# Gujarat State Eligibility Test Syllabus

College / University: Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Baroda

Gujarat State Eligibility Test (Gujarat SET) Syllabus

Gujarat SET Agency, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara is a Nodal Agency recognized by the UGC, New Delhi for conducting the Gujarat State Eligibility Test (GSET) for Lectureship / Assistant Professor since 2002. Strictly adhering to the guidelines stipulated by the UGC-NET Bureau, Gujarat SET Agency , Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Baroda is conducting State Eligibility Test to make rigorous merit based selection for the entry level of teaching profession. Currently GSET is conducting test in Twenty Three (23) subjects at Six (6) Examination Centers spread across the Gujarat State.

English Paper I

## Paper II And Paper III

### Mathematical Sciences

#### Unit – 1

Analysis: Elementary set theory, finite, countable and uncountable sets, Real number system as a complete ordered field, Archimedean property, supremum, infimum.

Sequences and series, convergence, limsup, liminf.

Bolzano Weierstrass theorem, Heine Borel theorem.

Continuity, uniform continuity, differentiability, mean value theorem.

Sequences and series of functions, uniform convergence.

Riemann sums and Riemann integral, Improper Integrals.

Monotonic functions, types of discontinuity, functions of bounded variation, Lebesgue measure, Lebesgue integral.

Functions of several variables, directional derivative, partial derivative, derivative as a linear transformation, inverse and implicit function theorems.

Metric spaces, compactness, connectedness. Normed linear Spaces. Spaces of continuous functions as examples.

Linear Algebra: Vector spaces, subspaces, linear dependence, basis, dimension, algebra of linear transformations.

Algebra of matrices, rank and determinant of matrices, linear equations.

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Cayley-Hamilton theorem.

Matrix representation of linear transformations. Change of basis, canonical forms, diagonal forms, triangular forms, Jordan forms.

Inner product spaces, orthonormal basis.

Quadratic forms, reduction and classification of quadratic forms

#### Unit – 2

Complex Analysis: Algebra of complex numbers, the complex plane, polynomials, power series, transcendental functions such as exponential, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions.

Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations.

Contour integral, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, Liouville’s theorem, Maximum modulus principle, Schwarz lemma, Open mapping theorem.

Taylor series, Laurent series, calculus of residues.

Conformal mappings, Mobius transformations.

Algebra: Permutations, combinations, pigeon-hole principle, inclusion-exclusion principle, derangements.

Fundamental theorem of arithmetic, divisibility in Z, congruences, Chinese Remainder Theorem, Euler’s Ø- function, primitive roots.

Groups, subgroups, normal subgroups, quotient groups, homomorphisms, cyclic groups, permutation groups, Cayley’s theorem, class equations, Sylow theorems.

Rings, ideals, prime and maximal ideals, quotient rings, unique factorization domain, principal ideal domain, Euclidean domain.

Polynomial rings and irreducibility criteria.

Fields, finite fields, field extensions, Galois Theory.

Topology: basis, dense sets, subspace and product topology, separation axioms, connectedness and compactness.

#### Unit – 3

Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs):

Existence and uniqueness of solutions of initial value problems for first order ordinary differential equations, singular solutions of first order ODEs, system of first order ODEs.

General theory of homogenous and non-homogeneous linear ODEs, variation of parameters, Sturm-Liouville boundary value problem, Green’s function. Partial Differential Equations (PDEs):

Lagrange and Charpit methods for solving first order PDEs, Cauchy problem for first order PDEs.

Classification of second order PDEs, General solution of higher order PDEs with constant coefficients, Method of separation of variables for Laplace, Heat and Wave equations.

Numerical Analysis :

Numerical solutions of algebraic equations, Method of iteration and Newton-Raphson method, Rate of convergence, Solution of systems of linear algebraic equations using Gauss elimination and Gauss-Seidel methods, Finite differences, Lagrange, Hermite and spline interpolation, Numerical differentiation and integration, Numerical solutions of ODEs using Picard, Euler, modified Euler and Runge-Kutta methods.

Calculus of Variations:

Variation of a functional, Euler-Lagrange equation, Necessary and sufficient conditions for extrema. Variational methods for boundary value problems in ordinary and partial differential equations.

Linear Integral Equations:

Linear integral equation of the first and second kind of Fredholm and Volterra type, Solutions with separable kernels. Characteristic numbers and eigenfunctions, resolvent kernel.

Classical Mechanics:

Generalized coordinates, Lagrange’s equations, Hamilton’s canonical equations, Hamilton’s principle and principle of least action, Two-dimensional motion of rigid bodies, Euler’s dynamical equations for the motion of a rigid body about an axis, theory of small oscillations.

#### Unit – 4

Descriptive statistics, exploratory data analysis

Sample space, discrete probability, independent events, Bayes theorem. Random variables and distribution functions (univariate and multivariate); expectation and moments. Independent random variables, marginal and conditional distributions. Characteristic functions. Probability inequalities (Tchebyshef, Markov, Jensen). Modes of convergence, weak and strong laws of large numbers, Central Limit theorems (i.i.d. case).

Markov chains with finite and countable state space, classification of states, limiting behaviour of n-step transition probabilities, stationary distribution, Poisson and birth-and-death processes.

Standard discrete and continuous univariate distributions. sampling distributions, standard errors and asymptotic distributions, distribution of order statistics and range.

Methods of estimation, properties of estimators, confidence intervals. Tests of hypotheses: most powerful and uniformly most powerful tests, likelihood ratio tests. Analysis of discrete data and chi-square test of goodness of fit. Large sample tests.

Simple nonparametric tests for one and two sample problems, rank correlation and test for independence.

Elementary Bayesian inference.

Gauss-Markov models, estimability of parameters, best linear unbiased estimators, confidence intervals, tests for linear hypotheses. Analysis of variance and covariance. Fixed, random and mixed effects models. Simple and multiple linear regression. Elementary regression diagnostics. Logistic regression.

Multivariate normal distribution, Wishart distribution and their properties. Distribution of quadratic forms. Inference for parameters, partial and multiple correlation coefficients and related tests. Data reduction techniques: Principle component analysis, Discriminant analysis, Cluster analysis, Canonical correlation.

Simple random sampling, stratified sampling and systematic sampling. Probability proportional to size sampling. Ratio and regression methods.

Completely randomized designs, randomized block designs and Latin-square designs. Connectedness and orthogonality of block designs, BIBD. 2K factorial experiments: confounding and construction.

Hazard function and failure rates, censoring and life testing, series and parallel systems.

Linear programming problem, simplex methods, duality. Elementary queuing and inventory models. Steady-state solutions of Markovian queuing models: M/M/1, M/M/1 with limited waiting space, M/M/C, M/M/C with limited waiting space, M/G/1.

