consultancies
III: Financial Management:
- Meaning, Scope and Importance of Financial Management
- Budget-Concept, Principles of Budgeting; Preparation. Enactment and Execution
- Organization and functions of the finance Ministry
- Union-State Financial relations and the role of the Finance Commission
- Parliamentary Financial Committees-Public Accounts Committee, Estimates Committee and Committee on Public Undertakings and Comptroller and Auditor General of India
IV: Materials Management:
- Storage and Distribution
- Logistics Management
Part-B (1. Introduction To Public Administration)
- Meaning, Nature, Scope and importance of Public Administration
- State and Evolution of Public Administration
- Relationships with other Social Sciences: With special reference to Political Science, Economics, Sociology, Psychology
- Politics & Administration Dichotomy – Woodrow Wilson and F.J. Goodnow
II. Theories and Approaches:
- Classical Approach: Henri Fayol, Gulick and Urwick
- Scientific Management Approach: Taylor
- Bureaucratic Approach: Max Weber and Karl Marx
- Human Relations Approach-Elton Mayo
- Behavioural Approach-Herbert Simon
- Socio-Psychological Approach: Hierarchy of Needs: Abraham Maslow; Theory X and Theory Y: Doglas Mc Gregor
- Ecological Approach: Riggs
III. Concepts and Principles of Public Administration:
- Administrative Planning
- Leadership and Supervision
- Communication and Public Relations
IV. Emerging Trends:
- New Public Administration : Minnowbrook I & II
- Public Administration and Public Policy
- New Public Management
- Public Administration in the context of Globalization, Privatization and Liberalization
- Post Modern Public Administration
Part-B (2. Public Administration In India)
I. Historical Background:
- Evolution of Indian Administration – Ancient, Medieval and British Periods Continuity and Change in Indian Administration after Independence
- Context of Indian Administration-Social, Economic and Political
II. Central Administration:
- Union Government and Administration-President, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers, Central Secretariat, Cabinet Secretariat, Cabinet Committees and Prime Minister Office
- Union and State Relations and Agencies-Administrative Relations-Inter State Council, Finance Commission, All India Services. Planning Commission, National Development Council
- Public Enterprises in India: a) Forms of Public Enterprises: b) Privatization and Disinvestment
III. State and District Administration:
- State Government and Administration: Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, Secretariat & Directorates, General Administration Department and Chief Secretary.
- District Administration: Changing Role of District Collector, Mandal and Village Administration in Andhra Pradesh.
- Local Governments - Rural and Urban - Structure and functions – 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments.
IV. Administrative Accountability:
- Control over Administration:
a. Legislative and Judicial Control
b. Lok Pal, Lokayukta and Central Vigilance Commission
c. Consumer Protection Forums
d. Right to Information Act (RTI)
e. National and State Human Rights Commissions
- Administration of Welfare Programmes for Weaker Sections-SCs, STs, BCs Women and Minorities.
V. Emerging Issues:
- Administrative Reforms, Recommendations of important Commissions and Second ARC.
- Mechanisms for Disaster Management
- Governance and e-Governance Applications in Indian Administration
- Public Private Partnerships and Voluntary Sector
Part-A (40 Marks)
Declensions : Marking the correct declensional form as indicated, Marking the correct Vibhakti as indicated, Conjugation : Marking the correct Tinganta verbal forms, Marking the correct lakara-tense and mood. Samasas – Compounds : Marking the correct vigrahvakya, Marking the correct samasas against given vigrahavakya.
Part-B: (60 Marks)
Sandhis: Joining the words, Disjoin the sandhis. Kridantas: Marking the correct Kridanta form. Alankaras: Identify alankara, Define alankara. History of Literature: Identifying the poet. Identifying the text.
Part-A: (60 Marks)
Principles of Sociology: Sociology-Definition, Nature and Scope-Its relation to the other Social Sciences-Economics, Psychology, Anthropology, History and Political Science. A brief introduction-Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Durkheim, Weber and Karl Marx. Human societyIts
nature, characteristics and functions-Individual and society-Socialization, its meaning- process and agencies-theories of Socialization-Cooley, Mead and Frued-Culture and personality; Social structure and organization: Social groups, (Primary & Secondary, Formal & Informal, In and out groups); Institutions, Associations and Communities, Role, Status, Norms, Values, Power and Authority; Social disorganization and social control-Agencies of Social control; Heredity and environment-their influence on the individual-Nature and social selection and social heritage; Social Interaction-Associative and Disassociative Social Processes, Cooperation, Accommodation, Assimilation, Acculturation and Integration and Competition and Conflict; Forms and functions of Social Stratification-Caste, Class and Status groups. Indian Society: Indian Society-Racial, Linguistic, Culture and religious divisions; Hindu forms of Marriage, Nature of Family-Status of Women in Hindu Society; Social Organization of Minorities- Muslims, Christians and others-their marriage and family patterns; Indian Tribes-Major forms of their social and religious organizations-Clan, Kinship, Marriage, Family: Social problems- Casteism, Untouchability, Dowry, Poverty, Unemployment, Beggary, Crime, Delinquency, Prostitution, Alcoholism and Communal tensions, Child Labour, Environmental problems and violence against women; Social change in modern India-Sanskritization, Westernization and Modernization.
Part-B: (40 Marks)
Social Anthropology: Definition and Meaning of Anthropology, Nature and Scope of Anthropology, Divisions of Anthropology and their relationship, Social Anthropology-Definition, Nature, Scope and its relationship with other Social Sciences; Definition and concept of Culture, Characteristics of Tribal Society, Difference between Tribal and Non-Tribal Societies; Family, Marriage and Kinship: Definition, Characteristics and functions, Ways of acquiring mates and forms of Marriage; Definition, Characteristics and functions of family. Types of Family; Definition of kinship and Kinship Terminology: Kinship group lineage, Clan, phratry and Moiety; Tribal Economy: General features of Tribal Economy. Forms of Tribal Economy, Reciprocity, Redistribution and Exchange; Political Organization: General features of Tribal Polity. Forms of Tribal Political Organization. Tribal law and Justice; Religious Organization: Definition, Forms and Functions of Religion. Definition, Forms and Functions of Magic. Relationship between Religion, Magic and science. Tribes of India: Geographical distribution of Tribes in India. Racial and Linguistic classification of Indian Tribes Socio-Economic features of Indian Tribes; Tribal welfare: Culture contract and Allied problems. Policy towards tribes in Pre-independent Indian Constitutional safeguards for tribes. Tribes in Andhra Pradesh–A board outline. Tribal Development in India and Andhra Pradesh.
Part-A: (40 Marks)
Eluthu, Chol, Porul, Correct the sentence.
Part-B: (60 Marks)
Aathi Choodi, Thirukkural, Periya Puranam, General Knowledge (Pertaining to Tamil language cum literature)
Part-A: (40 Marks)
- Vibhakti Prathyayalu
Part-B: (60 Marks)
- Sahitya Vimarsha
- Sahitya Charithra
- Prasidda ullekhanalu
Part – A (40 Marks)
- World Theatre – History and Development of World Theatre (Greek, Britain, German, France, Japan, Russian, Poland, American)
- Sanskrit Theatre – The History of Sanskrit Theatre, Major Playwrights and their contribution.
Part – B (60 Marks)
- Folk Theatre Forms of Andhra Pradesh – Major and Marginal folk forms of A.P. with special reference to Veedhi Natakam, Burra Katha, Oggu Katha and Puppetry.
- (a) Telugu Theatre: History and development of Telugu Theatre (1860 to upto date) – Major Playwrights, Plays, Associations, Actors, Directors and their contribution. i) Origin of Telugu Theatre, ii) Padya Natakam (Musical Theatre), iii) Modern Telugu Theatre and iv) Modern Street Theatre
(b) Indian Theatre.
Part-A (40 Marks)
|1. Tawheed||By Nazeer Akbarabadi|
|2. Mustaqbil||By Akber Allahabadi|
|3. Funoon-e-Latifa||By Allama Iqbal|
|4. Baarish||By Zafar Ali Khan|
|5. Preet Ka Geet||By Hafeez Jalandhari|
|6. Aay Shareef Insaanau||By Sahir Ludhyanavi|
|7. Ab ek Baras||By Shaaz Tamkanat|
|1. Hikayaat By Mazhar Ali Vila||– Chand Muntaqab Hikayat|
|2. Drama By Imtiaz Ali Taaj & Begum Qudsia Zaida-||Talash|
|3. Safarnama By Saleha Abed Hussain –||Hindustan Jannat Nishan|
|4. Swaneh By Khaja Altaf Hussain Hali-||Mirza Ghalib Ke Aqlaq-o-Adab|
|5. Inshaiya By Mushtaq Ahmed Yousufi –||Padhye Gar Beemr|
|6. Afsana By Qur-atul-ain Hyder-||Yeh Ghazi yeh-tere purasrar Bande|
|7. Khaka By Mujtaba Hussain-||Sulaiman Areeb.|
|1. Quli Qutub Shah||1. Suno Aaqilan Sab Ke Dunai Hai Fani 2. Meri Sanwli manki piyari dise|
|2. Walideccani||1. Pi ke hote Na Kar Too Mah Ki Sana 2. Sajan ke bad Aalam mein Dagar nain.|
|3. Siraj Aurangabadi||1. Mujhku Ek dam kharar Nain Hargis 2. Jo Tere gham ki Tamanna Na Kiya|
|4. Meer Taqi Meer||1. Koei Nahin Jahan Mein Jo Andhogeen nahin 2. Hum se tuk Aage Zaman-e-mein Huwa Kya Kya Kuch|
|5. Hyder Ali Aatish||1. Soon To Sahi Jahan Mein Hai Tera Fasana Kya 2. Khusha wa dil ke ho jis dil mein Aarzoo Teri|
|6. Mirza Ghalib||1. Koyi Din Gar Zindagani Aur hai 2. Koi ko deke dil koi Nawasaje Fughan Kyun Ho|
|7. Khaja Altaf Hussain Hali||1. Mujhe-wo Taab-e Zabt-e-shikyat kahan Hai 2. Dekhna Her Tarafna Majlis main|
|8. Maqdoom Mohiuddin||1. Aap ki Yaad Aati Rahi Raat bhar 2. Zindagi Moutiyoun ki Dhalakti ladi|
Part–B (60 Marks)
|1. Masnavi||Aman Nama by Jaan Nisar Akhtar|
|2. Qasida||Dar Shan-e-Hameedud Dawla by Zauq Dehelvi|
|3. Marisa||Garmi Ka Saman by meer Anees|
|4. Rubaiyat||1. Anees – Pursan Kue Kab Jawhar – e – Zati Ka hai Anees-Duniya bhi Ajab Saray – e – Fani Dekhi 2. Hali – Duniya – e – Duniko Naqshe Fani Samjho Hali – Yaro Nahin Waqt Aaram ka Yeh 3. Rawan – Iflas accha Na Fikr – e – Daulat acchi Rawan – Aazad Zameer Huwa Fakhiri Yeh Hai 4. Amjad – Koshish hai apni Tamam Sataesh ke liye Amjad – Kam Zarf Agar daulat – o – Zar Pata hai|
|5. Qataat||1. Akbar Allahabadi – Chod literature ko apni history ko bhool Ja 2. Allama Iqbal–Andaz–e–Bayan Gar che bohoot shookh Nahin hai|
|1. Daastan -||Intequab – e- Sabras by Mulla Wajhi (Selected from “Sabras”)|
|2. Novel||Nasooh ki Saleem Se Guftagoo by Deputy Nazeer Ahmed (Selected from “Taubatun Nasooh”|
|3. Inshaiya -||Zauqu-e-chai Noshi-By Maulana Azad(Selected form “Ghubar-e-Khatir”)|
|4. Khuttot||Two Letters by Safia Akhtar (Selected from “Zere – Lab”)|
|5. Mazmoon||Qadeem Urdu Mein Natural Shaeri – By Naseeruddin Hashmi (Selected From “Qadeem Deccani ke Chand Tah queeqi mazameen”)|
|6. Satire||Murda Badast Zinda – By Mirza Farhatulla Baig (Selected from Mazameen – e – Farath part II).|
|7. Reportaz-||Kulhind Conference By Izhar Asar.|
A. Post Graduate Courses (II. Faculties of Commerce:)
Part-A (40 Marks):
1. Business Laws (10 Marks): Law of contracts including essential elements of a valid contract, contingency contracts, performance, discharge, breach and remedies for breach of contract-Quasi contracts-Special contracts including Bailment contracts, Agency contracts-Sale of Goods Act-Conditions and warranties Consumer Protection Act- District, State and National level councils-Companies Act 1956 including appointment, duties, powers of directors, doctrine of Ultravires-Doctrine of indoor management.
