# UPCMET Syllabus

## UPCMET Syllabus

U.P. Unaided Medical Colleges Welfare Association conducts the Uttar Pradesh Combined Medical Entrance Test (UPCMET) for admission in the First Year of MBBS course in the member colleges.

Candidates can browse the complete official UPCMET Syllabus.

Refer to the details about UPCMET

==TOC==

### Physics

#### (a) Measurement and Kinematics

1. Estimation of percentage error in the result of an experiment

2. Dimensional analysis: Dimension of a physical quantity M,L,T,q, (Temperature), Dimensional balance of any equation.

3. Motion along straight line path: Time displacement, time-velocity and time-acceleration graphs. Interrelationship among the graphs.

4. Motion in a plane : Vector addition and subtraction (Laws of Polygon to be used) (AB+BC=AC), Graphical deduction has to be emphasized. Multiplication of a vector by a scalar. Uniform motion on a circular path magnitude of centripetal acceleration and force (Centrifugal force does not exist in inertial frame). Motion under a uniform acceleration along a direction other than that of the initial velocity (motion of projectile under gravity2 is included herein interpretation of the vector form of the equation v=u + at and s = ut + ½ at

#### (b) Mechanics

1. Newton's Laws of Motion : the first law (Galileo's Law of Inertia) and the third law (F = -F ) are obtained from 12 21 the second law (a=F/m), variable force, impulse (F.Dt), conservation of momentum, Principle of jet propulsion.

2 Rotatory motion of a rigid body: Torque, angular acceleration, moment of inertial I=Smr = (torque/angular acceleration), angular momentum.

3. Work Energy: Derivation of expression for kinetic energy (1/2mV ) and 1/2Iw) respectively from work done by a force and by a couple. Potential energy for a general Fx relation (using the method of area under the curve) for a 2 constant force (e.g.mgh) and for spring 1/2kx . Conservation of mechanical energy. Elastic and Inelastic collisions (no description). Law of mechanical energy in inelastic collisions.

4. Universal Gravitation: Motion of planets Kepler's laws. Law of gravitation in terms of central force dependence of force on and inverse of square of distance (no derivation). Planets, orbital motion and time period, concepts of weightlessness. Gravitational field (nt/Kg) and potential (J/Kg). Height attained by the projectile, escape velocity.

5. Simple harmonic motion: Pure kinetic motion in terms of projection of uniform circular motion. Formula y=Asin w 2 t. Magnitude of acceleration is -wtimes the displacement, kinetic description that motion in which the force is 2k times the displacement. Relation w= k/m and t = 2pÖm/k and its uses in (i) Simple Pendulum (ii) Oscillation in an ideal spring. Time displacement graph, time period, frequency, phase. Total energy in terms of square of amplitude, conversion of energy in the form of potential and kinetic energies, dissipation and damping.

6. Forced oscillation and resonance: Elementry concept of forced oscillations, cases of resonance examples from
mechanics, sound and radio etc.

#### (c) Wave Motion and Sound

1. Speed of mechanical waves : Newton's formula v=EÖd (no derivation) for longitudinal waves. Order of magnitude of v in various media. Application to gases, Laplace's correction, effect of temperature and pressure for waves on string v =(ÖT/m) (no derivation).

2. Progressive wave : Equation for a simple harmonic progressive wave, phases and phase difference, Wave front graphical representation of particle velocity against x and t. Qualitative picture of pressure variations in longitudinal waves, intensity dependence on square of amplitude (no derivation).

3. Reflection and refraction of waves : Demonstration of characteristics of wave motion with the help of pulse on a string and on water. Mutual independence of various waves in the same medium. Partial reflection and transmission at the interface of two media, Explanation of reflection and refraction on the basis of secondary wavelets and new wave fronts : sin i1/sin i2 = v1/v2

4. Superposition of waves : Interference in space due to two sources, phenomenon of beats, beat frequency equalsthe difference of parent requencies.

5. Stationary waves : Bounded medium, stationary waves, nodes and antinodes, Characteristic frequencies of vibration of a bounded medium. Cases of string and air columns (excluding end correction etc. Sonometer, Melde's experiment, Resonance column and Kundt's tube.