### Physical Sciences

Part‘A’ Core

#### I. Mathematical Methods of Physics

Dimensional analysis. Vector algebra and vector calculus. Linear algebra, matrices, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Linear ordinary differential equations of first & second order, Special functions (Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre and Legendre functions). Fourier series, Fourier and Laplace transforms. Elements of complex analysis, analytic functions; Taylor & Laurent series; poles, residues
and evaluation of integrals. Elementary probability theory, random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions. Central limit theorem.

#### II. Classical Mechanics

Newton’s laws. Dynamical systems, Phase space dynamics, stability analysis. Central force motions. Two body Collisions - scattering in laboratory and Centre of mass frames. Rigid body dynamicsmoment of inertia tensor. Non-inertial frames and pseudoforces. Variational principle. Generalized coordinates. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism and equations of motion. Conservation laws and cyclic coordinates. Periodic motion: small oscillations, normal modes. Special theory of relativityLorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics and mass–energy equivalence.

#### III. Electromagnetic Theory

Electrostatics: Gauss’s law and its applications, Laplace and Poisson equations, boundary value problems. Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law, Ampere's theorem. Electromagnetic induction. Maxwell's equations in free space and linear isotropic media; boundary conditions on the fields at interfaces. Scalar and vector potentials, gauge invariance. Electromagnetic waves in free space. Dielectrics and conductors. Reflection and refraction, polarization, Fresnel’s law, interference, coherence, and diffraction. Dynamics of charged particles in static and uniform electromagnetic fields.

#### IV. Quantum Mechanics

Wave-particle duality. Schrödinger equation (time-dependent and time-independent). Eigenvalue problems (particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, etc.). Tunneling through a barrier. Wave-function in coordinate and momentum representations. Commutators and Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Dirac notation for state vectors. Motion in a central potential: orbital angular momentum, angular momentum algebra, spin, addition of angular momenta; Hydrogen atom. Stern-Gerlach experiment. Timeindependent perturbation theory and applications. Variational method. Time dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's golden rule, selection rules. Identical particles, Pauli exclusion principle, spin-statistics connection.

#### V. Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics

Laws of thermodynamics and their consequences. Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations, chemical potential, phase equilibria. Phase space, micro- and macro-states. Micro-canonical, canonical and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions. Free energy and its connection with thermodynamic quantities. Classical and quantum statistics. Ideal Bose and Fermi gases. Principle of detailed balance. Blackbody radiation and Planck's distribution law.

#### VI. Electronics and Experimental Methods

Semiconductor devices (diodes, junctions, transistors, field effect devices, homo- and hetero-junction devices), device structure, device characteristics, frequency dependence and applications. Opto-electronic devices (solar cells, photo-detectors, LEDs). Operational amplifiers and their applications. Digital techniques and applications (registers, counters, comparators and similar circuits). A/D and D/A converters. Microprocessor and microcontroller basics. Data interpretation and analysis. Precision and accuracy. Error analysis, propagation of errors. Least squares fitting,

#### I. Mathematical Methods of Physics

Green’s function. Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three dimensions). Elements of computational techniques: root of functions, interpolation, extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule, Solution of first order differential equation using RungeKutta method. Finite difference methods. Tensors. Introductory group theory: SU(2), O(3).

#### II. Classical Mechanics

Dynamical systems, Phase space dynamics, stability analysis. Poisson brackets and canonical transformations. Symmetry, invariance and Noether’s theorem. Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

#### III. Electromagnetic Theory

Dispersion relations in plasma. Lorentz invariance of Maxwell’s equation. Transmission lines and wave guides. Radiation- from moving charges and dipoles and retarded potentials.

#### IV. Quantum Mechanics

Spin-orbit coupling, fine structure. WKB approximation. Elementary theory of scattering: phase shifts, partial waves, Born approximation. Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. Semi-classical theory of radiation.

#### V. Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics

First- and second-order phase transitions. Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism. Ising model. Bose-Einstein condensation. Diffusion equation. Random walk and Brownian motion. Introduction to nonequilibrium processes.

#### VI. Electronics and Experimental Methods

Linear and nonlinear curve fitting, chi-square test. Transducers (temperature, pressure/vacuum, magnetic fields, vibration, optical, and particle detectors). Measurement and control. Signal conditioning and recovery. Impedance matching, amplification (Op-amp based, instrumentation amp, feedback), filtering and noise reduction, shielding and grounding. Fourier transforms, lock-in detector, box-car integrator, modulation techniques. High frequency devices (including generators and detectors).

#### VII. Atomic & Molecular Physics

Quantum states of an electron in an atom. Electron spin. Spectrum of helium and alkali atom. Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen atom, hyperfine structure and isotopic shift, width of spectrum lines, LS & JJ couplings. Zeeman, Paschen-Bach & Stark effects. Electron spin resonance. Nuclear magnetic resonance, chemical shift. Frank-Condon principle. Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Electronic, rotational, vibrational and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules, selection rules. Lasers: spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein A & B coefficients. Optical pumping, population inversion, rate equation. Modes of resonators and coherence length.

#### VIII. Condensed Matter Physics

Bravais lattices. Reciprocal lattice. Diffraction and the structure factor. Bonding of solids. Elastic properties, phonons, lattice specific heat. Free electron theory and electronic specific heat. Response and relaxation phenomena. Drude model of electrical and thermal conductivity. Hall effect and thermoelectric power. Electron motion in a periodic potential, band theory of solids: metals, insulators
and semiconductors. Superconductivity: type-I and type-II superconductors. Josephson junctions. Superfluidity. Defects and dislocations. Ordered phases of matter: translational and orientational order, kinds of liquid crystalline order. Quasi crystals.

#### IX. Nuclear and Particle Physics

Basic nuclear properties: size, shape and charge distribution, spin and parity. Binding energy, semiempirical mass formula, liquid drop model. Nature of the nuclear force, form of nucleon-nucleon potential, charge-independence and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces. Deuteron problem. Evidence of shell structure, single-particle shell model, its validity and limitations. Rotational spectra. Elementary ideas of alpha, beta and gamma decays and their selection rules. Fission and fusion. Nuclear reactions, reaction mechanism, compound nuclei and direct reactions. Classification of fundamental forces. Elementary particles and their quantum numbers (charge, spin, parity, isospin, strangeness, etc.). Gellmann-Nishijima formula. Quark model, baryons and mesons. C, P, and T invariance. Application of symmetry arguments to particle reactions. Parity non-conservation in weak interaction. Relativistic kinematics.