2. Financial Accounting (10 Marks): Introduction to Accounting including accounting concepts and conventions-Accounting Process-journalizing, posting to ledger accounts- subsidiary books including cashbook. Bank Reconciliation Statement-Preparation of trial balance and Final Accounts-Errors and Rectification-Consignment and joint ventures- Depreciation and reserves. Hire purchase and installment system-Single Entry and non trading concerns partnership Accounts including admission, retirement, death of a partner and dissolution of a firm-Branch and Departmental Accounts-Company Accounts including issue of shares and debentures, forfeiture, reissue of forfeiture shares-Redemption of Debentures.
3. Corporate Accounting (10 Marks): Company final accounts-Issue of Bonus Shares-Acquisition of Business and Profit Prior to incorporation-Accounting Standards, Need, Importance and overview of Indian Accounting Standards-valuation of good will-need and methods-valuation of shares, need for valuation and methods of valuation-Bank Accounts Legal Provision Preparation of Final Accounts-Accounts of Insurance companies-Amalgamation and reconstructions (Simple problems).
4. a) Auditing (5 Marks): Types of Audits-Advantages & Limitation of Audit-Personal Qualities of an auditor-Audit planning & Control-Audit of Limited Companies-Investigation-Difference between Investigation and Auditing-Organizational vouching and verification. Business Correspondence and report writing. b) Fundamentals of Information Technology (5 Marks): Elements of Computers-Dos, Windows operating system, word processing, Spread Sheet, MS Excel, MS Power Point.
Part-B (60 Marks):
5. Business Economics (10 Marks): Introduction to Economics, Nature, scope and importance including micro and macro Economics-Demand, supply and market equilibrium, production costs, Market structure and factors of production, national income, Trade cycles and International trade.
6. Business Organization And Management (10 Marks): Concepts of business industry, commerce, trade, plant and firm-forms of business organizations-joint stock company, Management, Different approaches to management and functions of management-Planning and Organizing, Delegation of authority,
7. Business Statistics (10 Marks): Introduction of Statistics-Meaning, functions and limitations of statistics-Collection of Data-Primary and Secondary sources-classification, Tabulation and Diagrammatic Presentation of Data-Data analysis interpretation of tables and graphs. Measures of Central Tendency- Mode, Median-Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic mean-Measures of dispersion, range, quartile deviation, mean deviation and standard deviation-Karl Pearson and Bowley’s Measures of Skewess-Simple Correlation and Regression analysis-Analysis of time series includes trend analysis and seasonal variations. Index numbers including time and factory reversal tests of price index numbers.
8. Financial Services-Banking and Insurance (10 Marks): Types of banks-Banking System in India- Function & Credit Creations-Banking Sectors Reforms-Impact of Reforms-Money Market Reforms and Capital Market Reforms in India-Merchant Banking-Banker & Customer Relationship-Classification and Characteristics of Cheques consequence of wrongful dishonor-Lending policies for loans and advances- modes of creating charge-Pledge-Hypothecation-lien. Life Insurance, Non-life insurance and its regulation.
9. General English (Comprehension) (10Marks): Synonyms, antonyms and comprehending a passage; Report Writing-Types of reports-Parts contents-Format of report-Business report and academic report- Essentials of good report writing.
10. General knowledge and current affairs (10 Marks): In the field of Commerce & Business.
A. Post Graduate Courses (III. Faculties of Education:)
M.Ed. (2 years)
Part – A (40 Marks)
- Foundations of Education
- Psychology of Teaching and Learning
Part – B (60 Marks)
- School Management and Issues in Education
- Information and Communication Technology in Education(ICT)
- Pedagogy including methodological Issues
The examiner has to frame 20 items from each of the above five borad areas keeping in view the B.Ed. curriculum 2013-14/2014-15.
Part-A (75 Marks)
- Anatomy, physiology and physiology of Exercise
- Body mechanics and Kinesiology
- Tests and Measurements
- Principles, Psychology and Methods of Physical Education.
- Organization and Administration of Physical Education and Health Education.
- Officiating and Coaching in Physical Education
- Physiotherapy and First Aid.
For M.P.Ed. Course, the entrance test will be of 75 multiple choice objective questions for 75 marks. The remaining 25 marks will be awarded by the Department of Physical Education, Osmania University for the Sports achievements of the candidates. A table showing the incentive marks for sports achievements at different levels and sports certificate attestation form to be filled and signed by the Concerned National Sports Federation/ State
Sports Federation / University Sports is given in Annexure-V of the Information Brochure. The filled in attestation from along with certificates must be submitted to the Principal University College, Physical Education, OU. Within the stipulated date.
Only Sports and Games which are recognized by the Association of Indian Universities will be considered for Incentive Marks. Only Highest Achievement Certificate will be considered for Incentive Marks. The Performance of the Candidates during the last 3 years is considered for admission.
Part-A (40 Marks):
Evolution of Life and Diversity of Microbes: Origin and evolution of Life with reference to microbes- an outline. Viruses: Structure, replication and transmission; plant diseases caused by viruses and their control. Brief account of Archaebacteria, Chlamydia, Actinomycetes and Mycoplasma. Bacteria: Structure, nutrition, reproduction and economic importance. An outline of plant diseases of important crop plants caused by bacteria and their control. Cyanobacteria: Cell structure, thallus organization and their
prospecting (uses)-Biofertilizers. Structure and life history of Oscillatoria, Nostoc and Anabaena. Algae and Fungi: Algae: General account, thallus organization, structure, reproduction, classification and economic importance. Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Oedogonium, Coleochaete, Chara, Ectocarpus and Polysiphonia. Fungi: General characters, classification and economic importance, Structure, reproduction and life history of Albugo, Saccharomyces, Penicilium, Puccinia, Alternaria, General account of plant diseases caused by Fungi and their control. Lichens: Structure and reproduction; ecological and economic importance.
Bryophyta and Pteridophyta: Bryophytes: General characters, classification and alternation of generations. Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Marchantia, Anthoceros and Polytrichum. Evolution of Sporophyte in Bryophytes. Pteridophytes: General characters, classification, alternation of generations and evolution of sporophtyte, Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Rhynia, Lycopodium, Equisetum and Marsilea, Evolution of stele, heterospory and seed habit in Pteridophytes.
Gymnosperms and Palaeobotany: Gymnosperms: General characters, structure, reproduction and classification, Morphology of vegetative and reproductive parts, systemic position, life history of Pinus and Gnetum, Distribution and economic importance; endangered Gymnosperms, Palaeobotany: Introduction, Fossils and fossilization; Geological time scale; Importance of fossils, Bennettitales: General account.
Anatomy: Meristems: Types, histological organization of shoot and root apices and theories, Tissues and Tissue Systems: Simple, complex, and special tissues, Leaf: Ontogeny, diversity of internal structure; stomata and epidermal outgrowths, Stem and root anatomy, Vascular cambium- Formation and function. Anomalous secondary growth of stem-Achyranthes, Boerhavia, Bignonia, Dracaena; Root – Beta.
Wood structure: (General account) Study of local timbers – Teak (Tectona grandis), Rosewood, (Dalbergia latefolia), Red sanders, (Pterocarpus santalinus) Nallamaddi (Terminalia tomentosa (T. alata), and Neem (Azadirachta indica).
Embryology: Introduction to Embryology, Anther structure, Microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte, Ovule Structure and types; Megasporogenesis; types and development of female ametophyte, Pollination – Types; Pollen – pistil interaction, Fertilization, Endosperm – Development and types, Embryo – development and types; Polyembryony and Apomixis – an outline,Palynology: Pollen morphology, NPC system, application of Palynology.
Taxonomy: Introduction: Principles of plant systematics, Systematics vs Taxonomy, Types of classification:
Artificial, Natural and Phylogenetic, Systems of classification: Salient features and comparative account of Bentham & Hooker and Engler & Prantle. An introduction to Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG), Current concepts in Angiosperm Taxonomy: Embryology in relation to taxonomy, Cytotaxonomy, Chemotaxonomy and Numerical Taxonomy, Nomenclature and Taxonomic resources: An introduction to ICBN, Vienna code – a brief account. Herbarium: Concept, techniques and applications, Systematic study and economic importance of plants belonging to the following families: Annonaceae, Capparaeae,Rutaceae, Fabaceae (Faboideae/Papilionoideae, Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae), Cucurbitaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Orchidaceae and Poaceae.
Medicinal Botany: Ethnomedicine: Scope, interdisciplinary nature, distinction of Ethnomedicine from
Folklore medicine. Outline of Ayurveda, Sidda, Unani and Homeopathic systems of traditional medicine, Role of AYUSH, NMPB, CIMAP and CDRI. Plants in primary health care: Common medicinal plants – Tippateega (Tinospora cordifolia), tulasi (Ocimum sanctum), pippallu (Piper longum), Karaka (Terminalia chebula), Kalabanda (Aloe vera), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Traditional medicine vs Modern medicine: Study of select plant examples used in traditional medicine as resource (active principles, structure, usage and pharmacological action) of modern medicine: Aswagandha (Withania somnifera), Sarpagandha (Rauvolfia serpentine), Nela usiri (Phyllanthus amarus), Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) and Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Pharmacognosy: Introduction and scope. Adulteration of plant crude drugs and methods of identification – some examples. Indian Pharmacopoeia, Plant crude drugs: Types, methods of collection, processing and storage practices. Evaluation of crude drugs.
Part-B (60 Marks):
Cell Biology: Plant cell envelops: Ultra structure of cell wall, molecular organization of cell membranes,
Nucleus: Ultrastructure, Nucleic acids – Structure and replication of DNA; types and functions of RNA, Chromosomes: Morphology, organization of DNA in a chromosome, Euchromatin and Heterochromatin, Karyotype, Special types of chromosomes: Lampbrush, Polytene and B-chromosomes, Cell division: Cell cycle and its regulation; mitosis, meiosis and their significance.Genetics: Mendelism: Laws of inheritance, Genetic interactions – Epistasis, complementary, supplementary and inhibitory genes, Linkage and crossing over: A brief account, construction of genetic maps-2 point and 3 point test cross data, Mutations: Chromosomal aberrations – structural and numerical changes; Gene mutations, Gene Expression: Organization of gene, transcription, translation, mechanism and regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes (Lac.and Trp Operons), Extra nuclear genome: Mitochondrial and plastid DNA, plasmids.