6. Doppler's Principle : Doppler effect due to the motion of the source and due to the motion of the observer.

#### (d) General Properties of Matter

1. Kinetic theory and ideal gases: Molecular agitation, deduction of pressure of an ideal gas, Boyle's Law. Kinetic theory concepts of thermal equilibrium and temperature, Perfect gas equation, deviation from the ideal gas equation at high pressure and low temperature, concepts of finite size of molecules and their mutual interactions. Distinction between gas and vapour, critical temperature.

2. Kinetic models for liquids and solids : Intermolecular forces and potential energy curve. Molecular models for the liquids and solids, Elementary explanation for thermal expansion, fusion. Vaporization, boiling and latent heats.

3. Elasticity : Longitudinal strain, stress and modulus of elasticity. Explanation on the atomic models of solids. Estimation of interatomic force constant. Bulk modulus and rigidity (Only elementry ideas).

4. Surface tension : Surface tension, surface energy. Elementry explanation on the basis of inter molecular forces. Rise of liquid in a capillary tube.

5. Flow of liquids : Ideal fluids, Bernaulli's equation and its application. Viscous fluids (elementry concepts only), viscous force on a solid moving in fluid, Stake's Principle (no derivation), terminal Velocity.

#### (e) Heat :

1. Thermometry : Constant Volume gas thermometer, Principles of Resistance Thermometer R=R (1+ at) and t 0 principle of the thermocouple thermometer, Range of various thermometers, Brief explanation of the various other principles used in thermometry. Total radiation, pyrometer and vapour pressure thermometer.

2. First law of thermodynamics :work done by a system = pdv. Definition of the internal energy function U from the relation dU=dQ-pdv. First law of thermodynamics. U a unique function of any state. Distinction between C and P C Derivation of C C =R for an ideal gas. General features of the function U. Transitional kinetic energy, v P v intermolecular potential energy, internal rotation and vibration in polyatomic molecules and lattice vibrations.

3. Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes : Definitions, Isothermal elasticity of ideal gas. Adiabatic relationship pv g=constant (no derivation), adiabatic elasticity of an ideal gas.

4. Thermal Conduction : Elementary concepts of isothermal surface and temperature gradient. Thermal conductivity and one dimensional heat flow in the steady state, kinetic model of thermal conductivity (including metals).

#### (f) Light

1. Refraction at spherical surfaces :Refraction at spherical surfaces. Derivation of the expression for u, v relationship for refraction at a single spherical surface and a thin lens, (Sign conventions of coordinate geometry to be followed) Newton's formula xx' = ff', combination of lens.

2. Chromatic aberration : Dispersive power of a material, Longitudinal chromatic aberration in a lens, Achromatic combination two lenses in contact.

3. Telescope and Microscope : Astronomical telescope (reflecting refracting types), compounds microscope, magnifying power (for normal eye only). Mention resolving power for both the instruments, need of large aperture telescope and electron microscope (for normal eye only), Mention resolving power for both the instruments, needs of large aperture telescope and electron microscope (no description).

4. Wave nature of light : Elementry observation of diffraction of light by a narrow single slit, comparison with the corresponding observations in ripple tank. Explanation of reflection of lights and refraction of sound on the basis of the wave theory (refer course item c-3). Expression v=c/n. Foucault's experiment for the measurement of the velocity of light in liquid and its historical significance. Analysis of Young's experiment, Fringe width, Wavelength of light in various regions of white light. Elementry ideas of plane polarized light, its production and detection (Pile of plates and polorides).

5. Spectrum : formation of spectrum in a prism spectrometer, Minimum deviation and angular dispersion,Ultraviolet and infrared regions of the spectrum, Characteristic properties, complete range of the electro magnetic spectrum: radio wave to gamma rays.

6. Photometry: Luminous intensity of light source at a point in particular direction. Unit candela (cd). Definition of Lumen (Lm)=1 cd sr. An isotropic sources of luminous intensity of 1 cd gives a total flux of 4 plm. Rating of a lamp in lumens, candela or watt, Unit lux illumination of a surface (lx)=lumen/meter2, measurement of luminous efficiency in lumens watt, illumination in terms of inverse square law and cosine law. Brief
introduction of luminous efficiency, illuminance etc. for various practical cases.