### Chemical Sciences

#### Inorganic Chemistry

1. Chemical periodicity
2. Structure and bonding in homo- and heteronuclear molecules, including shapes of molecules (VSEPR Theory).
3. Concepts of acids and bases, Hard-Soft acid base concept, Non-aqueous solvents.
4. Main group elements and their compounds: Allotropy, synthesis, structure and bonding, industrial importance of the compounds.
5. Transition elements and coordination compounds: structure, bonding theories, spectral and magnetic properties, reaction mechanisms.
6. Inner transition elements: spectral and magnetic properties, redox chemistry, analytical applications.
7. Organometallic compounds: synthesis, bonding and structure, and reactivity. Organometallics in homogeneous catalysis.
8. Cages and metal clusters.
9. Analytical chemistry- separation, spectroscopic, electro- and thermoanalytical methods.
10. Bioinorganic chemistry: photosystems, porphyrins, metalloenzymes, oxygen transport, electron- transfer reactions; nitrogen fixation, metal complexes in medicine.
11. Characterisation of inorganic compounds by IR, Raman, NMR, EPR, Mössbauer, UV-vis, NQR, MS, electron spectroscopy and microscopic techniques.
12. Nuclear chemistry: nuclear reactions, fission and fusion, radio-analytical techniques and activation analysis.

#### Physical Chemistry

1. Basic principles of quantum mechanics: Postulates; operator algebra; exactly- solvable systems: particle-in-a-box, harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom, including shapes of atomic orbitals; orbital and spin angular momenta; tunneling.
2. Approximate methods of quantum mechanics: Variational principle; perturbation theory up to second order in energy; applications.
3. Atomic structure and spectroscopy; term symbols; many-electron systems and antisymmetry principle.
4. Chemical bonding in diatomics; elementary concepts of MO and VB theories; Huckel theory for conjugated π-electron systems.
5. Chemical applications of group theory; symmetry elements; point groups; character tables; selection rules.
6. Molecular spectroscopy: Rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic spectra; IR and Raman activities – selection rules; basic principles of magnetic resonance.
7. Chemical thermodynamics: Laws, state and path functions and their applications; thermodynamic description of various types of processes; Maxwell’s relations; spontaneity and equilibria; temperature and pressure dependence of thermodynamic quantities; Le Chatelier principle; elementary description of phase transitions; phase equilibria and phase rule; thermodynamics of ideal and non-ideal gases, and solutions.
8. Statistical thermodynamics: Boltzmann distribution; kinetic theory of gases; partition functions and their relation to thermodynamic quantities – calculations for model systems.
9. Electrochemistry: Nernst equation, redox systems, electrochemical cells; DebyeHuckel theory; electrolytic conductance- Kohlrausch’s law and its applications; ionic equilibria; conductometric and potentiometric titrations.
10. Chemical kinetics: Empirical rate laws and temperature dependence; complex reactions; steady state approximation; determination of reaction mechanisms; collision and transition state theories of rate constants; unimolecular reactions; enzyme kinetics; salt effects; homogeneous catalysis; photochemical reactions.
11. Colloids and surfaces: Stability and properties of colloids; isotherms and surface area; heterogeneous catalysis.
12. Solid state: Crystal structures; Bragg’s law and applications; band structure of solids.
13. Polymer chemistry: Molar masses; kinetics of polymerization.
14. Data analysis: Mean and standard deviation; absolute and relative errors; linear regression; covariance and correlation coefficient.

#### Organic Chemistry

1. IUPAC nomenclature of organic molecules including regio- and stereoisomers.
2. Principles of stereochemistry: Configurational and conformational isomerism in acyclic and cyclic compounds; stereogenicity, stereoselectivity, enantioselectivity, diastereoselectivity and asymmetric induction.
3. Aromaticity: Benzenoid and non-benzenoid compounds – generation and reactions.
4. Organic reactive intermediates: Generation, stability and reactivity of carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes.
5. Organic reaction mechanisms involving addition, elimination and substitution reactions with electrophilic, nucleophilic or radical species. Determination of reaction pathways.
6. Common named reactions and rearrangements – applications in organic synthesis.
7. Organic transformations and reagents: Functional group interconversion including oxidations and reductions; common catalysts and reagents (organic, inorganic, organometallic and enzymatic). Chemo, regio and stereoselective transformations.
8. Concepts in organic synthesis: Retrosynthesis, disconnection, synthons, linear and convergent synthesis, umpolung of reactivity and protecting groups.
9. Asymmetric synthesis: Chiral auxiliaries, methods of asymmetric induction – substrate, reagent and catalyst controlled reactions; determination of enantiomeric and diastereomeric excess; enantio-discrimination. Resolution – optical and kinetic.
10. Pericyclic reactions – electrocyclisation, cycloaddition, sigmatropic rearrangements and other related concerted reactions.
11. Principles and applications of photochemical reactions in organic chemistry.
12. Synthesis and reactivity of common heterocyclic compounds containing one or two heteroatoms (O, N, S).
13. Chemistry of natural products: Carbohydrates, proteins and peptides, fatty acids, nucleic acids, terpenes, steroids and alkaloids. Biogenesis of terpenoids and alkaloids.
14. Structure determination of organic compounds by IR, UV-Vis, 1H & 13C NMR and Mass spectroscopic techniques.

#### Interdisciplinary topics

1. Chemistry in nanoscience and technology.
2. Catalysis and green chemistry.
3. Medicinal chemistry.
4. Supramolecular chemistry.
5. Environmental chemistry.

### Life Science

1. Molecules and their Interaction Relevant to Biology
2. Cellular Organization
3. Fundamental Processes
4. Cell Communication and Cell Signaling
5. Developmental Biology
6. System Physiology – Plant
7. System Physiology – Animal
8. Inheritance Biology
9. Diversity of Life Forms
10. Ecological Principles
11. Evolution and Behavior
12. Applied Biology
13. Methods in Biology

#### 1. Molecules and Their Interaction Relavent To Biology

A. Structure of atoms, molecules and chemical bonds.

B Composition, structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins).

C. Stablizing interactions (Van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction, etc.).

D Principles of biophysical chemistry (pH, buffer, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, colligative properties).

E. Bioenergetics, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, coupled reaction, group transfer, biological energy transducers.

F. Principles of catalysis, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation, mechanism of enzyme catalysis, isozymes

G. Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot, secondary structure, domains, motif and folds).

H. Conformation of nucleic acids (helix (A, B, Z), t-RNA, micro-RNA).

I. Stability of proteins and nucleic acids.

J. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids nucleotides and vitamins.

#### 2. Cellular Organization

##### A) Membrane structure and function

(Structure of model membrane, lipid bilayer and membrane protein diffusion, osmosis, ion channels, active transport, membrane pumps, mechanism of sorting and regulation of intracellular transport,electrical properties of membranes).

##### B) Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles

(Cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids, vacuoles, chloroplast, structure & function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility).

##### C) Organization of genes and chromosomes

(Operon, unique and repetitive DNA, interrupted genes, gene families, structure of chromatin and chromosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, transposons).