Ecology: Concept and components of Ecosystem. Energy flow, food chains, food webs, ecological pyramids, biogeochemical cycles – Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Plants and environment: Ecological factors – Climatic (light and temperature), edaphic and biotic. Ecological adaptations of plants, Population ecology: Natality, mortality, growth curves, ecotypes, ecads, Community ecology: Frequency, density, cover, life forms, biological spectrum, ecological succession (Hydrosere, Xerosere), Production ecology: Concepts of productivity, GPP, NPP, CR (Community Respiration) and secondary production, P/R ratio and ecosystems.
Biodiversity and Conservation: Biodiversity: Concepts, Convention on Biodiversity – Earth Summit. Types of biodiversity, Levels, threats and value of Biodiversity, Hot spots of India – Endemism, North Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats, Agro-biodiversity: Vavilov centres of crop plants, Principles of conservation: IUCN threat-categories, RED data book – threatened & endangered plants of India. Role of organizations in the conservation of Biodiversity – IUCN, UNEP, WWF, NBPGR. Physiology: Water Relations: Importance of water to plant life, physical properties of water, diffusion, imbibition, osmosis; water, osmotic and pressure potentials; absorption, transport of water, ascent of sap; transpiration; Stomatal structure and movements. Mineral Nutrition: Essential macro and micro mineral nutrients and their role; symptoms of mineral deficiency; absorption of mineral ions; passive and active processes. Enzymes: Normenclature, characteristics, mechanism and regulation of enzyme action, enzyme kinetics, factors regulating enzyme action. Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic pigments, absorption and action spectra; Red drop and Emerson enhancement effect; concept of two photo systems; mechanism of phosynthetic electron transport and evolution of oxygen; photophosphorylation; Carbon assimilation pathways: C3, C4 and CAM; photorespiration. Translocation of organic substances: Mechanism of phloem transport; source-sink relationships.
Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic; Glycolysis, Krebs cycle; electron transport system, mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation, pentose phosphate pathway, Nitrogen Metabolism: Biological nitrogen fixation, nitrate reduction, ammonia assimilation, amino acid synthesis and protein sysnthesis, Growth and Development: Definition, phases and kinetics of growth. Physiological effects of phytohormones- auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ABA, ethylene and brassinosteroids. Physiology of flowering and photoperiodism, role of phytochrome in flowering.
Tissue Culture and Biotechnology: Tissue culture: Introduction, sterilization procedures, culture media – composition and preparation; explants. Callus culture; cell and protoplast culture, Somatic hybrids and cybrids. Applications of tissue culture: Production of Pathogen free plants and somaclonal variants, production of stress resistance plants, secondary metabolites and synthetic seeds. Biotechnology: Introduction, history and scope, rDNA technology: Vectors and gene cloning and transgenic plants.
Seed Technology and Horticulture: Seed: Structure and types, Seed dormancy; causes and methods of breaking dormancy, Seed storage: Seed banks, factors affecting seed viability, genetic erosion. Seed production technology; seed testing and certification, Horticulture techniques: Introduction, Cultivation of ornamental and vegetable crops, Bonsai and landscaping, Floriculture: Introduction. Importance of green house, polyhouse, mist chamber, shade nets; Micro Irrigation systems. Floriculture potential and its trade in India, Vegetative Propagation of Plants: Stem, root and leaf cuttings. Layering and bud grafting. Role of plant growth regulators in horticulture.
Part-A (40 Marks)
Coordination Chemistry, spectral and magnetic properties of metal complexes, reactivity of metal complexes, stability of metal complexes, hard and soft acids and bases, Bio Inorganic Chemistry, nitrogen compounds, heterocyclic compounds, carbohydrates, amino acids and proteins, mass
spectrometry, Chemical kinetics, Photo chemistry, thermodynamics, separation techniques, Spetrophotometry, Molecular Spectroscopy, drugs, formulations, pesticides, green Chemistry, Macromolecules, Material science, Catalysis.
Part-B (60 Marks)
Atomic structure and elementary quantum mechanics, Chemical bonding, General principles of inorganic qualitative analysis, theory of quantitative analysis, evaluation of analytical data, Molecular symmetry, s-block elements, p-block elements, Chemistry of d-block elements, Chemistry of f-block elements, Organo metallic compounds, theories of bonding in metals, Metal carbonyls and related compounds. Structural theory in Organic Chemistry, Acyclic hydrocarbons, Alicyclic hydrocarbons, benzene and its reactivity, polynuclear hydrocarbons, stereo Chemistry of carbon compounds, Introductory treatment to pericyclic reactions, synthetic strategies, asymmetric synthesis, Halogen compounds, hydroxy1 compounds, carbony1
compounds, carboxylic acids and derivatives, active methylene compounds, exercises in inter conversions. Gaseous state, liquid state, solid state, solutions, colloids and surface Chemistry, phase rule, dilute solutions, electro chemistry.
Part-A (40 Marks):
PC Software and ‘C’ Programming: Fundamentals of Computers: Computer Definition – Types of Computers-Logical Organization of a Digital computer-Memory: Main Memory: RAM, ROM and Cache- Secondary Memory: magnetic tape, Floppy disk, hard disk, Compact disk-input devices-Output devices- Operating system: Definition, functions of an operating system, Types of Operating systems: Brief details of batch processing, Multi Programming multi tasking, time sharing, real time operating systems-Introduction to DOS, DOS Internal Commands, DOS External Commands- Introduction to windows, Desktop, File, Folder, My Computer, My documents, recycle bin, Internet Explorer-Windows Explorer Types of Programming Languages. Word Basics: Starting word, Creating a new document, Opening pre-existing document, The parts of a word window, Typing text, Selecting text, Deleting text, Undo, Redo, Repeat, Inserting text, Replacing text, Formatting text, Cut, Copy, Paste-Printing. Formatting Your Text and Documents: Auto format, Line spacing, margins, Borders and Shading. Working with headers and Footers: Definition of headers and Footers, creating basic headers and footers, creating different headers and footers for odd and even pages.Tables: Creating a simple Table, Creating a Table using the table menu, Entering and editing text in a table, selecting in table, adding rows, changing row heights, Deleting rows, Inserting columns. Deleting columns, changing column width. Graphics: Importing graphics, Clipart, Insert Picture, Clip Art Gallery, using words drawing features, drawing objects, text in drawing. Templates: Template types, using templates, exploring templates, modifying templates. Macros: Macro, Recording macros, editing macros, running a macro. Mail Merge: Mail Merge concept, main document, data sources, merging data source and main document, Overview of word menu options word basic tool bar. Power Point: Basics, Terminology, Getting started, Views. Creating Presentation: Using auto content wizard, Using blank presentation option, Using design template option, Adding slides, Deleting a slide, Importing Images from the outside world, Drawing in power point, Transition and build effects, Deleting a Slide, Numbering a slide, Saving presentation Closing presentation, Printing Presentation elements. MS Access: Creating a Simple Database and Tables: Creating a contacts Databases with the wiz, The Access Table wizard, Creating Database Tables without the wizard, Field Names, Data Types and properties, Adding, deleting fields, renaming the fields in a table. Forms: The Form Wizard, Saving Forms, modifying forms. Entering and Editing Data: Adding Records, Duplicating previous entries without Retyping, Undo, Correcting Entries, Global Replacements, Moving From record to Record in a table. Finding, Sorting and Displaying Data: Queries and Dynasets, Creating and using select queires, Returning to the Query Design, Multilevel Sorts, Finding incomplete matches, Showing All records after a query, Saving Queries, Crosstab Queries. Printing Reports: Simple Table, Form and Database printing, Defining advances Reports, Manual Reporting, properties in Reports, saving reports. Relational Databases: Flat Versus Relational, Types of Relationships, Viewing Relationships, Defining and Redefining Relationships, Creating and Deleting relationships. MS Excel: Excel Basics: Overview of Excel Features, Getting started, creating a new worksheet, selecting cells. Entering and editing text, entering and editing numbers, entering and editing Formulas, referencing cells, moving cells, copying cells, sorting cell data, inserting rows, inserting columns, inserting cells, Deleting parts of a worksheet, clearing parts of a worksheet. Formatting: Page setup, changing column widths and Row heights, auto format, changing font sizes and Attributes, centering text across columns, using border buttons and Commands, changing colours and shading, hiding rows and columns. Introduction to functions: Parts of functions, function Requiring Add-ins, The Function Wizard. Examples functions by category: Data and time functions, Engineering functions, math and Trig functions, Statistical functions, text Functions. Excel Charts: Chart parts and terminology, Instant charts with the chard wizard, creation of different types of charts, printing charts, deleting charts-Linking in Excel. Excel Graphics: Creating and placing graphic objects, resizing Graphics, Drawing Lines and Shapes. Introduction-‘C’ Fundamentals: Programming-High level languages-compiling programs-integrated Development Environments-language interpreters-Compiling your first program-Running your program- understanding your first program-comments-variables, Data types, and Arithmetic Expressions: working with variables-understanding Data types and constants–working with arithmetic expressions- The Assignment operators-The printf function-The scanf function-Decision making: The if statement-The if else construct-Nested if statements - The else if construct-the switch statement-Boolean variables-The conditional operator- program looping: The for statement-relational operators-Nested for loops-The while statement-The do statement-The break statement-The continue statement-working with Arrays: Defining an array-Initializing Arrays-character Arrays-The const Qualifier-Multidimensional arrays-variable length arrays. Working with Functions: Defining a Function – Arguments and Local variables-Returning Function results-Function calling-Declaring Return Types and Argument types-Top Down Programming-Functions and Arrays-global variables-Automatic and static Variables-Recursive Functions. Programming in C: Working with structures: Defining structure-Functions and structures-Initializing structures-Array of structures- structures containing structures-structures containing Arrays-Structure variants-Character strings; Arrays of characters-variable length character stings-escape characters–character stings structure and arrays- character operations. Pointers: Defining a pointer variable-using pointers in Expressions-pointers and structures (Exclude Linked List)-Pointers and Functions-Pointers and Arrays-operations on pointers- pointers and Memory address. Operations on Bits: Bit Operators-Bit fields The pre-processor:The #define statement- The ## operator-the #include statement- conditional compilation. More on Data Types: Enumerated Data types-The typedef statement-Data type conversions. Input and Output Operations in “C”: Character I/O-formatted I/O-input and Output Operations with files-Special functions for working with Files. Miscellaneous and Advances features: The Goto Statement, The null statement, working with unions-the comma operator-type qualifiers.
