The Himachal Pradesh Technical University (HPTU) conduct the HPCET-2017 for admission to B.Tech./B.Pharmacy/ B.Pharmacy (Ayurveda), M.Tech, M.Pharmacy, MCA and MBA being offered by HPTU and colleges affiliated to it, deemed to be University, or other Universities established under the State Act or Constituent units thereto.
HPCET Syllabus for M. Pharmacy
General Aptitude (GA):
(c) Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.
(d) Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and
Micromeretics and Powder Rheology:
Particle size and distribution, average particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle volume, methods of determining particle size- optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation; measurements of particle shape, specific surface area; methods for determining surface area; permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.
Viscosity and Rheology:
Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature; non-Newtonian systems: pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic; thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, negative thixotropy, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometers.
Colloidal dispersions: Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids in pharmacy; Suspensions and Emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian motion, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation parameters, wetting of particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations; Emulsions-types, theories, physical stability. .
Liquid Dosages Forms:
Introduction, types of additives used in formulations, vehicles, stabilizers, preservatives, suspending agents, emulsifying agents, solubilizers, colors, flavors and others, manufacturing packaging, labeling, evaluation of clear liquids, suspensions and emulsions official in pharmacopoeia Semisolid Dosage Forms: Definitions, types, mechanisms of drug penetration, factor influencing penetration, semisolid bases and their selection. General formulation of semisolids, clear gels manufacturing procedure, evaluation and packaging;
Ideal requirements, bases, displacement value, manufacturing procedure, packaging and evaluation;
Definition, propellants, general formulation, manufacturing' and packaging methods, pharmaceutical applications; Ophthalmic Preparations: Requirements, formulation, methods of preparation, labeling, containers, evaluation;
Advantages and disadvantages of capsule dosage form, material for production of hard gelatin capsules, size of capsules, formulation, method of capsule filling, soft gelatin, capsule shell and capsule content, importance of base absorption and minimum/gm factors in soft capsules, quality control, stability testing and storage of capsule dosage forms.
Types of microcapsules, importance of microencapsulation in pharmacy, microencapsulation by phase separation, coacervation, multi-orifice, spray drying, spray congealing, polymerization complex emulsion, air suspension technique, coating pan and other techniques,evaluation of micro capsules.
Advantages and disadvantages of tablets, Application of different types of tablets, Formulation of different types of tablets, granulation, technology on large-scale by various techniques, different types of tablet compression machinery and the equipments employed, evaluation of tablets. Coating of Tablets: Types of coating, film forming materials, formulation of
coating solution, equipments for coating, coating process, evaluation of coated tablets. Stability kinetics and quality assurance.
Pre-formulation factors, routes of administration, water for injection, and sterile water for injection, pyrogenicity, non aqueous vehicles, isotonicity and methods of its adjustment, Formulation details, Containers and closures and selection, labeling; Pre-filling treatment, washing of containers and closures, preparation of solution and suspensions, filling and
closing of ampoules, vials, infusion fluids, lyophilization& preparation of sterile powders, equipment for large scale manufacture and evaluation of parenteral products; Aseptic Techniquessource of contamination and methods of prevention, Design of aseptic area, Laminar flow bench services and maintenance. Sterility testing of pharmaceuticals.
Packaging of Pharmaceutical Products:
Packaging components, types, specifications and methods of evaluation, stability aspects of packaging. Packaging equipments, factors influence choice of containers, legal and official requirements for containers, package testing.
Designing of dosage forms:
Pre-formulation studies, Study of physical properties of drug like physical form, particle size, shape, density, wetting, dielectric constant. Solubility, dissolution and organoleptic properties and their effect on formulation, stability and bioavailability. Study of chemical properties of drugs like hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction, racemization, polymerization etc., and their influence on formulation and stability of products. Study of pro-drugs in solving problems related to stability, bioavailability and elegancy of formulations. Design, development and process validation methods for pharmaceutical operations involved in the production of pharmaceutical products with special reference to tablets, suspensions.Stabilization and stability testing protocol for
various pharmaceutical products.ICH guidelines for stability testing of formulations.