##### D) Cell division and cell cycle

(Mitosis and meiosis, their regulation, steps in cell cycle, regulation and control of cell cycle).

##### E) Microbial Physiology

(Growth yield and characteristics, strategies of cell division, stress response)

#### 3. Fundamental Processes

##### A) DNA replication, repair and recombination

(Unit of replication, enzymes involved, replication origin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extrachromosomal replicons,
DNA damage and repair mechanisms, homologous and site-specific recombination).

##### B) RNA synthesis and processing

(transcription factors and machinery, formation of initiation complex, transcription activator and repressor, RNA polymerases, capping,elongation, and termination, RNA processing, RNA editing, splicing, and polyadenylation, structure and function of different types of RNA, RNA transport).

##### C) Protein synthesis and processing

(Ribosome, formation of initiation complex, initiation factors and their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, and translational proof-reading, translational inhibitors, Post- translational modification of proteins).

##### D) Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level

(regulating the expression of phages, viruses, prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes, role of chromatin in gene expression and gene silencing).

#### 4. Cell communication and cell signaling

##### A) Host parasite interaction

Recognition and entry processes of different pathogens like bacteria, viruses into animal and plant host cells, alteration of host cell behavior by pathogens, virus-induced cell transformation, pathogen-induced diseases in animals and plants, cell-cell fusion in both normal and abnormal cells.

##### B) Cell signaling

Hormones and their receptors, cell surface receptor, signaling through G-protein coupled receptors, signal transduction pathways, second
messengers, regulation of signaling pathways, bacterial and plant two component systems, light signaling in plants, bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing.

##### C) Cellular communication

Regulation of hematopoiesis, general principles of cell communication, cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules, gap
junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins, neurotransmission and its regulation.

##### D) Cancer

Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cancer and the cell cycle, virus-induced cancer, metastasis, interaction of cancer cells with normal cells, apoptosis, therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth.

##### E) Innate and adaptive immune system

Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity, antigens, antigenicity and immunogenicity. B and T cell epitopes, structure and function of antibody molecules. generation of antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, antibody engineering, antigen-antibody
interactions, MHC molecules, antigen processing and presentation, activation and differentiation of B and T cells, B and T cell receptors, humoral and cellmediated immune responses, primary and secondary immune modulation, the complement system, Toll-like receptors, cell-mediated effector functions, inflammation, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity, immune response during bacterial (tuberculosis), parasitic (malaria) and viral (HIV) infections, congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies, vaccines.

#### 5. Developmental Biology

##### A) Basic concepts of development :

Potency, commitment, specification, induction, competence, determination and differentiation; morphogenetic gradients; cell fate and cell
lineages; stem cells; genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants; imprinting; mutants and transgenics in analysis of development

##### B) Gametogenesis, fertilization and early development:

Production of gametes, cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals; embryo sac development and double fertilization in plants; zygote formation, cleavage, blastula formation, embryonic fields, gastrulation and formation of germ layers in animals; embryogenesis, establishment of symmetry in plants; seed formation and germination.

##### C) Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals :

Cell aggregation and differentiation in Dictyostelium; axes and pattern formation in Drosophila, amphibia and chick; organogenesis –
vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans, eye lens induction, limb development and regeneration in vertebrates; differentiation of neurons, post embryonic development- larval formation, metamorphosis; environmental regulation of normal development; sex determination.

##### D) Morphogenesis and organogenesis in plants:

Organization of shoot and root apical meristem; shoot and root development; leaf development and phyllotaxy; transition to flowering, floral meristems and floral development in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum.

#### 6. System Physiology- Plant

A. Photosynthesis - Light harvesting complexes; mechanisms of electron transport; photoprotective mechanisms; CO2 fixation-C3, C4 and CAM pathways.

B. Respiration and photorespiration – Citric acid cycle; plant mitochondrial electron transport and ATP synthesis; alternate oxidase; photorespiratory pathway.

C. Nitrogen metabolism - Nitrate and ammonium assimilation; amino acid biosynthesis.

D. Plant hormones – Biosynthesis, storage, breakdown and transport; physiological effects and mechanisms of action.

E. Sensory photobiology - Structure, function and mechanisms of action of phytochromes, cryptochromes and phototropins; stomatal movement; photoperiodism and biological clocks.

F. Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation – uptake, transport and translocation of water, ions, solutes and macromolecules from soil, through cells, across membranes, through xylem and phloem; transpiration; mechanisms of loading and unloading of photoassimilates.

G. Secondary metabolites - Biosynthesis of terpenes, phenols and nitrogenous compounds and their roles.

H. Stress physiology – Responses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and abiotic (water, temperature and salt) stresses.

#### 7. System Physiology- Animal

A. Blood and circulation - Blood corpuscles, haemopoiesis and formed elements, plasma function, blood volume, blood volume regulation, blood groups, haemoglobin, immunity, haemostasis.

B. Cardiovascular System: Comparative anatomy of heart structure, myogenic heart, specialized tissue, ECG – its principle and significance, cardiac cycle, heart as a pump, blood pressure, neural and chemical regulation of all above.

C. Respiratory system - Comparison of respiration in different species, anatomical considerations, transport of gases, exchange of gases, waste elimination, neural and chemical regulation of respiration.

D. Nervous system - Neurons, action potential, gross neuroanatomy of the brain and spinal cord, central and peripheral nervous system, neural control of muscle tone and posture.

E. Sense organs - Vision, hearing and tactile response.

F. Excretory system - Comparative physiology of excretion, kidney, urine formation, urine concentration, waste elimination, micturition, regulation of water balance, blood volume, blood pressure, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance.

G. Thermoregulation - Comfort zone, body temperature – physical, chemical, neural regulation, acclimatization.

H. Stress and adaptation

I. Digestive system - Digestion, absorption, energy balance, BMR.

J. Endocrinology and reproduction - Endocrine glands, basic mechanism of hormone action, hormones and diseases; reproductive processes,
gametogenesis, ovulation, neuroendocrine regulation

#### 8. Inheritance Biology

A) Mendelian principles : Dominance, segregation, independent assortment.

B) Concept of gene : Allele, multiple alleles, pseudoallele, complementation tests

C) Extensions of Mendelian principles : Codominance, incomplete dominance, gene interactions, pleiotropy, genomic imprinting, penetrance and expressivity, phenocopy, linkage and crossing over, sex linkage, sex limited and sex influenced characters.

D) Gene mapping methods : Linkage maps, tetrad analysis, mapping with molecular markers, mapping by using somatic cell hybrids, development of mapping population in plants.

E) Extra chromosomal inheritance : Inheritance of Mitochondrial and chloroplast genes, maternal inheritance.

F) Microbial genetics : Methods of genetic transfers – transformation, conjugation, transduction and sex-duction, mapping genes by interrupted mating, fine structure analysis of genes.