Part-B (60 Marks):
Java Fundamentals: Fundamentals of Object Oriented Programming: Object Oriented paradigm-Basic concepts of Object Oriented Programming-Benefits of OOP-Applications of OOP. Java Evolution: Java Features-How Java Differs from C and C++ - Java and Internet-Java and World Wide Web: Web Browsers- Hardware and Software Requirements-Java Environment. Overview of Java Language: Simple Java Program-Java Program Structure-Java Tokens-Java Statements-Implementing a Java Program – Java Virtual Machine – Command Line Arguments. Constants, Variables and Data types: Constants – Variables – Data Types – Declaration of Variables-Giving Values to variables-Scope of Variables-Symbolic Constants- Type Casting. OOPS Concepts in Java: Operators and Expressions: Arithmetic Operators – Relational Operators – Logical Operators – Assignment Operators – Increment and Decrement Operators – Conditional Operators – Bitwise Operators – Special Operators-Arithmetic Expressions-Evaluation of Expressions- Precedence of Arithmetic Operators-Operator Precedence and Associativity. Decision Making and Branching: Decision Making with If statement-Simple If Statement-If else Statement-Nesting If Else Statement-the Else-If Ladder-The switch Statement–the: Operator. Decision Making and Looping?: The while statement-The do statement-The for statement-Jumps in Loops. Class, Objects and Methods: Defining a Class-Fields Declaration, Methods Declaration -Creating Objects-Accessing class members-Constructors- Methods Overloading-Static Members-Nesting of Methods-Inheritance-Overriding Methods-Final Variables and methods-Final Classes-Abstract Methods and Classes-Visibility Control] Packages and Interfaces in Java: Arrays, Strings and Vectors: One-dimensional Arrays-creating an Array-Two dimensional Arrays- Strings-Vectors-Wrapper Classes-Enumerated Types. Interfaces: Multiple Inheritance: Defining Interfaces- Extending Interfaces-Implementing Interface-Accessing Interface Variables. Packages: Java API Packages – Using system Packages-Naming Conventions-Creating Packages-Accessing a Package-Using a Package- Adding a Class to a Package-Hiding Classes-Static Import. Multithreaded Programming and Applets: Multithreaded Programming: Creating Threads-Extending the Thread Class-Stopping and Blocking a Thread-Life Cycle of a Thread-Using Thread Methods-Thread Exceptions-Thread Priority-Synchronization. Managing Errors and Exceptions: Types of Errors-Exceptions-Syntax of Exception Handling Code-Multiple Catch Statements-Using Finally Statement-Throwing our own Exceptions- Using Exceptions for debugging. Applet Programming: How Applets differ from Applications-Preparing to write Applets-Building Applet Code- Applet Life Cycle-Creating an Executable Applet-Designing a webpage-Applet Tag-Adding Applet to HTML file – Running the Applet – More about Applet Tag-Passing parameters to Applets – Aligning the display – More about HTML tags-Displaying Numerical Values-Getting Input from the user. Data Structures: Sorting: Bubble Sort-Selection Sort-Insertion Sort-Quick Sort- Stacks and Queues: Stacks- Queues-Circular Queue-Deques-Priority queue-Parsing Arithmetic Expressions-Linked List: Simple Linked List – Finding and Deleting Specified Links – Double Ended Lists-Abstract Data types-Sorted Lists-Doubly Linked Lists- Advanced Sorting: Quick Sort-Binary Trees: Tree Terminology-Finding a Node-Inserting a Node–Traversing the tree- Finding Maximum and Minimum values – Deleting a Node – Efficiency of Binary Trees-Trees Represented as Arrays-Graphs: Introduction to Graphs-Searches-Minimum Spanning Tree-Topological Sorting with Directed Graphs-Connectivity in Directed Graphs. Database Systems Introduction and Fundamentals: Database Systems: Introducing the database and DBMS, Why the database is important, Historical Roots: Files and File Systems, Problems with File System Data Management, Database Systems. Data Models: The Importance of Data Models, Data Model Basic Building Blocks, Business Rules, The evaluation of Data Models, Degree of Data Abstraction. The Relational Database Model: A logical view of Data, Keys, Integrity Rules, Relational Set Operators, The Data Dictionary and the system catalog, Relationships with in the Relational Database, Data Redundancy revisited, Indexes, Codd’s relationaldatabase rules. Data Modeling and Normalization: Entity Relationship Model: The ER Model, Developing ER Diagram, Database Design Challenges: Conflicting Goals. Advanced Data Modeling: The Extended Entity Relationship Model, Entity clustering, Entity integrity: Selecting Primary keys, Design Cases: Learning Flexible Database Design. Normalization of Database Tables: Database Tables and Normalization, The need for Normalization, The Normalization process, Improving the design, Surrogate Key Considerations, High level Normal Forms, Normalization and database design, denormalization. Interaction with Databases and Construction of Information System: Introduction to SQL: Data Definition Commands, Data Manipulation Commands, Select queries, Advanced Data Definition Commands, Advanced Select queries, Virtual Tables, Joining Database Tables. Advanced SQL: Relational Set Operators, SQL Join Operators, Sub-queries and correlated queries, SQL Functions, Oracle Sequences, Updatable Views, and Procedural SQL. Database Design: The Information System, The Systems Development Life Cycle, The Database Life Cycle, Database Design strategies, Centralized Vs Decentralized design. Transaction Management in DBMS Environment: Transaction Management and Concurrency Control: What is transaction, Concurrency control, Concurrency control with locking Methods, Concurrency control with time stamping methods, concurrency control with optimistic methods, database recovery management. Distributed Database Management Systems: The evolution of Distributed Database Management Systems, DDBMS advantages and Disadvantages, Distribution Processing and Distribution Databases, characteristics of Distributed database management systems, DDBMS Components, Levels of Data and Process distribution, Distributed database Transparency Features, Distributed Transparency, Transaction Transparency, Performance Transparency and Query Optimization, Distributed Database Design, Client Server VS DDBMS. Data Warehouse Concepts and Database Administration: The Data Warehouse: The need for data analysis, Decision support systems, The data warehouse, Online analytical processing, Star schemas, Data mining, SQL extension for OLAP. Database Administration: Data as a Corporate asset, The need for and role of databases in an organization, The evolution of the database administration function, The database environment’s Human Component, Database administration Tools, The DBA at work: Using Oracle for Database Administration.
Part-A (40 Marks)
Digital Electronics and Microprocessor: 1. Introduction to number systems, Logic gates OR, AND, NOT, XOR, NAND, NOR gates-Truth tables-Positive and negative logic-Logic families and their characteristics-RTL, DTL, ECL, TTL and CMOS.-Universal building blocks NAND and NOR gates. Laws of Boolean algebra De Morgan’s Theorems-Boolean identities-Simplification of Boolean expressions-Karnaugh Maps-Sum of Products (SOP) and Product of sums (POS). 2. Combinational and Sequential circuits: Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer-Decoder, Half adder, Full adder and Parallel adder circuits. Flip flops-Rs, D, JK and JK Maser-Slave (working and truth tables) – Registers, Shift registers, Serial in Serial out, Serial in –parallel out, Parallel in- Serial out and Parallel in Parallel out registers, -Synchronous and asynchronous binary counters, Up/Down counters-Decade counter(7490)-working, truth tables and timing diagrams. Semiconductor memories-RAM, ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM. 3. Introduction to Microcomputer and Microprocessor: Intel 8085 Microprocessor-central processing unit CPU- arithmetic and logic unit ALU-timing and control unit-register organization-address, data and control buses-pin configuration of 8085 and its description. Timing diagrams-Instruction cycle, machine cycle, fetch and execute cycles. 4. Instruction set of 8085, instruction and data formats – classification of instructions-addressing modes. Assembly language programming examples of 8 and 16-bit addition, subration, multiplication and division. Finding the largest and smallest in a data array. Programming examples using stacks and subroutines. 5. Interfacing Peripherals and applications: Organization of memory and its working-memory interfacing concepts-keyboard interfacing(8279)- Programmable peripheral interface (8255) – D/A and A/D converters and their interfacing to the microprocessor. Stepper motor control-seven segment LED.
Part-B (60 Marks):
Circuit Analysis and Electronic Devices: 1. AC Fundamentals: The sine wave-Average and RMS values, the Operator J, Phasor diagram- Phasor representation of sinusoidal currents and voltages, Complex impedance and admittance, Polar and rectangular forms of complex numbers, Circuit analysis using complex number representation. 2. Passive networks: Concept of voltage and current sources-Kirchoffs Voltage Law(KVL) and Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL)-Applications to simple networks consisting of resistors with AC and DC sources-Solution of networks using node and mesh analysis. 3. Network theorems (DC and AC): Superposition Theorem-Thevenin’s Theorem-Norton’s Theorem-Maximun power transfer Theorem-Milliman’s Theorem-Reciprocity Theorem-Applications to simple networks. 4. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope: Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) and its working, electron gun, focusing, deflection sensitivity, fluorescent screen. 5. RC an RL Circuits: Transient response of RL and RC circuits with step input-time constants. Frequency response of RC and RL Circuits- Types of Filters: Low pass filter-High pass filter- Frequency response-Passive differentiating and integrating circuits. 6. Resonance:Series resonance and parallel resonance RLC Circuits-Resonant Frequency- Q factor-Band width- Selectivity. 7. PN Junction: Depletion region-Junction capacitance- Diode equation (no derivation) – Effect of temperature on reverse saturation current-V-I Characteristics and simple applications of (i)junction diode (ii) Zener diode (iii) Tunnel diode and (iv) Varactor diode. 8. Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT): PNP and NPN transistors-current components in BJT-BJT static characteristics(Input and Output)-Early effect-CB, CC, CE configurations (cutoff, active, and saturation regions) CE configuration as two port network-h-parameters-h-parameter equivalent circuit. Determination of h-parameters from the characteristics. Load line analysis. Transistor Biasing-Fixed and self bias.
Part - A (40 Marks)
1. Regional Geography of Asia with special reference to India & A.P. a)Physiography, Climate, vegetation Soils & Draingage of Asia with Special reference to India & A.P. b) Agriculture - Types of Agriculture Food Crops, Commercial crops - Distribution & Production patterns Irrigation - Type of irrigation, Projects - Multipurpose Projects. c) Minerals - Type, Distribution and Production. d) Industries - Types, Locational factors, Major Industries and distribution) Transport, Trade - National & International 2.Mapping Techniques : Types of maps, Scales, Projections, Graphs, Quantitative Techniques for central tendency measurements. Techniques of field Surveying: a) Plane table b) Prismatic Compass c) Chain Survey
Part– B (60 Marks)
1. Elements & Principles of Physical Geography : Lithosphere: a) Earth & Solar Systems, Rocks, Interior of the earth, Earth movements Volcanoes & Earth quakes Isostacy continental Drift, Cycle of Erosion, landforms made by River, Glacier, Wind, Underground water. B. Atmosphere: Structure & Composition of atmosphere Insolation, Horizontal & vertical Distribution of Temperature Pressure Belts, Planetary winds Airmasses, clouds and Precipitation, Cyclones & anticyclones. Koppen’s climatic classification climatic changes. C . Hydrosphere: Oceans, Subniarine relief of oceans, properties of ocean water - Temperature & salinity, Ocean currents, Tides, Ocean Deposits. 2. Economic Geography: Man- Environment relations, Primary, Secondary & Tertiary activities., Resource - Types & Distribution, Conservation of Resources.
Part - A (40 Marks)
Interior of the Earth, Weathering, Erosional & Depositional Landforms - Cycle of Erosion, Atmospheric Pressure & Winds, Insolation & Temperature distribution, forms of condensation, Cyclones & Anticyclones, Classification of climates, submarine relief, Oceanic Circulation, Oceanic resources; World population-distribution pattern, growth trends and density of population, Patterns and processes of population migration, Concept of region, Industrial location, Environmental Pollution, Urbanization Environmental Impact Assessment.