Performance evaluation methods:
In-vitro dissolution studies for solid dosage forms methods, interpretation of dissolution data. Bioavailability studies and bioavailability testing protocol and procedures.In vivo methods of evaluation and statistical treatment.GMP and quality assurance, Quality audit.Design, development, production and evaluation of controlled/sustained/extended release formulations.
Passage of drugs across biological barrier (passive diffusion, active transport, facilitated diffusion, ion-pair formation and pinocytosis); Factors influencing absorption- biological, physico-chemical, physiological and pharmaceutical; Drug distribution in the body, plasma protein binding.
Significance of plasma drug concentration measurement. Compartment model- Definition and Scope. Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption - Zero order and first order absorption rate constant using Wagner-Nelson and residual methods. Volume of distribution and distribution coefficient. Compartment kinetics- One compartment and two compartment models. Determination of pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma and urine data after drug administration by intravascular and oral route. Clearance concept, mechanism of renal clearance, clearance ratio, determination of renal clearance. Extraction ratio, hepatic clearance, biliary excretion, extra-hepatic circulation. Non-linear pharmacokinetics with special reference to one compartment model after I.V. drug administration.
Definition and scope: Dosage adjustment in patients with and without renal and hepatic failure; Design of single dose bio-equivalence study and relevant statistics; Pharmacokinetic drug interactions and their significance in combination therapy.
Bioavailability and bioequivalence:
Measures of bioavailability, Cmax, tmax, Keli and Area Under the Curve (AUC); Design of single dose bioequivalence study and relevant statistics; Review of regulatory requirements for conducting bioequivalent studies. Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) of drugs.
Physico-chemical and stereoisomeric (Optical, geometrical) aspects of drug molecules and biological action, Bioisosterism, Drug-receptor interactions including transduction mechanisms; Drug metabolism and Concept of Prodrugs; Principles of Drug Design (Theoretical Aspects)Traditional analog and mechanism based approaches, QSAR approaches, Applications of quantum mechanics, Computer Aided Drug Designing (CADD) and molecular modelling
Synthetic Procedures, Mode of Action, Uses, Structure Activity Relationships including physicochemical Properties of the Following Classes of Drugs
Drugs acting at synaptic and neuro-effector junction sites; Cholinergics, anti-cholinergics and cholinesterase inhibitor; Adrenergic drugs; Antispasmodic and anti-ulcer drugs; Local Anesthetics; Neuromuscular blocking agents; Autacoids, Steroidal Drugs; Drugs acting on the central nervous system; Diuretics; Anti-hypertensives; Anti-arrythmic agents, anti-anginal agents, Cardiotonics; Anti-hyperlipedemic agents; Anticoagulants and Anti-platelet drugs; Thyroid and Anti thyroid drugs; Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents; Chemotherapeutic Agents used in bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoal, parasitic and other infections, Antibiotics: ß-Lactam, macrolides, tetracyclines,
aminoglycosides, polypeptide antibiotics, fluoroquinolones; Anti-neoplastic agents; Anti-viral agents (including anti–HIV); Immunosuppressives and immunostimulants; Diagnostic agents; Pharmaceutical Aids;
Basic Principles of pharmaceutical analysis:
Preliminaries and definitions, Significant figures, Rules for retaining significant digits, Types of errors, Mean deviation, Standard deviation, Statistical treatment of small data sets, Selection of sample, Precision and accuracy,
Theory of chromatography, plate theory, Factors affecting resolution, van Deemter equation, The following chromatographic techniques (including instrumentation) with relevant examples of Pharmacopoeial products: TLC, HPLC, GLC, HPTLC, Paper Chromatography and Column Chromatography;
Theoretical Aspects, Basic Instrumentation, Elements of Interpretation of Spectra, and applications (quantitative and qualitative) of the following
Ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry, Infrared spectrophotometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, Mass Spectrometry (EI & CI only), Flame Photometry, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction Analysis, Radioimmunoassay.
Basic Principles of Cell Injury and Adaptations:
Causes of Cellular injury, pathogenesis, morphology of cell injury, adaptations and cell death.