G) Human genetics : Pedigree analysis, lod score for linkage testing, karyotypes, genetic disorders.

H) Quantitative genetics : Polygenic inheritance, heritability and its measurements, QTL mapping.

I) Mutation : Types, causes and detection, mutant types – lethal, conditional, biochemical, loss of function, gain of function, germinal verses somatic mutants, insertional mutagenesis.

J) Structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes : Deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation, ploidy and their genetic implications.

K) Recombination : Homologous and non-homologous recombination including transposition.

#### 9. Diversity Of Life Forms:

##### A. Principles & methods of taxonomy:

Concepts of species and hierarchical taxa, biological nomenclature, classical & quantititative methods of taxonomy of plants, animals and microorganisms.

##### B. Levels of structural organization:

Unicellular, colonial and multicellular forms. Levels of organization of tissues, organs & systems. Comparative anatomy, adaptive radiation, adaptive modifications.

##### C. Outline classification of plants, animals & microorganisms:

Important criteria used for classification in each taxon. Classification of plants, animals and microorganisms. Evolutionary relationships among taxa.

##### D. Natural history of Indian subcontinent:

Major habitat types of the subcontinent, geographic origins and migrations of species. Comman Indian mammals, birds. Seasonality and phenology of the subcontinent.

##### E. Organisms of health & agricultural importance:

Common parasites and pathogens of humans, domestic animals and crops.

##### F. Organisms of conservation concern:

Rare, endangered species. Conservation strategies.

#### 10. Ecological Principles

The Environment: Physical environment; biotic environment; biotic and abiotic interactions.

Habitat and Niche: Concept of habitat and niche; niche width and overlap; fundamental and realized niche; resource partitioning; character displacement.

Population Ecology: Characteristics of a population; population growth curves; population regulation; life history strategies (r and K selection); concept of metapopulation – demes and dispersal, interdemic extinctions, age structured populations.

Species Interactions: Types of interactions, interspecific competition, herbivory, carnivory, pollination, symbiosis.

Community Ecology: Nature of communities; community structure and attributes; levels of species diversity and its measurement; edges and ecotones.

Ecological Succession:Types; mechanisms; changes involved in succession; concept of climax.

Ecosystem Ecology: Ecosystem structure; ecosystem function; energy flow and mineral cycling (C,N,P); primary production and decomposition; structure and function of some Indian ecosystems: terrestrial (forest, grassland) and aquatic (fresh water,
marine, eustarine).

Biogeography: Major terrestrial biomes; theory of island biogeography; biogeographical zones of India.

Applied Ecology: Environmental pollution; global environmental change; biodiversity: status, monitoring and documentation; major drivers of biodiversity change; biodiversity management approaches.

Conservation Biology: Principles of conservation, major approaches to management, Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project Tiger, Biosphere reserves).

#### 11. Evolution And Behaviour

##### A. Emergence of evolutionary thoughts

Lamarck; Darwin–concepts of variation, adaptation, struggle, fitness and natural selection; Mendelism; Spontaneity of mutations; The evolutionary synthesis.

##### B. Origin of cells and unicellular evolution:

Origin of basic biological molecules; Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers and polymers; Concept of Oparin and Haldane; Experiement of Miller (1953); The first cell; Evolution of prokaryotes; Origin of eukaryotic cells; Evolution of unicellular eukaryotes; Anaerobic metabolism, photosynthesis and aerobic metabolism.

##### C. Paleontology and Evolutionary History:

The evolutionary time scale; Eras, periods and epoch; Major events in the evolutionary time scale; Origins of unicellular and multi cellular organisms; Major groups of plants and animals; Stages in primate evolution including Homo.

##### D. Molecular Evolution:

Concepts of neutral evolution, molecular divergence and molecular clocks; Molecular tools in phylogeny, classification and identification; Protein and nucleotide sequence analysis; origin of new genes and proteins; Gene duplication and divergence.

##### E. The Mechanisms:

Population genetics – Populations, Gene pool, Gene frequency; Hardy-Weinberg Law; concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection, migration and random genetic drift; Adaptive radiation; Isolating mechanisms; Speciation; Allopatricity and Sympatricity; Convergent evolution; Sexual selection; Co-evolution.

##### F. Brain, Behavior and Evolution:

Approaches and methods in study of behavior; Proximate and ultimate causation; Altruism and evolution-Group selection, Kin selection, Reciprocal altruism; Neural basis of learning, memory, cognition, sleep and arousal; Biological clocks; Development of behavior; Social communication; Social dominance; Use of space and territoriality; Mating systems, Parental investment and Reproductive success; Parental care; Aggressive behavior; Habitat selection and optimality in foraging; Migration, orientation and navigation; Domestication and behavioral changes.

#### 12. Applied Biology

A. Microbial fermentation and production of small and macro molecules.

B. Application of immunological principles, vaccines, diagnostics. Tissue and cell culture methods for plants and animals.

C. Transgenic animals and plants, molecular approaches to diagnosis and strain identification.

D. Genomics and its application to health and agriculture, including gene therapy.

E. Bioresource and uses of biodiversity.

F. Breeding in plants and animals, including marker – assisted selection

G. Bioremediation and phytoremediation

H. Biosensors

#### 13. Methods In Biology

##### A. Molecular Biology and Recombinant DNA methods:

Isolation and purification of RNA , DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins, different separation methods.

Analysis of RNA, DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, Isoelectric focusing gels.

Molecular cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems.

Expression of recombinant proteins using bacterial, animal and plant vectors.

Isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences

Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors.

In vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques, gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms.

Protein sequencing methods, detection of post translation modification of proteins.

DNA sequencing methods, strategies for genome sequencing.

Methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level, large scale expression, such as micro array based techniques

Isolation, separation and analysis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules

RFLP, RAPD and AFLP techniques

##### B. Histochemical and Immunotechniques

Antibody generation, Detection of molecules using ELISA, RIA, western blot, immunoprecipitation, fluocytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, detection of molecules in living cells, in situ localization by techniques such as FISH and GISH.

##### C Biophysical Method:

Molecular analysis using UV/visible, fluorescence, circular dichroism, NMR and ESR spectroscopy Molecular structure determination using X-ray diffraction and NMR, Molecular analysis using light scattering, different types of mass spectrometry and surface plasma resonance methods.

##### D Statisitcal Methods:

Measures of central tendency and dispersal; probability distributions (Binomial, Poisson and normal); Sampling distribution; Difference between parametric and non-parametric statistics; Confidence Interval; Errors; Levels of significance; Regression and Correlation; t-test; Analysis of variance; X2 test;; Basic introduction to Muetrovariate statistics, etc.