Part - B (60 Marks)
Map Scales, Types of Maps, Sampling, Relief Profiles, Graphic means of communication, Projections, Digital Cartography, Data base management. GIS-Spatial Data Structures – Raster & Vector, Non-Spatial Data structures-Hierarchical, Network, Relational and object oriented models. Spatial Data Analysis-overlay, Buffering proximity. Aerial Photographs & satellite imageries – High and Medium Resolution data, Utility of Aerial photographs, comparison of Aerial photograph & Map, Digital image processing-supervised and unsupervised classification, Image Rectification, ground truth location on satellite imagery, Remote sensing platforms & sensors, Geo referencing, GPS concepts. Integration of GIS, RS & GPS-Their applications. Data base connectivity in visual Basic. Fundamentals of C-Language, Internet Mapping.
Part - A (40 Marks)
Paleontology: Definition of paleonotology, conditions of fossilization, modes of preservation, and uses of fossils. Phylum Echinodermata and Phylum Brachiopod, Phylum Mollusca* and Phylum Arthropoda* Study of the following fossils with respect to their classification, morphology, and geological distribution: Cidaris, Micraster, Holaster, Hemiaster, Terebratula, Spirifer, Rhynchonella, Productus, Turritella, Murex, Cypraea, Natica, Voluta, Pecten, Gryphaea, Glycimeris, Arca Cardita, Exogyra, Nautilus, Ammonoids, Bellemnites, Calymene, Paradoxide. Plant fossils glossopteris, gangamopteris, ptylophyllum. Indian Geology: Definition of stratigraphy, principles of stratigraphy, standard geological time scale. Physiographic divisions of India with their stratigraphic and structural characteristics. Dharwar system, cuddapah system; Vindhyan system; Kurnool system and Gondwana System. Triassic of spiti, Jurassic of Kutch, Cretaceous of Tiruchinapalli, Deccan Traps and their Age, Siwalliks with vertebrate fossils, Archaean – Proterozoic boundary problem and cretaceous – Tertiary boundary problem. Geology of Andhra Pradesh. Economic Geology: Definition of Economic geology, mineral resources and mineral deposit; importance of economic minerals and rocks; ore minerals, gangue minerals (gangue), ore, industrial minerals, tenor and grade; syngenetic deposits, epigenetic deposits. Classification of mineral deposits - Bateman’s classification modified by Jensen. Processes of formation of mineral deposits; endogenetic and exogenetic processes - cavity filling and replacement, sedimentation; residual and mechanical concentration; oxidation and supergene enrichment. Study of ore deposits of gold, copper, lead, zinc, aluminum, iron, manganese, chromium, uranium and thorium, with respect to their mineralogy, uses, mode of occurrence (forms), origin and distribution in India of the industrial minerals and rocks required for the following industries; Abrasives, Cement, Ceramic & Glass, Fertilizers and Chemicals, Insulators, Refractories and Fluxes. Fuels(Coal, Oil and natural gas) - their origin, occurrence and distribution in India, Major mineral resources of Andhra Pradesh. Asbestos, Baryte, Bauxite, Coal, Clays, Gemstones, Limestone, Manganese, Mica., Oil and Natural gas. Ground Water Exploration: Hydrological cycle. Definition of aquifer, Aquitard and Aquifuge. Porosity and Permeability, Darcy’s law. Types of acquifers. Suitability of ground water for drinking purposes. Causes of ground water pollution; Basic principles of Geo-physical exploration methods- Electrical methods – Schlumberger and Wenner configuration. Resistivity profiling.
Part – B (60 Marks)
Physical Geology: General aspects, Definition of geology - Basic assumptions of Geology. Its relationship with other sciences - Braches of geology Aim and applications of geology. Earth as a planet - its shape, size, density - movements and their effects. Origin and age of earth. Geological processes - exogenic and endogenic, Definition of weathering - Types of weathering of rocks- Physical and Chemical; Definition of erosion and denudation, cycle of erosion; erosion, transportation and deposition; agents of erosion. Rivers: Erosion, transporation and depositionof river (fluvial) cycle in different stages - Development of typical land forms by river erosion and deposition. V-shaped valley, waterfall, alluvial fans, meander, ox-bow lake - flood pane, natural plane, peneplain and deltas Types of rivers, Glaciers: Definition of a glacier - types of glaciers - development of typical land forms by a glacial erosion and deposition – cirque, U-Shaped valley – hanging valley, Roches - mentonnees. Morains, drumline, kames-Eskors and Varves, Characteristic features of glaciated regions, groundwater - storage of ground water - porosity permeability, aquifer, water table - zone of saturation, artesian well, spring, geysers - development of typical land forms by erosion and deposition by groundwater (Karst topography) sinkhole, cavern, stalactities and stalagmites. Seas - Offshore profile - continental shelf- Continental slope. Abyssal plane, deep-movement of sea water-tides-currents, waves, development of typical land forms by sea erosion and deposition coral reefs. Lakes-origin of lake basins, geological importance of lakes, lacustrine deposits. Wind: Devleopment of Characteristic features by winds (arid cycle) erosion and deposition-pedestal rock-mushroom topographyIncelberg-ventifacts - loess - sand dunes. Earth movements - definition of diastgrophism,
epirogenic and orogenic movements. Earthquakes: Cause, kinds of earthquake waves, mode of progapation, intensity of earthquakes, Richters scale - seismograph and seismogram. Effect of earthquakes, earthquake zones. Interior of the earth - structure and constitution, Volcanes - parts of a typical volcano, products of Volcanoes,,Origin of volcano. Crystallography: Definition of crystal - amorphous and crystalline, States, Morphology of crystals - face, edge, solid angle interfacial angle. Forms: Simple, combination, closed and open forms. Symmetry: Plane, axis, centre, Crystallographic axis, Parameters, indices; crystallographic notation - parameter. System of weiss, index following classes of symmetry.I. Cubic system - Normal (Galena)II. Tetragonal system - Zircon type III. Hexagonal system - Beryl type IV. Trigonal system - Calcite type.V. Orthorhombic system - Barytes type. VI. Monoclinic System - Gypsum type.VII. Triclinic system - Axinite type. Twinning in crystals - Definitions of twin, twin plane, twin axis, composite plane. Mineralogy: Definition of a mineral - Classification of minerals into rock forming and ore forming minerals. Physical properties of minerals - colour, streak, play of colours, opalescence, asterism, transparency, lustre luminiscence, fluorescence, form hardness, tenacity, cleavage parting, fracture; specific gravity, magnetic properties, Electricla properties, pyro and piezo-electricity. Modes of Mineral formation: Occurrence and association of Minerals. Chemical properties of minerals - isomorphism, solid solution, polymorphism, allotrophy, pseudomorphism, radio-activity; silicate structure. Descriptive of the following mineral groups: Nesosilicate (Olivine, Garanet, Aluminum Silicates) Sorosilicate (Epidote) ‘Cyclosilicate (Beryl) Inosilicate (Pyroxene; Amphibole) Phyllosilicate (Mica, Hydrous magnesium silicate) Tektosilicate (Feldspars,Feldspathoids) Miscellaneous: Staurolite, Tourmaline, Zircon, Calcite, Corundum, Apatite. Optical Mineralogy: Optical properties of minerals - Isotropic and anisotropic substances - Polarized light refractive index, double refraction, uniaxial and biaxial minerals - Nicol Prism and its construction - concept of crossed Nicols. Petrological microscope (polarising) - its mechanical and optical parts - behaviour of isotropic and anisotropic minerals between crossed nicols - extinction,pleochroism, interference colour. optical properties of important minerals. Petrology: Nature and scope of petrology - definition of rock classification of rocks into igneous, sedimentary metamorphic. Distinguishing features of three types of rocks. Igneous rocks: Classification into plutonic, hypabassal and volcanic rocks; Forms- Lava flows, Intrusions, sills, laccolith, lopolith, dykes ring dykes, cone sheets volcanic necks, phacoliths and batholiths. Structures - vesicular, amygdaloidal, block lava ropy lava pillow, flow, jointing and sheeting structures. Plates, columnar and prismatic. Textures - Definition of textures, micro-textures, devitrification, allotrimorophic, hypidiomorphic, paniodiomorphic, porphyritic, poikilitic, ophitic, intergranular, intersertal, trachytic, graphic and micro-graphic textures. Reaction structures - corona, myrmekitic, orbicular, spherulitic, perlitic. Classification of igneous rocks - CIPW and Tyrrell tabular classification. Descriptive study of following rock types: Granite, Granodiorite, Syentie, Nepheline syenite, Diorite porphyry. Pegmatite, Aplite, Gabbro, Anorthosite, Peridotite, Pyroxenite, Dunite, Dolerite, Rhyolite, Obsidian, Trachyte, Andesite and Basalt. Composition and constitution of magma -Crystallization of Magma,,uni-component binary system, eutectic and solid solutions. Origin of igneous rocks - Bowen’s reaction principle, differentiation and assimilation. Sedimentary Rocks: Sources of sediments - mechanical and chemical weathering modes of transportation, sedimentary environments. Definitions of diagenetic lithification and cementation, stratification, Sedimentary structures, Types of bedding, surface marks, deformed bedding, solution structures. Classification of sedimentary rocks: clastic - rudaceous, arenaceous, argillaceous, non-clastic - calcareous, carbonaceous, ferruginous, phosphatic, evaporites. Descriptive study of the following sedimentary rocks-Conglomerate, Breccia, sandstone, Grit, Arkose, Graywacke, Shale, Limestone, shelly limestone. Metamorphic Rocks: Definition of metamorphism, agents of metamorphism, type of metamorphism, grade and zones of metamorphism, Metamorphic minerals - stress and antistress minerals. Structures of metamorphic rocks - Cataclastic, maculose, schistose, granulose and gneissose. Textures of metamorphic rocks - crystalloblastic, palimpset, xenoblastic, idioblastic, Classification of metamorphic rocks - concept of metamorphic facies. Cataclastic metamorphism of argillaceous and arenaceous rocks. Thermal metamorphism of argillaceous, arenaceous and calcareous rocks. Dynamothermal metamorphism of agillaceous, arenaceous and igneous rocks. Plutonic metamorphism, metasomatism and additive processes. Drfiniton of anatexis and palingenesis, Descriptive study of the following metamorphic rocks: - Gneiss, schist, slate, phyllite, quartzite, marble, granulite eclogite amphibolite migmatite. Indian examples - Gondite, Charnockite and Khondalite. Structural Geology: Definition of structural geology, aim and objectives of the structural Geology, Attitude of beds - strike, dip and apparent dip; use of clinometer, Primary Structures as Folds - description, nomenclature of folds, recognition of folds in the field. Joints - geometrical and genetic classification of joints. Faults - geometrical and genetic classification of faults, recognition of faults in the field effects of faults on the outcrops. Unconformities - definition of unconformity - types of unconformities, recognition of unconformities in the field distinguishing the faults from unconformities. Definition of overlap, offlap, outlier, inlier, cleavage, schistosity; foliation and lineation.