#### (g) Electricity

1. Electric field and potential : Coulomb's Law F=q q / (4 per ). Electric field and potential due to a point electric 1 2 o dipole (In longitudinal and transverse position at large distances). Couple acting on a dipole placed in an electric field. Electric field due to a sphere with uniform surface charge density (No Derivation), Proof of atomicity of electric charge. (The procedure of PSSC book to be followed).

2. Capacity:Principle of condenser, capacity of an isolated sphere, a spherical condenser and a parallel plate condenser, effect of dielectric on the capacity. Series and parallel combination of condensers, energy of a charged condenser ½ CV , its comparison with the energy of a stretched spring 1/2Kx .

3. Electric conduction : electric current as a flow of charge carriers. 1 Ampere = 1 coulmb/sec, or 6.25x1018 electronic fundamental charge/sec. Conduction in gases and solutions, concepts of ions, Electrolysis, Faraday's Laws and Electrochemical equivalent, Faraday's number, free electrons in metals, carrier density, drift velocity v and relaxation time t Simple derivation of Ohm's law. Qualitative explanation of the variation of conductivity ofnormal conductors with temperature. Ohmic and nonohmic circuit elements, Dynamic resistance Dv/Di.

4. Simple Circuits : Electric cell as a device which continuously drives charges round a circuit. Electromotive force a characteristic of cell, EMF defined as = W/Q, where W is work done in carrying a charge Q around a closed circuit. Internal resistance of a source (r), Internal potential drop (ir) and power (i r) Kirchhoffs Laws: series and parallel combination of resistances, Principle of Wheatstone's bridge, example of meter bridge. Potential divider, Potentiometer.

#### (h) Electromagnetism

1. Moving charges and magnetic field : Similarities in the behaviour of bar magnet and solenidal current, measurement of a magnetic field on the basis of force on a linear current F=iBLsin q, force on a moving charge in a magnetic field Faqv B sing q(Lorentz force). Relation between these two expressions, force acting between two parallel linear currents Fai i L/r. Its interpretation on the basis of magnetic field Bi/r Definition of Ampere 1 2 7 using the expression F=(2x10 )i i L/r and definition of the unit of B using the expression F=iBI sin q. Magnetic 1 2 field at the centre of circular coild and inside a long solenoid (no derivation), Principle of moving coil galvanometer, its conversion into Ammeter and voltmeter. Principle of D.C. Motor.

2. Magnetism : Couple acting on a bar magnet placed in a magnetic field, magnetic dipole. Definition of magnetic moment on the basis of couple acting in a magnetic field. Electromagnet. Atomic model of magnetism, some atoms have non-zero moment and their alignment gives rise to microscopic magnetism, magnetic field due to a Small bar magent in longitudinal and transverse positions (2m/d3 and m/d respectively), component of earth's
magnetic field, theories regarding its origin.

3. Electromagnetic Induction : Magnetic flux, its unit weber. 1 weber = I Newton meter/Ampere. Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, e=df/dt. Interpretation of induced e.m.f. in terms of Lorentz force. Principle of A.C. and D.C. Dynamos, back e.m.f. in a motor, definition of self inductance (e=-Ldi/dt). Dependence of Lon the core material. Graphical description of rise and decay of current in an inductive circuit (no derivation). Definition of utual inductance (e =-Mdi/dt) and its dependence on the core material. Theory of transformers (qualitative). 2 4. Alternating current circuits: Graphical representation of voltage and current as a function of time, phases difference between V and I. Value of the ratio of V /I , depends on frequency and the impedance Z for a circuit o o 2 2 2 2 containing only R and L, Z =R +wL and tan A=Lw/R (no derivation), root mean square value V /Ö2 and Io/Ö2 o power ½ V 1 cosq, choke coil, wattles current. Oscillation in an LC circuit, (Statement only) Frequency of an LC o ocircuit, F=1/2pÖLC (Anology with oscillation of a mass attached to a spring).

#### (i) Electrons Physics

1. Diode and Triode : Emission of electron from metals on heating, Rectifying action of diode, Triode and its static mutual characteristics, Triode as an amplifier.

2. Cathode rays and Positive rays :Cathode rays as stream of particles determination of e/m of the particles (using simultaneous electric and magnetic fields) discovery of the electron. Cathode ray oscilloscope (Elementary working principle only), e/m of positive rays, ions isotopes.