##### E. Radiolabeling techniques:

Detection and measurement of different types of radioisotopes normally used in biology, incorporation of radioisotopes in biological tissues and cells, molecular imaging of radioactive material, safety guidelines.

##### F. Microscopic techniques:

Visulization of cells and subcellular components by light microscopy, resolving powers of different microscopes, microscopy of living cells, scanning and transmission microscopes, different fixation and staining techniques for EM, freeze-etch and freeze- fracture methods for EM, image processing methods in microscopy.

##### G. Electrophysiological methods:

Single neuron recording, patch-clamp recording, ECG, Brain activity recording, lesion and stimulation of brain, pharmacological testing, PET, MRI, fMRI, CAT .

##### H. Methods in field biology:

Methods of estimating population density of animals and plants, ranging patterns through direct, indirect and remote observations, sampling methods in the study of behavior, habitat characterization: ground and remote sensing methods.

Hindi Syllabus

### Gujarati

Gujarati Syllabus

### Sanskrit

Sanskrit Syllabus

### History (English)

#### 2. Ancient Indian History

Sources :

Archaeological Sources Exploration, excavation epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary Sources Indigenous : Primary and Secondary—problems of dating, myths. legends, poetry, scientific literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign
accounts : Greek. Chinese and Arab writers.

Pre-history and Proto-history

Man and Environment—geographical factors. Hunting and gathering (Paleolithic and Mesolithic): Beginning of agriculture (Neolithic and Chalcolithic). Indus Valley Civilization—origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance. Iron age; Second urbanisation.

Vedic Period

Migrations and settlements; dating the Vedlc. literary and archaeological evidences, evolution of social and political Institutions: religious and philosophical Ideas, rituals and practices.

Formation of States (Mahajanapadas); Republics and Monarchies; rise of urban centres; trade routes; economic growth; Introduction of coinage; pread of Jainism and Buddhism; rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian Invasions and their Impact.

Mauryan Empire

Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta. Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Brahmi and Kharosthi scripts. Administration; economy; architecture and sculpture; external contacts. Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

Post-Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas. Western Kshatrapas)

Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage. development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art and architecture, literature and science.

Early state and society—in Eastern India, Deccan and South India

Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age. Administration; economy,
land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres. Buddhist centres, Sangam literature
and culture; art and architecture.

Imperial Guptas and Regional States of India

Guptas and Vakatakas, Harsha, Administration, economic conditions, coinage of the Guptas,land grants, decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, caste system, position of women, education and educational Institutions—Nalanda, Vikramshlla and Vallabhi. contact with
neighbouring countries—Central Asia, South-East Asia and China, Sanskrit literature,
scientific literature, art and architecture.

The Kadambas, Gangas, Pallavas and Chalukyas of Badami— Administration, trade guilds, Sanskrit literature and growth of regional languages and scripts; growth, of Vaishnava and Saiva religions, Tamil Bhaktl Movement. Shankaracharya—Vedanta; Institutions of temple
and temple architecture.

Varmanas of Kamrup; Palas and Senas, Rashtrakutas. Prathiharas, Kalachuri-Chedls;Paramaras; Chalukyas of Gujarat; Arab contacts—Ghaznavl Conquest Alberunl.

The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Cheras, Hoysalas, Pandyas—Administration and local Government, growth of art and architecture, religious sects. Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas. education and literature, economy and society, contact with Sri Lanka and SouthEast Asia.

#### 3. Medieval Indian History

##### Sources

Archaeological, epigraphic and numismatic materials and monuments.

Chronicles.

Literary sources—Persian, Sanskrit and Regional languages.

Archival materials.

Foreign travellers’ accounts.

##### Political Developments

The Sultanate—the Ghorids. the Turks, the Khaljis. the Tughluqs, the Sayyids and the Lodis.

Foundation of the Mughal Empire—Babur, Humayun and the Suris: expansion from Akbar to Aurangzeb.

Decline of the Mughal empire—political, administrative and economic causes.

Later Mughals and disintegration of the Mughal empire. The Vijayanagara and the

Bahmanis—rise, expansion and disintegration. The Maratha movement, the foundation of

Swaraj by Shivaji; its expansion under the Peshwas; Maratha Confederacy—causes of decline.

Administration under the Sultanate—civil. Judicial, revenue, fiscal and military.

Sher Shah’s administrative reforms; Mughal administration—land revenue and other sources of Income; Mansabdari and Jaglrdari.

Administrative system in the Deccan—the Vljayanagara. the Bahmanis and the Marathas.

##### Economic Aspects

Agricultural production—village economy; peasantry. Urban centres and population.

Industries—cotton textiles, handicrafts, agro-based Industries. organisation, karkhanas, technology.

Trade and commerce—State policies, internal and external trade;

European trade, trade centres and ports, transport and communication.

Financing trade, commerce and Industries; Hundi (Bills of Exchange) and Insurance.

Currency.

##### Socio-religious Movements

The Sufis—their orders, beliefs and practices, the leading Sufi saints. Bhaktl cult—Shaivism and its branches : Vaishnavism and Its branches. The Saints of the medieval period—north and south—their Impact on socio-political and religious life.

The Sikh movement—Guru Nanak Dev and his teachings and practices, Adi Granth; the Khalsa.

##### Society

Classification—ruling class, major religious groups, the mercantile and professional classes.

Rural society—petty chieftains, village officials, cultivators and non-cultivating classes, artisans.

Position of women.

##### Cultural Life

System of Educational and Its motivations.

Literature—Persian, Sanskrit and Regional languages.

Fine Arts—major schools of painting; music.

Architectural developments of the North and South India: Indo-Islamic architecture.

#### 4. Modern Indian History

##### Sources and Historiography :

Archival materials, biographies and memories, newspapers.

Oral evidence, creative literature and painting.

Concerns in Modem Indian Historiography—Imperialist, Nationalist, Marxist and Subaltern.

##### Rise of British Power

European traders In India In the 17th and 18th centuries—Portuguese.

Dutch. French and the British.

The establishment and expansion of British dominion In India.

British relations with and subjugation of the principal Indian

Powers—Bengal, Oudh, Hyderabad, Mysore, Marathas and the Sikhs.

##### Administration of the Company and Crown

Evolution of central and provincial structure under the East India Company, 1773-1853,

Paramountacy. Civil Service. Judiciary, Police and the Army under the Company and Crown.

Local Self-Government

Constitutional changes, 1909-1935.

##### Economic History

Changing composition, volume and direction of trade; The Tribute’.

Expansion and commercialisation of agriculture, land rights, land settlements, rural indebtedness, landless labour.

Decline of Industries—changing socio-economic conditions of artisans:

De-urbanisation.

British Industrial Policy; major modem Industries; nature of factory legislation; labour and trade union movements.

Monetary policy; banking, currency and exchange. Railways and Road Transport.