Basic Mechanisms involved in the process of inflammation and repair:
Vascular and cellular events of acute inflammation, chemical mediators of inflammation, pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, brief outline of the process of repair.
T and B cells, MHC proteins, antigen presenting cells, immune tolerance, pathogenesis of hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, Amyloidosis.
Pathophysiology of Common Diseases:
Asthma, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, ulcerative colitis, neoplasia, psychosis, depression, mania, epilepsy, acute and chronic renal failure, hypertension, angina, congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, peptic ulcer, anemias, hepatic disorders, tuberculosis, urinary tract infections and
sexually transmitted diseases. Wherever applicable the molecular basis should be discussed.
Fundamentals of general pharmacology:
Dosage forms and routes of administration, mechanism of action, combined effect of drugs, factors modifying drug action, tolerance and dependence; Pharmacogenetics; Principles of Basic and Clinical pharmacokinetics, absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of drugs, Adverse Drug Reactions; Bioassay of Drugs and Biological
Standardization; Discovery and development of new drugs, Bioavailability and bioequivalence studies;
Pharmacology of Peripheral Nervous System:
Neurohumoral transmission (autonomic and somatic), Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, Adrenergic receptor and neuron blocking agents, Ganglion stimulants and blocking agents, Neuromuscular blocking Agents, Local anesthetic Agents.
Pharmacology of Central Nervous System:
Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S., General Anesthetics, Alcohols and disulfiram, Sedatives, Hypnotics, Anti-anxiety agents and Centrally acting muscle relaxants, Psychopharmacological agents (anti-psychotics), anti-maniacs and hallucinogens, Antidepressants, Anti-epileptics drugs, Anti-Parkinsonian drugs, Analgesics,
Antipyretics, Narcotic analgesics and antagonists, C.N.S. stimulants, Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse.
Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System:
Drugs used in the management of congestive cardiac failure, Antihypertensive drugs, Anti-anginal and Vasodilator drugs, including calcium channel blockers and beta adrenergic antagonists, Anti-arrhythmic drugs, Anti-hyperlipedemic drugs, Drugs used in the therapy of shock.
Drugs Acting on the Hemopoietic System:
Hematinics, Anticoagulants, Vitamin K and hemostatic agents, Fibrinolytic and anti-platelet drugs, Blood and plasma volume expanders.
Drugs acting on urinary system:
Fluid and electrolyte balance, Diuretics.
Histamine, Antihistaminic drugs, 5-HT- its agonists and antagonists, Prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, Angiotensin, Bradykinin and Substance P and other vasoactive peptides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-gout agents.
Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System:
Anti-asthmatic drugs including bronchodilators, Antitussives
and expectorants, Respiratory stimulants.
Drugs acting on the Gastrointestinal Tract:
Antacids, Anti-secretory and Anti-ulcer drugs, Laxatives and anti-diarrhoeal drugs, Appetite Stimulants and Suppressants, Emetics and antiemetics, Miscellaneous: Carminatives, demulcents, protectives, adsorbents, astringents, digestants, enzymes and mucolytics.
Pharmacology of Endocrine System:
Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones, Thyroid hormones and anti thyroid drugs, parathormone, calcitonin and Vitamin D, Insulin, glucagons, incretins, oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin analogs, ACTH and rticosteroids, Androgens and anabolic steroids, Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives, Drugs acting on the uterus.
General Principles of Chemotherapy, Bacterial resistance; Sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, Antibiotics- Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Aminoglycosides, Chloramphenicol, Macrolides, Tetracyclines, Quinolones, fluoroquinolones and Miscellaneous antibiotics; Chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, HIV and AIDS, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases, malaria, amoebiasis and other protozoal infections and Anthelmentics. Chemotherapy of malignancy and immunosuppressive agents.
Principles of Toxicology:
Definition of poison, general principles of treatment of poisoning with
particular reference to barbiturates, opioids, organophosphorous and atropine poisoning, Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists.
Basic Concepts of Pharmacotherapy:
Clinical Pharmacokinetics and individualization of Drug therapy, Drug delivery systems and their Biopharmaceutic& Therapeutic considerations, Drugs used during infancy and in the elderly persons (Pediatrics & Geriatrics), Drugs used during pregnancy, Drug induced diseases, The basics of drug interactions, General principles of clinical toxicology, Common clinical laboratory tests and their interpretation.