Part-A (40 Marks)
Groups: Binary operations-Definitions and properties, Groups-Definition and elementary properties, Finite groups and group composition tables, Subgroups and cyclic subgroups. Permutations-functions and permutations, groups of permutations, cycles and cyclic notation, even and odd permutations, The alternating groups. Cyclic groups-Elementary properties, The classification of cyclic groups, sub groups of finite cyclic groups. Isomorphism-Definition and elementary properties, Cayley’s theorem, Groups of cosets, Applications, Normal subgroups – Factor groups, Criteria for the existence of a coset group, Inner automorphisms and normal subgroups, factor groups and simple groups, Homomorphism – Definition and elementary properties, The fundamental theorem of homomorphism, applications.
Rings: Definition and basic properties, Fields, Integral domains, divisors of zero and Cancellation laws, Integral domains, The characteristic of a ring, some non-commutative rings, Examples, Matrices over a field, The real quaternions, Homomorphism of Rings – Definition and elementary properties, Maximal and Prime ideals, Prime fields. Rings of Polynomials – Polynomials in an indeterminate form, The evaluation of homomorphism.
Linear Algebra: Vector spaces, General properties of vector spaces, vector subspaces, Algebra of subspaces, linear combination of vectors. Linear span, linear sum of two subspaces, Linear independence and dependence of vectors, Basis of vector space, Finite dimensional vector spaces, Dimension of a vector space, Dimension of a subspace. Linear transformations, linear operators, Range and null space of linear transformation, Rank and nullity of linear transformations, Linear transformations as vectors, Product of linear transformations, Invertible linear transformation. The adjoint or transpose of a linear transformation, Sylvester’s law of nullity, characteristic values and characteristic vectors, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, Diagonalizable operators. Inner product spaces, Euclidean and unitary spaces, Norm or length of a vector, Schwartz inequality, Orthogonality, Orthonormal set, complete Orthonormal set, Gram – Schmidt Orthogonalisation process.
Part-B (60 Marks)
Differential Equations: Differential equations of first order and first degree:- Linear differential equations: Differential equations reducible to linear form; Exact differential equations; integrating factors; Change of variables. Differential equations of the order but not of the first degree: Equations solvable for p; Equations solvable for y; Equations solvable for x; Equations that do not contain x (or y); Equations of the first degree in x and y-Clairaut’s equation. Applications of first order differential equations: Orthogonal trajectories. Higher order linear differential equations: Solution of homogeneous linear differential equations of order n with constant coefficients. Solution of the non-homogeneous linear differential equations with constant coefficients by means of polynomial operators. Method of undetermined coefficients; Method of variation of parameters; Linear differential equations with non-constant coefficients; The Cauchy-Euler equation. System of linear differential equations: Solution of a system of linear equations with constant coefficients; an equivalent triangular system. Degenerate Case: P1(D) P4 (D)-P2(D) P3(D)=0
The Plane: Equation of plane in terms of its intercepts on the axis, Equations of the plane through the given points, Length of the perpendicular from a given point to a given plane, Bisectors of angles between two planes, Combined equation of two planes, Orthogonal projection on a plane. The Line: Equations of a line, Angle between a line and a plane, The condition that a given line may lie in a given plane, The condition that two given lines are coplanar, Number of arbitrary constants in the equations of a straight line. Seats of conditions which determine a line, The shortest distance between two lines. The length and equations of the line of shortest distance between two straight lines, Length of perpendicular from a given point to a given line, Intersection of three planes, Triangular Prism. The Sphere:Definition and equation of the sphere, Equation of the sphere through four given points, Plane sections of a sphere. Intersection of two spheres; Equation of a circle. Sphere through a given circle; Intersection of a sphere and a line. Power of a point; Tangent plane. Plane of contact. Polar Plane, Pole of a plane, Conjugate points, Conjugate planes; Angle of intersection of two spheres. Conditions for two spheres to be orthogonal; Radical plane. Coaxial system of spheres; Simplified from of the equation of two spheres. Cones, Cylinders and conicoids: Definitions of a cone, vertex, guiding curve, generators. Equation of the cone with a given vertex and guiding curve. Enveloping cone of a sphere. Equations of cones with vertex at origin are homogenous. Condition that the general equation of the second degree should represent a cone. Condition that a cone may have three mutually perpendicular generators Intersection of a line and a quadric cone. Tangent lines and tangent plane at a point. Condition that a plane may touch a cone. Reciprocal cones. Intersection of two cones with a common vertex. Right circular cone. Equation of the right circular cone with a given vertex, axis and semi-vertical angle. Definition of a cylinder. Equation to the cylinder whose generators intersect a given conic and are parallel to a given line, Enveloping cylinder of a sphere. The right circular cylinder. Equation of the right circular cylinder with a given axis and radius. The general equation of the second degree and the various surfaces represented by it; Shapes of some surfaces. Nature of Ellipsoid. Nature of Hyperboloid of one sheet.
Real Numbers: The Completeness Properties of R, Applications of the Supremum Property. Sequences and Series-Sequences and their limits, Limit theorems, Monotonic Sequences, Sub- sequences and the Bolzano-Weirstrass theorem, The Cauchy’s Criterion, properly divergent sequences, Introduction to series, Absolute convergence, test for absolute continuous Functions—continuous functions, combinations of continuous functions, continuous functions on intervals, Uniform continuity.
Differentiation and Integration: The derivative, The mean value theorems, L’Hospital Rule, Taylor’s Theorem. Riemann integration – Riemann integral, Riemann integrable functions, fundamental theorem.
Multiple integrals and Vector Calculus: Multiple integrals: Introduction, the concept of a plane, Curve, line integral-Sufficient condition for the existence of the integral. The area of a subset of R2, Calculation of double integrals, Jordan curve, Area, Change of the order of integration, Double integral as a limit, Change of variable in a double integration. Lengths of Curves, surface
areas, Integral expression for the length of a curve, surfaces, surface areas.
Vector differentiation. Ordinary derivatives of vectors, Space curves, Continuity, Differentiability, Gradient, Divergence, Curl operators, Formulae involving these operators. Vector integration, Theorems of Gauss and Stokes, Green’s theorem in plane and applications of these theorems.
Part-A (40 Marks)
Electrostatics-Gauss’s Law and its applications. Dielectrics and Capacitance. Magnetostatics. Moving charge in electric and magnetic fields-Hall effect, Cyclotron and Synchrocyclotron, Biot Savart’s law. Electromagnetic induction-Faraday’s laws and applications, Lenz law. Varying and alternating currents-LCR circuits and related concepts, Resonant circuits. Maxwell’s equations and electromagnetic waves. Semiconductor devices-diodes, transistors, oscillators. Digital principles. Atomic and Molecular physics-atomic spectra, theories; Zeeman effect; X-ray spectra;
Molecular spectra, Raman effect and spectroscopic techniques. Elements of quantum theory wave nature of matter, uncertainty principle, wave mechanics; Schrodinger’s wave equation and its applications. Nuclear Physics-Nucleus, its properties and models; Radioactive decay-Laws and
theories; Radiation detectors, Nuclear Reactors. Crystals structures and X-ray diffraction; bonding in crystals; Magnetic properties of materials; Superconductivity - Nano-materials.
Part-B (60 Marks)
Vector analysis-Vector integration, Stokes, Gauss and Greens theorems. Mechanics of particles- Laws of motion, conservation of energy and momentum, and collisions. Dynamics of a rigid body. Mechanics of continuous media- Elastic constants of istropic solids and their relations. Dynamics of a rigid body. Mechanics of continuous media – Elastic constants of isotropic solids and their relation, Equation of continuity. Central forces-nature; Gravitational field; Kepler’s laws. Special theory of relativity. Fundamentals of Vibrations- Simple harmonic oscillators. Damped and forced Oscillations. Complex Vibrations-Fourier theorem, analysis of periodic, square, triangular and saw tooth wave functions. Coupled Oscillators. Vibrating stringstransverse wave propagation, strings clamped at both the ends, overtones and energy transport. Vibrations of bars – longitudinal wave propagation in bars. Ultrasonic- properties, methods of production and detection, and applications. Kinetic theory of gases- Law of distribution of molecular speeds, Application to Viscosity, thermal conduction and diffusion of gases. Laws of thermodynamics, entropy and disorder. Thermodynamic potentials and Maxwell’s equations, specific heats and Joule Kelvin effect. Low temperature Physics. Quantum theory of Radiation- Black body, Wein’s law, Rayleigh Jeans law and Plank’s law, and measurement of Radiation. Elements of Statistical Mechanics. Concept of ensembles – MB, BE and FD Statistics, Matrix Methods in paraxial optics. Aberrations and methods of their minimization. Interference and its
theories; Interference by films and interferometry. Fraunhoffer diffraction and Fresnel diffraction. Polarization-production and analysis. Phenomenon of double refraction. Babinet’s compensator. Optical activity. Lasers, fibre optics and holography.
Part–A (40 Marks)
Analysis of Quantitative Data:- Univariate data – Measures of central tendency (Mean, Median and Mode with simple applications), Measures of Dispersion (definitions and simple examples), relative Dispersion and their areas of application. Importance of Moments. Central and Non-central Moments, Sheppard’s corrections for moments for grouped data. Skewness and Kurtosis-their measures including those based on quartiles and moments with real life examples.
Probability and Random Experiment:- Definition of Probability, Classical and Relative frequency approach to Probability, merits and demerits of these approaches. Random experiment, sample point and sample space, definition of an event, operation of events. Properties of probability based on axiomatic approach, Addition theorem for ’n’ events, conditional Probability, Multiplication rule of probability for ‘n’ events, Boole’s inequality, Independence of events, Baye’s theorem and its applications (with examples of real life).
Random Variables:- Notion of a Random variable, Distribution function and its properties. Discrete random variable, Probability Mass function, Continuous random variable, Probability Density function. Transformation of one dimensional random variable (simple1-1 functions only).
Mathematical Expectation:- Mathematical expectation of random variable and its properties. Moments-Raw and Central moments with examples – Definition of Moment generating function (m.g.f), Cumulant generating function (c.g.f). Probability generating function (p.g.f) and
Characteristic function, statements of their properties with applications. Chebychev’s inequality and its applications. Statement and applications of Weak law of Large numbers and Central limit theorem for i.i.d. random variables with finite variance.
Discrete Distributions:- Standard discrete distributions and their properties such as m.g.f, c.g.f, p.g.f., Characteristic function, moments up to fourth order of Uniform, Binomial, Poisson, Negative Binomial, Geometric and Hyper-Geometric distributions. Reproductive property wherever it exists. Binomial approximation to Hyper-Geometric, Poisson approximation to Binomial and Negative Binomial Distributions. Applications of these distributions in real life.
Continuous Distributions:- Normal distribution-Definition, properties and its importance in Statistics. Normal distribution as limiting case of Binomial and Poisson distributions. Definitions and properties such as m.g.f, c.g.f, Characteristic function, moments up to fourth order of Rectangular, Gamma, Exponential, and Cauchy distributions. Reproductive property wherever it exists. Application of these distributions in real life. Bivariate date. Scattered diagram. Principle of Least squares, fitting of Straight line, Quadratic, Power and Exponential curves. Product moment Correlation coefficient and its properties, Partial and Multiple Correlation coefficients (only for three variables). Spearman’s Rank correlation coefficient. Simple linear regression, Correlation and regression-comparison, Coefficient of Determination, Correlation ratio. Bivariate random variable – discrete and contiuous, joint, marginal and conditional distributions, distribution fuction of bivariate random variable, statement of its properties, simple illustrations. Mathematical expectation of bivariate random variable. Covariance, additive and multiplication theorems of mathematical expectation, correlation coefficient and lines of regression with illustrations. Concept of Population, Parameter, Random Sample, Statistic. Sampling distribution of the sum of observations from Binomial, Poisson and Normal distribution, Standard error. Exact Sampling Distributions – Statements and Properties of x2, t and F distributions and inter relations.