Growth of new urban centres: new features of town planning and architecture.

Famines and epidemics and the government policy.

Economic Thought—English utilitarians: Indian economic historians: the Drain theory.

##### Indian Society in Transition

Contact with Christianity—the Missions; critique of Indian social and economic practices and religious beliefs; educational and other activities.

The New Education—government policy: levels and contents: English language; modem science; Indian initiatives in education.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy; socio-religious reforms: emergence of middle class; caste associations and caste mobility.

Women’s Question—Nationalist Discourse: Women’s Organisations;

British legislation concerning women; Constitutional position.

The Printing Press—journalistic activity and the public opinion.

Modernisation of Indian languages and literary forms—reorientatlon in painting, music and performing arts.

##### National Movement

Rise of Indian nationalism, social and economic bases of nationalism.

Revolt of 1857 and different social classes.

Tribal and peasant movements.

Ideologies and programmes of the Indian National Congress. 1885- 1920.

Trends In Swadeshi movement.

Ideologies and programmes of Indian revolutionaries In India and abroad.

Gandhian Mass Movements.

Ideology and programme of the Justice Party.

Left Wing Politics. • Movement of the Depressed classes.

Communal politics and genesis of Pakistan.

Towards Independence and Partition

##### India after Independence (1947-1964)

Rehabilitation after Partition.

Integration of the Indian States; The Kashmir Question.

The making of the Indian Constitution.

The structure of Bureaucracy and the Police.

The demographic trends.

Economic policies and the planning process.

Linguistic reorganisation of States.

Foreign policy initiatives.

##### Research in History

Scope and value of History

Objectivity and Bias In History

History and Its auxiliary sciences

Area of research—proposed

Sources—Primary/secondary In the proposed area of research

Modem Historical Writing in the researcher’s area of research

### Core Group

#### Unit—I

From the Indus Valley Civilization to the Mahajanapadas Age, extent and characteristics of the Indus Valley Civilization. Vedic culture—Early and Late—Geography : Social and Political institutions. Economic conditions. Religious and Philosophical ideas. Mahajanapadas. Republics, Economic growth—Emergence of Jainism and Buddhism—Rise of Magadha—Macedonian Invasion and Its effects.

#### Unit—II

History of India from 4th century BC to 3rd century AD Foundation of the Mauryan Empire— Chandragupta, Asoka and his Dharma. Mauryan administration. Economy, Art and Architecture, Disintegration of the Mauryan empire. Sangam Age Sungas. Satavahanas and Kushanas : Administration, religion, society. economy, trade and commerce, culture—Art and Architecture, Literature.

#### Unit—III

India from the 4th century AD to 12th century AD Gupta—Vakataka Age—Harsha-Pallavas— Early Chalukyas—Rashtrakutas-Cholas-Pratiharas-Palas—A brief survey of the history of the Paramaras, Kalachuris, Gahadavalas and Chauhans—Administration. Feudalism, Society, Position of Women. Educational centres. Economy. Religious trends, styles of temple architecture, art. Literature, An outline of scientific and technological developments. India’s contacts with the outside world.

#### Unit—IV

India from 1206 to 1526 Expansion and Consolidation—The Ghorids. The Turks, The Khaljis, The Tughlaqs, The Sayyids and the Lodis. Vijayanagar and Bahamani Kingdoms. State and Religion—Concept of sovereignty. Religious movements and Sufism. Economic
Aspects—Urban Centres, Industries, Trade and Commerce, Land Revenue and Prices. Mongol problem and Its impact. Administrative structure Art, Architecture and Literature. Sources—Archaeological. Persian and non-Persian literature. Foreign travellers account.

#### Unit—V

India from 1526 onward
Sources of Mughal period.
Mughal Expansion and Consolidation—Babur’s establishment of Mughal rule in India; Humayun and Surs; Akbar, Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb. Mughal relations with the nobility and the Rajputs. Jahangir—the period of stability and expansion 1611-1621; the period of crises 1622-1627—The Nurjahan Junta. Decline of Mughal Empire : Political, administrative and economic causes. The Maratha Movement, the foundation of Swarajya by Shivaji its expansion and administration, Maratha Confederacy and causes of decline. Administration : Sher Shah’s administrative reforms, Mughal administration. land revenue and other sources of Income, Mansabdari and Jagirdari.

#### Unit—VI

Socio-economic and cultural life under the Mughals

Village society and economy

Art, architecture and literature

Religious policy from Akbar to Aurangzeb

Urban centers and Industries

Currency

Position of women

#### Unit—VII

Foundation of the British Rule

Rise of European powers—Expansion and Consolidation of the British rule.

British relations with major Indian powers—Bengal, Oudh, Hyderabad, Mysore, Marathas and Sikhs.

Administration under the East India Company and Crown, Paramountacy, Civil Service, Judiciary, Police and Army.

Local Self-government. Constitutional Development from 1909 to 1935.

#### Unit—VIII

Economic and Social Policies

Agrarian policy of the British, Land Revenue, Agriculture and Land Rights. Famine policy.

Rural indebtedness.

Policy towards trade and Industries, Condition of Labour, Trade Union Movements, Factory Legislation, Banking, Transport, Drain Theory. Indian Society in transition. Christian missions, Socio-religious reform movements. Status of women.

New educational policy, English language. Modem sciences. Press, Indian languages and literature.

#### Unit—IX

National Movement and Post-Independent India

Rise of nationalism. Revolt of 1857, Tribal and Peasant Movements, Ideologies and Programmes of Indian National Congress. Swadeshi Movement, Indian Revolutionary

Movement in India and Abroad. Gandhian Mass Movements. Ideologies and Programmes of the Justice Party;

Left wing politics, Movement of the depressed classes. Genesis of Pakistan, India towards Independence, and Partition. India after Independence, Rehabilitation after partition.

Integration of Indian States, the Kashmir Question.

Making of the Indian Constitution. Structure of Bureaucracy and the police, Economic policies and the planning process. Linguistic reorganisation of the States, foreign policy initiatives.

#### Unit—X (A)

World History—Concepts. Ideas and Terms

Renaissance, Reformation

Enlightenment, Rights of Man

Apartheid

Imperialism

Socialism

Nazism

Parliamentary Democracy

Commonwealth

Efforts at World Peace, Cold War

Post-modernism

#### Unit—X (B)

Research in History

Scope and Importance of History

Objectivity and Bias In History I

Cousation In History

History and its auxiliary sciences

Significance of Regional History

Recent trends of Indian History

Research Methodology

Area of Proposed Research

Sources—Primary/Secondary In the Proposed area of Research.

Recent Historical writings In the Proposed area of research.