3. Photoelectric effect : Photoelectric phenomenon, threshold frequency, Ek is independent of the light intensity, empirical relation E = Av-B, where B depends on the cathode surface and A is a universal constant, Einstein's k explanation of photoelectric effect. A=Planck's explanation of photoelectric effect. A=Planck's constand h and B-te work function.

#### (j) Radiation and Atomic Physics :

1. Radiation : Similarly between the nature of radiant energy and lights/Absorptivity, emissivity of surface, Kirchhoffs law, concept of a black body, Stefan's law, graphical description of spectral distribution of black body radiation (no formulae), elementary ide
as of Plank's hypothesis.

2. Structure of atom : Rutherford's experiments on particle scattering and his conclusions regarding (i) positively charged nucleus and (ii) applicability of Coulomb's law.

#### 3. Origin of spectrum:

Experiments of Franck and Hertz, quantized energy states of atoms, energy level diagram, emission and absorptions spectrum, Spectral series of Hydrogen atom, continuous, line and band spectra: their relationship with the state of matter, Fraunhofer lines and their explanation. Fluorescence and phosphorescence.

4. X-ray: Production (Coolidge tube), control on the intensity and penetration, electromagnetic nature of X-rays.

#### (k) NuclearPhysics

1. Radioactivity : Nature of ab and I rays, concept of half life and statistical nature of the phenomenon of radioactivity. Scintillation screen and cloud chamber respectively for counting and tracking the charged particles (only general features including path tracking by a magnetic field), Composition of nucleus, fundamental particles, e,n,p,D, p and their antiparticles.

2. Nuclear energy: Nuclear fission, mass defect, mass energy relation DE = CDm Unification of the principles of conservation of mass and conservation of energy. Principle of nuclear reactor, Elementary ideas of nuclear fusion, origin of solar energy

### Section A : General Chemistry

1. Discovery & Properties of electron, proton, neutron, Elementary ideas of Binding Energy of Nucleus, Electronic Configuration, electronic shells, subshells, Quantum number, Pauli's exclusion principle

2. Detailed Study of Electrovalence, covalence(including Kossels theory) and coordinate valence bonds and Electronics Structure of compounds.

3. Radioactivity, Natural & Artificial disintegration, half life, fission and fusion, isotopes and isobars, radioactive isotopes and their uses

4. Electrode potential and electrochemical series

5. Oxidation & reduction reactions, oxidation number, balancing of equations by oxidation number and electron method

6. Law of gases, gas equation, Dalton Law of partial pressure, Simple numericals based on Graham's Law of diffusion

7. Volumetric analysis and qualitative analysis

### Section B : Inorganic Chemistry :

1 Detailed study of Mendeleefs periodic table (Excluding historical backgrounds). Position of the elements in the periodic table on the basis of atomic structure, modern periodic table, Periodic properties of elements (Atomic radius, ionisation potential, electron affinity) (Only definitions)

2 Hydrogen and its Compounds-Position of Hydrogen in Periodic table, isotopes of Hydrogen, Deuterium, Heavy Water, Laboratory methods of the preparation of Hydrogen Peroxide, outline of industrial preparation, properties, uses and structure of H2O2.

3 Studies of First group elements (Alkali metals)-Position of Na, K in the Periodic table on the basis of electronic configuration, Laboratory method for the preparation of Na Co NaOH, NaNH , (HPO ), H O microcosmic 2 3, 4 4 2 salt, outline of their industrial preparation, properties and uses.

4 Studies of second group elements (Alkaline earth metals)-Position of Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba in the periodic table on the basis of configuration. Preparation of Plaster of Paris (CaSo ) H O, its properties and uses, outline of the 4 2 2 industrial preparation of Cement and its uses.

5 Studies of third group elements - Properties of Al, its uses and metallurgy, method of preparation of Anhydrous AlCl Alum-their properties and uses.

6 Studies of fourth group of elements- Position of C and Pb in the periodic table on the basis of electronic configuration, Fuel gases, (oil gas, water gas, coal gas, petrol gas) methods of preparation, outline of industrial preparation and uses. Outline of industrial preparation of glass and uses. Preparation of SnCl its properties and 2 uses, preparation of white lead, red lead, basic lead acetate their properties and uses.