Theory of Estimation:- Point Estimate of parameter, concept of bias and mean square error of an estimate. Criteria of good estimator-Consistency, Unbiased ness, Efficiency and Sufficiency, Statement of Nyman’s Factorization theorem, derivations of Sufficient statistics in Binomial, Poisson, Normal and Exponential cases (one parameter only). Estimation by the Method of Moments and Maximum Likelihood Method. Statements of asymptotic properties of Maximum Likelihood Estimators. Concept of Interval estimation, Confidence intervals of parameters of Normal
Statistical Tests:- Concepts of null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, critical region, two types of errors, level of significance and power of a test. Neyman – Pearson lemma for testing a simple null hypothesis against a simple alternative and examples on the case of Binomial, Poisson, Exponential and Normal (for mean with known SD) distributions.
Analysis of Categorical Data:- Consistency of Categorical data. Independence and Association of Attributes, various measures of association for two-way data with real life examples.
Large Sample Tests:- Use of central limit theorem for testing and interval estimation of a single mean and a single proportion and difference of two means and two proportions. Fisher’s Ztransformation and its uses.
Tests of significance based on t, x2 and F distributions, X2 test for goodness of fit, test for independence of attributes. Comparison of Parametric and Nonparametric tests, their advantages and disadvantages. Nonparametric tests:- One sample Run test. Sign test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests for one sample and two related samples. Tests for two independent samples: Median test, Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U-test, Wald-Wolfowitz Runs test. (Small and Large samples).
Designs of Experiments:- Analysis of variance of one way and two way classifications. Expectation of various sums of squares. Importance and applications of designs of experiments, principal of Experimentation. Analysis of completely Randomized Design (CRD), Randomized Block Design (RBD) and Latin Square Design (LSD) including one missing observation, comparison of their efficiencies, expectation of various sums of squares.
Designs of Sample Surveys:- Random Numbers, drawing random samples, Sample surveys versus census surveys. Planning and execution of large scale sample surveys, notion of non-sampling errors, sources and treatment of non-sampling errors. Estimation of population mean, population total, population proportion and variance of the estimators by
i) Simple Random sampling with and without replacements.
ii) Stratified Random sampling with proportional and Neyman’s optimum allocation.
iii) Symmetric sampling with N = nk. Comparison of their efficiencies.
Time Series Analysis:- Components of Time Series, Determination of trend by graphical, semi- average, Least squares and moving average methods. Determination of Seasonal indices by Simple averages, Ration to moving averages, Ratio to trend and Link relative methods.
Index Numbers:- Construction, uses and limitations of Index numbers. Simple and Weighted index numbers, consistency tests for an Index number, base shifting, splicing and deflation. Fixed and Chain base Index numbers. Cost of living Index numbers and Wholesale price Index numbers.
Demand Analysis:- Introduction, Demand and Supply, Price Elasticity’s of Supply and Demand, Methods of determining Demand and Supply Curves: Time Series Data, Leontief’s method of finding Demand Curve from time Series Data. Limitations of the method, Pigous’s method from Time Series Data, Pareto’s law of Income distribution, Curve of concentration.
Vital Statistics and Indian Official Statistics:- Rates and ratios, Standardized rates, Fertility and Reproduction rates, Construction and uses of complete and abridged life tables. Functions and organization of CSO and NSSO. Agricultural statistics, Area and Yield statistics. National Income and its computation. Utilities and difficulties in estimation of National Income.
Part–A (40 Marks)
Animal Physiology, Genetics & Evolution: Physiology of Digestion: Definition of digestion and types of digestion-extra and intracellular; Digestion of Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and cellulose digestion; Absorption and assimilation of digested food materials; Gastrointestinal hormones-control of digestion Physiology of respiration: Types of respiration-external and internal respiration; Structure of mammalian lungs and gaseous exchange; Transport of oxygen-formation of oxyhaemoglobin and affinity of hemoglobin for Oxygen, Oxygen dissociation curves; Transport of CO2-Chloride shift, Bohr effect; Cellular respiration- Main steps of glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, electron transport, Oxidative phosporylationa and ATP production (Chemosmotic theory); Physiology of Circulation: Open and closed circulation; Structure of mammalian heart and its working mechanism-Heartbeat and cardiac cycle. Myogenic and neurogenic hearts; Regulation of heart rate-Tachycardia and Bradycardia; Physiology of Excretion: Definition of excretion; Forms of nitrogenous waste material and their formation: classification of animals on the basis of excretory products; Gross organization of mammalian excretory system and structure of kidney; Structure and function of Nephron-Counter current mechanism; Physiology of muscle contraction: General structure and types of muscles: Ultra structure of skeletal muscle; Sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction; Chemical changes during muscle contraction-role of calcium, ATP utilization and its replenishment; Physiology of nerve impulse: Structure of nerve cell; Nature of nerve impulse-resting potential and action potential. Properties of nerve impulse-threshold value, refractory period, all or none response; Conduction of nerve impulse along an axon-local circuit theory and salutatory conduction theory; Structure of synapse,
mechanism of synaptic transmission – electrical and chemical transmissions; Physiology of Endocrine System: Relationship between hypothalamus and pituitary gland; Hormones of hypothalamus; Hormones of Adenohypophysis and Neruohypophsis; Hormones of pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal and pancreas; Endocrine control of mammalian reproduction – Male and female hormones- Hormonal control of menstrual cycle in humans; Physiology of Homeostasis: Concept of homeostasis and its basic working mechanism; Mechanism of Homeostasis – giving three illustration viz., Hormonal control of glucose levels, Water and ionic regulation by freshwater and marine animals and temperature regulation in man; Genetics: Mendel’s laws-Law of segregation and independent assortment; Genetic interactionsIncomplete dominance, codominance and epitasis; Identification of DNA as the genetic material-Griffith’s
experiment and Hershey-Chase experiment; Central dogma of molecular biology-Brief account of DNA replication (Semi-conservative method), Replication fork (Continous and discontinous synthesis); Transcription-Brief account initiation, elongation and termination in eukaryotes; Translation; Genetic code; gene regulation as exemplified by lac operon; Human karyotyping, barr bodies and Lyon hypothesis and
Amniocentesis chromosomal disorders-Autosomal and sex chromosomes; Organic Evolution: Genetic basis of Evolution, Gene pool and gene frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg’s Law, Force of destabilization, natural selection, genetic drift, Mutation, lsolation and Migration; Speciation – Allopatry and sympatry. Fisheries and Aquaculture, Hematology, Immunology, Animal Biotechnology: Fisheries and Aquaculture: Capture fisheries-Introduction; Types of fisheries, Fishery resources from Freshwater, Brackish water and Marine habitats; Finfish and shell fisheries; Fishing gears and fishing crafts; Freshwater, Brackish water and Mariculture; Site selection criteria; Aquaculture systems; induced breeding; Hatchery design and Management; Larval rearing-Nursery ponds, rearing and grow out ponds; Shrimp and Prawn culture; Hatchery systems, Seed transport, common diseases and control; Post-harvest technology; Preservation and processing-Freezing, solar drying, Canning, salting smoking, By product of fish cool mineral; Clinical Science: Hematology: Blood composition and functions; Blood groups and transfusion problems; Blood diseases-Anemia, Leukemia, Leucocytosis, Leucopenia; Biopsy and autopsy-Clinical importance; Immunology: 2.2.1. Types of Immunity-Innate and Acquired; Antigens-Haptenes and epitopes and their properties; Structure and biological properties of human immunoglobulin G ((IgG); Hypersensitivityimmediate and delayed; Important Human Parasites Blood parasites (structure and Clinical significance of Plasmodium); Intestinal parasites-Structure and clinical significance Entamoeba, Giardia, Taeniasolim, Ancylostoma, Enterobius; Animal Biotechnology: Scope of Biotechnology,Cloning vectors–Characteristics of vectors, Plasmids; Gene Cloning-Enzymatic cleavage of DNA, Restriction enzymes (Endonucleases) and Ligation; Transgenesis and Production of transgenic animals (Fish and Goat); Application of stem cell technology in cell based therapy (Diabetes and Parkinson’s diseases).
Biology of Invertebrates and Cell Biology: Phylum protozoa: General characters and outline classification up to classes. Type study: Paramecium; Phylum Porifera: General characters and outline classification up to classes. Type study: Sycon; Canal system in Sponges; Phylum coelenterate: General characters and outline classification up to classes. Type study: Obelia; Polymorphism is Coelenterates; Corals and coral reef formation; Phylum Platyhelminthes: General characters and outline classification up to classes. Type study, Fasciola hepatica; Phylum Nematheiminthes: General characters and outline classification up to classes. Type study: Ascaris lumbricoides; Phylum Annelidia: General characters and outline classification up to classes Type study: Leech; Coelom and coelomoducts in Annelids; Phylum Arthropoda: General
characters and outline classification of up to classes Type study; Prawn; Crustacean larvae; Peripatus- Characters and Significance; Phylum Mollusca: General characters and outline classification of up to classes Type study: Pila; Pearl formation in Molluses; Phylum Echinodermata: General characters and outline classification of up to classes. Type study: Star fish; General characters of Hemichordata: Structure and affinities of Balanoglossus; Cell Biology: Cell theory; Ultra structure of Animal cell; Structure of Plasma membrane-Fluid-mosaic mode. Transport functions of Plasma membrane-Passive transport, active transport (Antiport, symport and uniport) and bulk transport; Structure and functions of Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi body, Ribosomes, lyososomes and Mitochondrion; Chromosomes-nomenclature types and
structure. Giant chromosomes-Polytene and Lampbrush chromosomes; Cell division-Cell-cycle stages (G1,S, G2 and M phases), Cell-cycle check points and regulation. Mitosis; Meiosis-and its significance; Biomolecules of the cell: Carbohydrates: Classification of Carbohydrates; Structure of Monosaccharides (Glucose and Fructose); Structure of Disaccharides (Lactose and Sucrose); Structure of Polysaccharides (Starch, Glycogen and Chitin); Proteins: Amino acids: General properties, nomenclature, classification and
structure; Classification of proteins based on functions, chemical nature and nutrition, peptide bond and structure (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary structures); Lipids: Classification. Structure of Fatty acids (Saturated and unsaturated); Triacylglycerols, Phospolipids (Lecithin and cephalin) and Steroids (Cholesterol); Nucleic acids: Structure of purines, pyrimidines, ribose and deoxyribose sugars; Watson and crick model of DNA – Nucleoside, Nucleotide, Chargaff’s rule Structure of RNA, Types of RNA – rRNA, tRNA and mRNA; Biology of Chrodates, Embryology, Ecology and Zoogeography: Protochordates: Salient features of Urochordata and Cephalochordata Structure and life-history of Herdmania, Significance of retrogressive Metamorphosis; General organization of chordates; General characters of Cyclostomes; General characters of fishes, classification up to sub-class level with examples; Type study – Scoliodon: Morphology, respiratory system, circulatory system, excretory system, nervous system and sense organs; Migration in fishes and types of scales; General characters and classification of Amphibia up to order level; Type study-Rana: Morphology, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system, excretory system, nervous system and reproductive system; Parental care in amphibians; General characters and
classification of Reptilia up to order level; Type study-Calotes: Morphology, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system, urinogenital system and nervous system; General characters and classification of Aves up to order level with examples; Type study-Pigeon (Columbia livia): Exoskeleton, respiratory system, circulating system and excretory system; significance of migration in birds; Flight adaptation in birds; General characters and classification of Mammalia up to order level with examples; Dentition in mammals; Embryology: Spermatogenesis, Oogenesis and Fertilization; Types of eggs; Types of cleavages; Development of frog up to gastrulation and formation of primary germ layers; Foetal membranes and their significance placenta: types and functions; Regeneration with reference to Turbellarians and lizards;
Ecology and Zoogeography: Biogeochemical cycles or nutrient cycles-Gaseous cycles of Nitrogen and carbon; Sedimentary cycle – phosphorus; Definition of community-Habitat and ecological niche; Community interactions: Brief account on Competition, predation, mutualism, commensalisms and parasitism; Ecological succession: Primary and Secondary, seral stages, climax community with examples; Population ecology: Density and dispersions of animal populations; growth curves and growth of animal populations-r- selected and k-selected species; Population regulation mechanisms–both biotic and abiotic; Growth of human population its control. Future of human population; Zoogeographical realms and their characteristic fauna.