Important Disorders of Organs, Systems and their Management:
Congestive heart failure, Angina, Acute myocardial infarction, Cardiac arrhythmias; CNS Disorders: Epilepsy, Parkinsonism, Schizophrenia; Depression Respiratory disease-Asthma; Gastrointestinal Disorders-Peptic ulcer, Ulcerative colitis, Hepatitis, Cirrhosis; Endocrine DisordersDiabetes mellitus and Thyroid disorders; Infectious Diseases-Tuberculosis, Urinary tract infections, Enteric infections, Upper respiratory infections; Hematopoietic Disorders- Anemias; Joint and Connective tissue disorders-Rheumatic diseases, Gout and Hyperuricemia; Neoplastic Diseases- Acute Leukaemias, Hodgkin's disease. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Concept of Essential Drugs
and Rational Drug use.
Sources of Drugs:
Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs
Classification of Drugs:
Morphological, taxonomical, chemical and pharmacological classification of drugs
Study of medicinally important plants
belonging to the families with special reference to: Apocynacae, Solanaceae, Rutacease, Umbelliferae, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Liliaceae, Graminae, Labiatae, Cruciferae, Papaveraceae;
Quality Control of Crude Drugs:
Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and properties.
Introduction to Active Constituents of Drugs:
their isolation, classification and properties.
Preparation of extracts, Screening of alkaloids, saponins, cardenolides and bufadienolides, flavonoids and leucoanthocyanidins, tannins and polyphenols, anthraquinones, cynogenetic glycosides, amino acids in plant extracts;
Systematic pharmacognostic study of the followings:
Carbohydrates and derived products: Agar, Guar gum, Acacia, Honey, Isabagol, Pectin, Starch, Sterculia and Tragacanth; Lipids: Bees wax, Castor oil, Cocoa butter, Codliver oil, Hydnocarpus oil, Kokum butter, Lard, Linseed oil, Rice, Bran oil, Shark liver oil and Wool fat; Resins:Study of Drugs Containing Resins and Resin Combinations like Colophony, podophyllum, jalap, cannabis, capsicum, myrrh, asafoetida, balsam of Tolu, balsam of Peru, benzoin, turmeric, ginger; Tannins: Study of tannins and tannin containing drugs like Gambier, black catechu, gall and myrobalan; Volatile Oils:General methods of obtaining volatile oils from plants, Study of volatile oils of Mentha, Coriander, Cinnamon, Cassia, Lemon peel, Orange peel, Lemon grass, Citronella, Caraway, Dill, Spearmint, Clove, Fennel, Nutmeg, Eucalyptus, Chenopodium, Cardamom, Valerian, Musk, Palmarosa, Gaultheria, Sandal wood; Fibres: Study of fibers used in pharmacy such as cotton, silk, wool, nylon, glass-wool, polyester and asbestos. \
Study of the biological sources, cultivation, collection, commercial varieties, chemical constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following groups of drugs:
Glycoside Containing Drugs:
saponins :iquorice, ginseng, dioscorea, sarsaparilla, and senega; Cardioactiveglycosides: digitalis, squill, strophanthus and thevetia; Anthraquinonecathartics:aloe, senna, rhubarb and cascara; Others:Psoralea, Ammimajus, Ammivisnaga, gentian, saffron, chirata, quassia.
Alkaloid Containing Drugs:
Pyridine-piperidine:tobacco, areca and lobelia; Tropane: belladonna, hyoscyamus, datura, duboisia, coca and withania;Quinoline and Isoquinoline:Cinchona, ipecac, opium; In dole:ergot, rauwolfia, catharanthus, nux-vomica and physostigma;Imidazole:pilocarpus; Steroidal:veratrum and kurch; AlkaloidalAmine:ephedra and colchicum;Glycoal kaloid:solanum;
Purines:coffee, tea and cola. Biological sources, preparation, identification tests and uses of the following enzymes: Diastase,
papain, pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin.