7 Studies of fifth group elements-Position of N, P, As, Sb, Bi in the Periodic table on the basis of electronic configuration. Preparation, properties and uses of NH HNO , N O, HNO P PH Orthphosphoric Acid, 3, 2 2 3 2, 3 Arsenious oxide, Methods of Industrial Preparation of HNO , Nitrogenous and Phosphate Fertilizer.

8 Studies of Sixth group elements-Methods of preparation, industrial preparation, uses and structure of O & 3 H SO . 2 4

9 Studies of Seventh group elements-position of Cl, Br, I in the periodic Table on the basis of electron configuration. Methods of preparation, Industrial preparation, properties and uses of Cl Br , I & Bleaching 2, 2 2 Powder.

10 Inert Gases Position in Periodic Table, history of discovery, general characteristics uses.

11 Transition elements - (1) General studies-Position in periodic table, properties (2) Position of IB, IIB & VIII group elements in the periodic Table (3)Position of Cu Ag on the basis of electronic configuration. Properties, preparation and uses of Cu Cl and AgNO (4) Position of Zn, Cd on the basis of electronic configuration, 2 2 3 Methods of preparation, properties and uses of calomel, corrosive sublimate, Zncl , ZnO (5) Position of Fe in 2 2 the periodic Table on the basis of electronic configuration, metallurgy and uses. Industrial product of Steel and
Steel Industry of India. Methods of preparations, properties and uses of Mohr's salt & Ferric Chloride.

#### Section C : Physical Chemistry

1. Chemical Equilibrium : Law of Mass action, Velocity constant and Equilibrium constant (only in homogeneous
gas system. Qualitative derivation of Le Chateriier's Principle.

2. Principle of electrolytic dissociation, Ostwald dilution Law, Degree of dissociation, dissociation constant, Hydrolysis, neutralisation, Strength of acids and bases, pH, Buffer solution, Qualitative description of acid bases indicators, solubility product and common ion effect (excluding the determination of constants).

3. Different methods to represent concentration of solution properties of solution, lowering of vapour pressure by mixing a solute, Osmosis and determination of Osmotic pressure by Berkeley and Hartley's method, determination of molecular weight of non-volatile substances by the elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point (excluding the derivation of formulae).

4. Distribution of a solute in the non mixing liquid (excluding association, dissociation and complexing agents. 5. Catalyst: Properties, homogenous and heterogeneous catalyst, intermediate theory and modern absorption theory and Enzyme catalyst.

6. Definition of colloidal solution and its important properties(excluding electronic properties)

7. Thermo chemistry First law of thermo-dynamics, Definition and concept of internal Energy, heat of reaction, Heat of combustion, heat of formation, Heat of neutralization, Hess's Law and numerical problem based on it.

#### Section D : Organic Chemistry

1. Simple methods of purification of organic compounds, Fractional crystalisation, Fractional distillation, Steam distillation and vacuum distillation, Chromatography, Criteria of purity, determination of mixed melting points and boiling points.

2. Quantitative determination of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens and sulphur

3. Isomerism: Structural (chain position, functional and metamerism) Stereoisomerism(Optical isomerism of Lactic acid).

4. Simple examples of addition of halogens and hydrogen halides and their mechanism, elimination reaction (dehydrogenation and dehydration),
Homolytic and hetrolytic fission of bonds.

5. Classification and detailed nomenclature of organic compounds, IUPAC method.

6. Aliphatic hydrocarbon

a. General preparation and properties of alkanes

b. General preparation and properties of alkenes

c. Alkynes: Industrial preparation of acetylene

d. Elementary ideas about the formation of high polymers based upon ethylene, butadiene and styene

e. Source of hydrocarbons, petroleum, synthetic, petrol octane number of fuels, cracking

(ii) Alkyl Halides: General Methods of preparation of monohalogen derivative of alkanes. Laboratory method of ethyle bromide and its importance in organic synthesis. Trihalogen derivatives-General method of preparation and properties of chloroform

(iii) Ethers: Laboratory preparation and properties and uses of diethyl ether.

(iv) Alcohol : General methods of preparation and properties of monohydric alcohols, manufacture of methanol and ethanol (Fermentation and enzyme control), simple properties of glycerol.