. Biochemistry/Biotechnology/Environmental Science/Forensic Science/ Genetics/Microbiology/Nutrition & Dietetics(BCBTESFSGMN&D)
Part – A : Chemistry (40 Marks)
The syllabus is same as that of Chemistry entrance test syllabus (Both Part A and Part B).
Part – B (60 Marks)
Candidates have to attempt any one of the following subjects.
Section – IV: BIOCHEMISTRY:
- Elementary aspects of cell structure–function, tissues and body fluids.
- Chemistry, physiological role and metabolism of biomolecules like carbohydrates, amino-acids, proteins, Lipids & nucleic acids.
- Basic aspects of nutrition, endocrinology & Physiology, clinical biochemistry, enzymology, biological oxidations, photosynthesis.
- Physiological role of vitamins and minerals.
- Basic aspects of immunology.
- Replication, transcription and protein synthesis.
- Fundamental aspects of microbiology.
- Elementary aspects of r-DNA technology and genetic engineering.
- Principles, methodology and applications of various biochemical techniques used in biochemistry.
Section – V: Biotechnology:
Fundamentals Of Biotechnology: Perspectives of Biotechnology - Nature and properties of biomolecules involved in information storage retrieval signaling and executing mediator and catalytic function: DNA, RNA, Proteins and other signal molecules., basic units of living systems, classification, ultra structure and composition of cells, cell division, cell cycles, cell to cell interactions, Laws of inheritance, linkage and crossing over, sex determination and sex linked inheritance, mapping, genetic recombination (Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes). Classification,
structure function of micro-organisms-microscopy and microbial techniques. Measures of central tendencies and distribution probability distribution, sampling theory, confidence levels - Applications of computers in biological system.
Biochemical Techniques Intermediary metabolism and biocatalysis: Spectrophotometry and colorimetry - Beer Lambart Law - physical methods of determining molecular structure - Methods of cell disruption and analysis by fractionation - dialysis centrifugation, chromatography, Electrophoresis, manometry and its application, Intermediary metabolism - glycolysis, TCA cycle, electron transport, photosynthesis, respiration and fermentation, Biosysthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, polysaccharides and lipids, Biocatalysis - Enzymes, their catalysis, inhabitation and regulation.
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering: Nucleic acids as genetic material structure replication of DNA & RNA. Mutation and damage to DNA - Molecular basis, Gene expression: Transcription & Processing of RNA - Genetic code - Regulation. Plasmids and transposable elements. Outlines of DNA technology - enzymes used in gene cloning, vectors, genomic DNA and cDNA libraries and expression of cloned genes. Applications. Immune system and their functions. Antibody diversity - vaccines and their production. Purification antigens and antibodies, Hybridoma technology and Monoclonal antibodies ELISA, RIA synthetic vaccines.
Application of Biotechnology: Animal Cell Biotechnology, Plant Biotechnology, Microbial Biotechnology, Environmental Biotechnology.
Section – VI: Genetics:
Mendelian Principles: Law of segregation-Law of Independent Assortment, Extension to mendelian scgregation patterns:
Co-dominance, Incomplete dominance, Lethals, gene interaction - Epistasis - paramutation-Environmental effects on gene exoression-Penetrance- Expressivity, Multiple alleles, Isoalleles and Pseudoalleles. Chromosomal basis of ineritance: Eucaryotic cell cycle - S and G phases, Chromosomal replication and segregation, Mitosis, Meiosis. Chromosome structure and organisation: Size and shape of chromosomes, structure of chromosomes, Packing of DNA, Specialised chromosomes, Lampbrush chromosomes, Polytene chromosomes, puffing and genetic activity at puffs. Supernumerary chromosomes. Chromosomal changes: Inversions Duplications, Defeciencies, Change in chromosomes number; Linkage, recombination and mapping phases of linkage, chiasmata and crossing over, Cytological proof for crossing over and recombination, complete and partial linkage, Linkage analysis and
gene mapping, Gene mapping in Neurospora - Tetrad analysis, Recombination in bacteria, Transduction, Transformation, Recombination in viruses, Genetics of sex determination and sex linked inheritance: Sex determining mechanisms in Birds, Drosophila, Plants and Man, Sex chromatin and inactivation of X chromosomes, sex linked inheritance, Holandric genes, Incompletely sex linked genes, sex limited genes, Sex influenced genes, Cytoplasmic inheritance: Chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, Their evolutionary significance.
DNA as the genetic material: Evidences for DNA as Genetic material, Transforming Principle - A very et al experiment, Labelling experiment of Harshey and Chase, Tobaco Mosaic virus infectivity, Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA, Watson and Crick model, Biosynthesis of nucleic acid, Replication of DNA, Models of DNA replication - linear and circular DNA, Enzymes involved in DNA Replication. Genome organisation: C value paradox, Gene Families and their evolutionary significance, Settelite DNA, Selfish DNA, Intervening sequences - introns, Ribosomal genes. Gene mutation and repair mechanisms: Spontaneous mutatiions and induced mutations, Mode of action of mutagens, Repair of mutations, Photoreactivation, Excision repair SOS repair Recombinational repair, Error prone repair, Detection of mutations - Procaryotes and Eucaryotes. Fine structure analysis of the gene: Compound locus in Drosophila, One gene - one enzyme concept, Analysis of rII locus, Colinearity between gene and polypeptide - Tryptophan synthetase, Intra codon recombination. Gene expression: Transcription, Formation of RNA transcripts - mRNA, Reverse transcription, translation, genetic code-codons and amino
acids, antico on and wobble hypothesis, structure and function of RNA – mRNA, tRNA and rRNA, structrure and function of ribosomes - subunits of ribosomes, ribosomes and polyribosomes, polypeptide synthesis - initiation, elongation and termination, Regulation of gene expression: Regulation in bacteria - Operon, Regulator genes, Structural genes, Terminators, Positive and negative Control, Catabolite repression - cAMP and CRP, Tryptophan regulation - operator, Attenuation, Regulation of termination Antitermination, Lytic cascade in phage, Regulation in eucaryotes, Gal locus regualtion in yeast, Regulation of mating type in yeast. Transposable elements: Transposable elements in different organisms, Maize-Dt, Ac Ds and Spm systems, Drosophila - copia, p element, yeast - Ty elements, bacterial plasmids, Transposon - structure and physical characteristics, Recombinant DNA technology: Restriction enzymes, Cloning, Vectors, Gene isolation and identification, chromosome walking, Gene libraries, Expression of cloned genes. Genes in population and evolution Genetic diversity in natural populations: The concept of populations, structure of populations, Random mating and genetic equilibrium, Hardy Weinberg law. Quantitative traits and population improvement: Multiple factor inheritance, Breeding plans and selection in plants and animals, Inbreeding, and genetic basis of inbreeding Cross bredding and Heterosis.The origin of life: Origin of primary compounds, colloidal systems and primary proteins, Formation of RNA and DNA, origin of the genetic code.Rhylogenetic analysis and evolutionary trends: Evolution of hemoglobin and cytochrome - Molecular clocks DNA and amino acid sequences - phylogenetic relationship, Protein phylogeny and human evolution.
Industrial applications of microbial genetics: Vaccines, Synthetic poptide - vaccines, Live attenuated vaccines, Killed vaccines, Subunit vaccines, Biofertilisers and pesticides, Polymers, Biodegradation of pertroleum, Biodegradationof xenobiotics. Immunogenetics: Basic immunology, Genetics of immunolglobulins, Immunogenetics of transplantation, Monoclonal antibodies - Hybridome technique, Genetic engineering and crop improvement Cell and tissue culture techniques, Somatic cell hybrids, Transgenic plants. Genetic engineering and animal improvement : Cloning transgenic animals for improving protein, milk yield, etc., Genetics of human diseases and gene therapy: Metabolic disorders - PKU, Alkaptonuria etc., Syndromes, Disorders of the blood, Types of blood groups in man, Inheritance of blood groups, Blood group incompatibility, Genetic basis of cancer, Diagnosis, Prenatal diagnosis, Diagniss by gene cloning, Diagnosing mutations by linkage assocaiton, Genetic counseling, Human gene products in therapy - Insulin, Interferon Blood protein etc., Examples of gene therapy in diseases like retinoblastoma, Muscular Dystrophy etc., Genetics and society: Euphenics, Eugenics, Genetics and law, Usefulness of prenatal diognosis, genetic counseling and genetic engineering techniques.
Section – VII: Microbiology
Scope and importance of Microbiology. Spontaneous generation-biogenesis theory; Germ theory of diseases; Recent developments of Microbiology. Principles of microscopy. Principles of staining. Culture media. Sterilization methods. Isolation of pure cultures, maintenance and preservation
of microbial cultures. Morphology and ultra structure of typical eubacterial cell. Bacterial classification. Discovery and nature of viruses. TMV, HIV, T4 and lambda phages. Cultivation and assay of phages, plant and animal viruses. Nutritional types of bacteria. Bacterial growth. Respiration. Fermentation. Antibiotics. DNA and RNA structures and their role as genetic materials. Transcription and translation. Lac operon. Bacterial plasmids and transposons. DNA damage and repair mechanisms. Mutations. Gene transfer mechanisms in bacteria. Recombinant DNA technology. Types of immunity. Organs of immune system. Cells of immune system. Antigens. Antibodies. Antigen-antibody reactions. Normal flora of human body. Infection, Disease, Defense mechanisms. Bacterial toxins, virulence and attenuation. Airborne diseases, Food water borne diseases and Blood borne diseases. General principles of diagnostic microbiology. Elements of chemotherapy-therapeutic drugs. Drug resistance. Microorganisms in relation to plant growth. Biological nitrogen fixation, Biofertilizers. Microorganisms of the environment (soil, water and air). Microbial interactions. Microbiology of potable and polluted waters. Microorganisms of food spoilage and their sources. General account of food .preservation. Microorganisms as food – SCP, edible mushrooms. Screening and isolation of industrially useful microbes, strain improvement and fermentation. Fermentor. Immobiolization Industrial production of Alcohols, Glutamic acid, Citric acid, vitamin B12, Enzymes, and Antibiotics.