Biochemistry in pharmaceutical sciences:
The concept of free energy, Determination of change in free energy - from equilibrium constant and reduction potential, bioenergetics, production of ATP and its biological significance;
Nomenclature, enzyme kinetics and their mechanism of action, mechanism of inhibition, enzymes and iso-enzymes in clinical diagnosis;
Vitamins as co-enzymes and their significance. Metals as cofactors and their significance; Carbohydrate Metabolism: Conversion of polysaccharides to glucose-1-phosphate, Glycolysis, fermentation and their regulation, Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, Metabolism of galactose and galactosemia, Role of sugar nucleotides in biosynthesis, and Pentose phosphate pathway;
The Citric Acid Cycle:
Significance, reactions and energetics of the cycle, Amphibolic role of the cycle, and Glyoxalic acid cycle;
Lipids Metabolism :
Oxidation of fatty acids, ß-oxidation & energetics, biosynthesis of ketone bodies and their utilization, biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, Control of lipid metabolism, Essential fatty acids & eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes), phospholipids, and sphingolipids, Biosynthesis of eicosanoids, cholesterol, androgens, progesterone, estrogens corticosteroids and bile acids;
Redox-potential, enzymes and co-enzymes involved in oxidation reduction & its control, The respiratory chain, its role in energy capture and its control, energetics of oxidative phosphorylation. Inhibitors of respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation, Mechanism of
Metabolism of ammonia and nitrogen containing monomers:
Nitrogen balance, Biosynthesis of amino acids, Catabolism of amino acids, Conversion of amino acids to specialized products, Assimilation of ammonia, Urea. cycle, metabolic disorders of urea cycle, Metabolism of sulphur containing amino acids;
Purine nucleotide inter-conversions;
and formation of deoxyribounucleotides;
Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids:
Brief introduction of genetic organization of the mammalian genome, alteration and rearrangements of genetic material, Biosynthesis of DNA and its replications;
Physical & chemical mutagenesis/carcinogenesis, DNA repair mechanism. Biosynthesis of RNA;
Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis:
Genetic code, Components of protein synthesis and Inhibition of protein synthesis.
Structure and Classification of microbes and their taxonomy:
Actinomycetes, bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses;
Identification of Microbes:
Stains and types of staining techniques, electron microscopy; Nutrition, cultivation, isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, etc; Microbial genetics and variation; Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods: Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection, disinfectants and antiseptics and their evaluation;
different methods, validation of sterilization methods &equipments; Sterility testing of all pharmaceutical products. Microbial assays of antibiotics, vitamins & amino acids. Immunology and Immunological Preparations: antigens and heptans, immune system, cellular/humoral immunity, immunological tolerance, antigen-antibody reactions and their applications. Hypersensitivity, active and passive immunization. Vaccines and sera: their preparation, standardization and storage.
Transformation, conjugation, transduction, protoplast fusion and gene cloning and their applications. Development of hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies. Study of drugs produced by biotechnology such as Activase, Humulin, Humatrope, HB etc;
Historical development of antibiotics. Antimicrobial spectrum and methods used for their standardization. Screening of soil for organisms producing antibiotics, fermenter, its design, control of different parameters. Isolation of mutants, factors influencing rate of mutation.Design of fermentation process.Isolation of fermentation products with special reference to penicillins, streptomycinstetracyclines and vitamin B12.
PHARMACEUTICAL JURISPRUDENCE (C)
A brief review of Drugs & Pharmaceutical Industry; Pharmaceutical Education
An elaborate study of the followings:
Pharmaceutical Ethics; Pharmacy Act 1948; Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945; Medicinal & Toilet Preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955; Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 & Rules; Drugs Price Control Order;
A brief study of the following Acts with special reference to the main provisions and the latest amendments:
Poisons Act 1919; Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act 1954; Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1970 & Rules 1975; Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960; States Shops & Establishments Act & Rules; Insecticides Act 1968; AICTE Act 1987; Factories Act 1948; Minimum Wages Act 1948; Patents Act 1970.
A brief study of
the various Prescription/Non-prescription Products.Medical/Surgical accessories, diagnostic aids, appliances available in the market.