(v) General methods of preparation, comparative study and general properties of aldehydes and ketones, laboratory preparation and uses of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone. Polymerisation and condensation

(vi) Carboxylic acid: Laboratory preparation and properties of formic acid, manufacture and properties of acetic acid, simple properties of oxalic acid

(vii) Derivatives of carboxylic acid.

7. (a) Laboratory preparation, properties and uses of acetyl chloride.
(b) Methods of preparation, properties and uses of acetic anhydride.
(c) Methods of preparation, properties and uses of acetamide
(d) Urea: Method of preparation (ammonical or Potassium cyanate method) and properties.
(e) Esters : Laboratory, preparation and properties, ethyl acetate, oils, fats, soaps and waxes.
(f) Amines : Laboratory preparation and properties of ethylamine

8. Carbohydrates : Distinction tests of mono, di and polysacharides, general reaction of glucose.

9. Our food and its constitution: Carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins.

10. Aromatic Compound

a. Hydrocarbons, Coal tar distillation, Comparative study of reaction of Aliphatic and Aromatic hydrocarbons.
b. Outline of Benzene structure.
c. Laboratory preparation, important properties and uses of the following: Benzene, Toluene, benzene, Sulphonic acid, Chlorobenzene, Phenol, Benzaldehyde, Benzoic acid, Nitrobenzens, Aniline.

### Zoology

#### Section-A: General

1. Origin of life: Oparin's theory, Miller's experiment, Position of virus in the process of life's origin.

2. Organic evolution: Original idea of evolution, evidences of evolution, Theories of evolution (Lamarckism & Darwinism).

3. Mechanism of Evolution: Definition, causes and types of variation: Mutation (Theory and Hugo deVries only).

4. (a) Abroad outline of the course of evolution through the ages (both plant and animals taken side by side).

(b) Evolution of Man : Prehistoric man with reference to the characteristics of Java ape man, Paking man, Neanderthal man and Cromagnon man.

5. Eugenics: Sex determination, Sex-lined character Genetic traits in man (with reference to blood group) subsidization of superior student, Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.)

6. Animal Physiology:
(a) Metabolism: General idea, repair and regeneration of tissues.
(b) Digestion: Food, digestive enzymes with reference to digestion, absorption, assimilation (giving reference to Rabbit and comparing with man).
(c) Excretion: Chemical nature of excretory products; Role of Live and Kidney in excretion with reference to Rabbit.
(d) Expiration: Respiratory mechanism, cellular Respiration, mitochondria and role of A.T.P.
(e) Nervous System: Reflex action, interneuronic transmission of impulses (Electrochemical phenomenon).
Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system) and nervous controls of visceral organs with special reference to rabbit.
(f) Endocrine system (with reference to human endocrine glands). Hormones and their function.

#### Section-B : Type and Specific Study

1. A modern classification of animal kingdom (based on the book by Storer and Usinger) : Main characters of Phyla and classes with examples.
2. Animal tissues (Histology)
3. Protozoa :

(a) Amoeba: with emphasis on morphology, Physiology, reproduction and behaviour, osmoregulation, entamoeba histolytica structure and prevention of diseases caused by it.
(b) Plasmodium: History, life-cycle therapy and control of Malaria.

4. Porifera: Structure and physiology of simple sponge (Leucosolenia, Ascon type) Economic importance of sponges, sponge industry.

5. Coelenterata: Hydra-Morphology, Physiology, habit, regarneration, grafting and development, physiological division of labour and related histological differentiation.

6. Aschelminthes: Ascaris-Morphology (External features and anatomy) Life history, therapy and control.

7. Annelida: Pheretima posthuma (External features and anatomy), bionomics and economic importance of Pheretima posthuma.

8. Arthropods :
(a) Cockroach (Periplanata Americana), Morphology (External features and Anatomy) Difference between
Periplanata and Blatta.
(b) Morphology and life history of housefly and mosquito
(c) Economic importance of insects for man.

