XL-U: Food Technology Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) Exam Syllabus
Section 1: Food Chemistry and Nutrition
Carbohydrates: structure and functional properties of mono-, oligo-, & polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre, gelatinization and retrogradation of starch.
Proteins: classification and structure of proteins in food, biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of muscles.
Lipids: classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and polymorphism.
Pigments: carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin. Food flavours: terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones and quinines.
Enzymes: specificity, simple and inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning.
Nutrition: balanced diet, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, role of minerals in nutrition, co-factors, anti-nutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency diseases. Chemical and biochemical c hanges: changes occur in foods during different processing.
Section 2: Food Microbiology
Characteristics of microorganisms: morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and actinomycetes, spores and vegetative cells, gram-staining.
Microbial growt h: growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique.
Food spoilage: spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals and their products.
Toxins from microbes: pathogens and non-pathogens including Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and Aspergillus genera.
Fermented foods and beverages: curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soya-sauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage.
Section 3: Food Products Technology
Processing principles: thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, intermediate moisture foods.
Food pack aging and storage: packaging materials, aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage.
Cereal processing and products: milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals. Oil processing: expelling, solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation.
Fruits a nd vegetables p rocessing: extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles.
Plantation crops processing and products: tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices.
Milk and milk products processing: pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, icecream, cheese and milk powder.
Processing of animal products: drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder.
Waste utilization: pectin from fruit wastes, uses of by-products from rice milling.
Food standards and qu ality maintenance: FPO, PFA, Agmark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP).
Section 4: Food Engineering
Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number.
Heat transfer: heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers.
Mass transfer: molecular diffusion and Fick’s law, conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films.
Mechanical operations: size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid.
Thermal operations: thermal sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization. Mass transfer oper ations: psychrometry, humidification and dehumidification operations.