9. (a) Ranga tigrina: Skull, Cranial and Spinal nerves, gametogenesis, fertilization and development. The three primary
germs layers and their fate, Metamorphosis.
(b) Rabbit : Reproductive system (excluding embryonic development), osteology, anatomy and histology.
Botany

#### Section-A: General

1. The cell: As a unit of structure and function, fine structure of cell components as seen in electron microscope: In
reference to mitochondria, plastids, centrosome, lysosome, Microsome, Endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, nucleus and nuclear membrane, DNAand RNAplasma membrane and cell wall.

2. (a) Protoplasmic: Ahighly complex organization, its constituents, physical and chemical properties.
(b) Non-protoplasmic components: Cell inclusion and their significance.

3. Cell formation: Free cell formation, amitosis, somatic mitosis, duplication of DNA and its transfer to daughter cells,
significance of mitosis, process of mitosis and its relation to life-cycle. Difference in cell division between animal cell
and plant cell.

4. Ecology:

(a) Its meaning, ecological factors (climatic, physiographic, edaphic and biotic).
(b) Elementary knowledge of Ecosystem, its meaning and structure, abiotic and biotic components e.g. minerals and gases dissolved in water, producer, consumers, decomposers. Pond and forest ecosystem.

(c) Food chain ; Food web and food pyramids. Man in the ecosystem.

(d) Elementary knowledge of environmental Pollution: Its causes and control, kinds of pollution, Household detergents Sewage, Chemicals from Industry, Automobile exhausts, Nuclear fission, Radioactive substances, Smole, sound and pesticides.

(e) Soil-conservation.

5. Heredity : Its meaning, Mendelism, Mendel's experiments and Laws of inheritance.

#### Section-B : Typical and Specific Studies

1. Amodern classification of plan kingdom (Ref. Oswald and Tippos book).

2. Sporogenesis : Formation of micro and mega spores.

3. Detailed study of life history of an angiospermic plant up to seed formation.

4. Fruits.

5. Dispersal of fruits and seeds.

6. Cell differentiation: Plant tissues, classification of meristematic and permanent tissues and their works,

classification of permanent tissue systems.
7. Histology of typical root, stem and leaf : Differences between Dicot and Monocot stems, general and secondary growth of root and stem, basics knowledge of internal structure of ecological types (hydrophytes, Xerophytes and Mesophytes).

8. Systematic study of representative types from the important phyla, occurrence, structure and life history of the
following:
(a) Algae : Elementary knowledge (general characters and uses), detailed study of Ulothrix and Spirogyra.
(b) Bacteria : Structure, modes of nutrition, reproduction and economic importance.
(c) Fungi : a broad outline of fungi and detailed study of Rhizopus and Yeast, their economic importance.
(d) Bryophyta :Abroad outline of bryophyutes and their economic importance, Detailed study of Moss e.g. Funaria.
(e) Pteridophyt a : Abroad outline of pteridophytes, detailed study of Fems e.g. Pteris on Dryopteris.
(f) Gymnosperms : General account and outline of lifecycle of Cycas.

9. Broad classification of Anglosperms. Description, identification and economic importance of the following families : Cruciferae, Malvaceae, Leguminosae. Solanaceae, Compositae, Cucurbitaceae and Liliaceae.

10. (a) Composition of plant ash, inorganic nutrients in soil water, absorption by root hairs, osmosis, conduction, root pressure.
(b) Nitrogen cycle
(c) Special modes of nutrition in plants: (Autotrophic heterotrophic, parastitic, saprophytic, symbiotic, insectivorous) and their ecological relationship.

11. Photosynthesis : Chloroplast, role of light, chlorophyll” amd carbpm dopxode, mechanism of photosynthesis.Formation and role of ATP, significance of opening and closing of stomata.

12. Translocation and stomata.

13. Translocation and storage of food.

14. Respiration : Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration, main steps in the mechanism of respiration (elementary knowledge of glycolysis and Krebs cycle), Process of fermentation and its economic importance. Growth and Movements : Definition of growth, measurements chief types of movements in plants. Hormones and their role in growth.

### Paper-II : General English (Qualifying Paper)

#### General English

Grammar, spelling, simple tenses, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners including adjectives, voices, word meanings, correction of sentences, fill in the blanks, uncommon words, sentence completion, synonyms, antonyms, relationship between words and Phrases. Patterns and correct uses (parts of speech), syntax concord, articles, word formation, one word substitute, Vocabulary building, comprehension.