### Paper-III (B) (Elective/Optional)

#### Elective—I : Ancient Indian History

Stone-Age Cultures of India

Origin, date. extent and characterstics of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Evolution of social and political Institutions In the Vedic period ,1

Economic and religious developments In 6th century BC

Sources of Mauryan history—Megasthenes, Kautilya, Asokan edicts and Simhalese chronicles

Economy and trade during 2nd century BC—3rd century AD—Schools of art—

Development of Stupa and Chaitya architecture Assessment of the Gupta Age

Ancient Indian Republics—History of Local Self-government In India Indian feudalism

Indian contacts with the outside world In the ancient period Contribution of Sankara and

Ramanuja to religion and philosophy

#### Elective—II : Medieval Indian History

Sources on Medieval Indian History

North-West frontier and Deccan Policy of the Mughals

Society and Economy during Medieval period

Religion, Art, Architecture and Literature during Medieval period

Urban Economy, Trade and Commerce during Medieval period

Legacy of the Mughals

18th Century Debate

Significance of Regional History

#### Elective—III : Modern Indian History

The Establishment and Expansion of the British Dominion in India Constitutional Development from 1858 to 1935 The British Agrarian Policies The Relief Measures adopted by the British Education and Social Reforms Under the British Socio-Religious

Reform Movements in the 19th century Rise of Nationalism and the Indian National Congress

The Gandhian Era Towards Independence and Partition

The Making of the Indian Constitution and its working

### History (Gujarati)

History In Gujarati

### Sociology

Paper–II

#### A : Sociological Concepts

##### 1. Nature of Sociologys

Definition, Sociological Perspective

##### 2. Basic Concepts

Community, Institution, Association, Culture, Norms and Values

##### 3. Social Structure

Status and role, their interrelationship, Multiple roles, Role set, Status set, Status sequence,

Role conflict

##### 4. Social Group

Meaning, Types : Primary-Secondary, Formal-Informal, Ingroup-Outgroup, Reference group

##### 5. Social Institutions

Marriage, Family, Education, Economy, Polity, Religion

##### 6. Socialization

Socialization, Resocialization, Anticipatory socialization, Adult socialization

Agencies of socialization, Theories of socialization

##### 7. Social Stratification

Social differentiation, Hierarchy and Inequality

Forms of stratification : Caste, Class, Gender, Ethnic

Theories of social stratification, Social mobility

##### 8. Social Change

Concepts and Types : Evolution, Diffusion, Progress, Revolution, Transformation, Change in structure and Change of structure

Theories : Dialectical and Cyclical

#### B : Sociological Theory

##### 10. Functional

Malinowski, Durkheim, Parsons, Merton

##### 11. Interactionist

Social action : Max Weber, Pareto

Symbolic interactionism : G. H. Mead, Blumer

##### 12. Conflict

Karl Marx, Dahrendorf, Coser, Collins

#### C : Methodology

##### 13. Meaning and Nature of Social Research

Nature of social phenomena, The scientific method,

The problems in the study of social phenomena : Objectivity and subjectivity, fact and value

##### 14. Quantitative Methods

Survey, Research Design and its types, Hypothesis, Sampling,

Techniques of data collection : Observation, Questionnaire, Schedule, Interview

##### 15. Qualitative Methods

Participant observation, Case study, Content analysis, Oral history, Life history

##### 16. Statistics in Social Research

Measures of Central Tendency : Mean, Median, Mode

Measures of dispersion, Correlational analysis, Test of significance, Reliability and Validity

### Paper–III (A) (Core Group)

#### Unit—I : Phenomenology and Ethnomethodology

Alfred Shultz, Peter Berger and Luckmann
Garfinkel and Goffman

#### Unit—II : Neo-functionalism and Neo-Marxism

J. Alexander
Habermass, Althusser

#### Unit—III : Structuration and Post-Modernism

Giddens, Derrida, Foucault,

#### Unit—IV : Conceptualising Indian Society

Peoples of India : Groups and Communities

Unity in diversity

Cultural diversity : Regional, linguistic, religions and tribal

#### Unit—V : Theoretical Perspectives

Indological/Textual Perspective : G. S. Ghurye, Louis Dumont

Structural-Functional Perspective : M. N. Srinivas, S. C. Dube

Marxian Perspective : D. P. Mukherjee, A. R. Desai

Civilisational Perspective : N. K. Bose, Surajit Sinha

Subaltern Perspective : B. R. Ambedkar, David Hardiman

#### Unit—VI : Contemporary Issues : Socio-cultural

Poverty, Inequality of caste and gender, Regional, ethnic and religious disharmonics,

Family disharmony : (a) Domestic violence (b) Dowry (c) Divorce (d) Intergenerational conflict

#### Unit—VII : Contemporary Issues : Developmental

Population, Regional disparity, Slums, Displacement, Ecological degradation and environmental pollution, Health problems

#### Unit—VIII : Issues Pertaining to Deviance

Deviance and its forms, Crime and delinquency, White collar crime and corruption, Changing profile of crime and criminals, Drug addiction, Suicide

#### Unit—IX : Current Debates

Tradition and Modernity in India

Problems of Nation Building : Secularism, Pluralism and Nation building

#### Unit—X : The Challenges of Globalisation

Indigenisation of Sociology, Privatisation of Education, Science and Technology Policy of India

### Paper-III (B) (Elective/Optional)

#### Elective—I : Rural Sociology

Approaches to the study of Rural Society :

Rural-Urban differences, Rurbanism, Peasant studies,

Agrarian Institutions :
Land ownership and its types, Agrarian relations and Mode of production debate,

Jajmani system and Jajmani relations, Agrarian class structure

Panchayati Raj Institution :

Panchayat before and after 73rd Amendment, Rural Leadership and Factionalism,

Empowerment of people

Social Issues and Strategies for Rural Development :

Bonded and Migrant labourers, Pauperization and Depeasantisation,

Agrarian unrest and Peasant movements

Rural Development and Change :

Trends of changes in rural society

Processes of change : Migration—Rural to Urban and Rural to Rural Mobility :

Social/Economic, Factors of change

#### Elective—II : Industry and Society

Industrial Society in the Classical Sociological Tradition :

Division of labour, Bureaucracy, Rationality, Production relations, Surplus value, Alienation

Industry and Society :

Factory as a social system, Formal and informal organization, Impact of social structure on industry, Impact of industry on society

Industrial Relations :

Changing profile of labour, Changing labour-management relations, Conciliation, adjudication, arbitration, Collective bargaining, Trade unions, Workers’ participation in management (Joint Management Councils), Quality circles

Industrialisation and Social Change in India :

Impact of industrialization on family, education and stratification, Class and class conflict in industrial society, Obstacles to and limitations of industrialization

Industrial Planning :

Industrial policy, Labour legislation, Human relations in industry

#### Elective—III : Sociology of Development

Conceptual Perspectives on Development :

Economic growth, Human development, Social development

Sustainable development : Ecological and Social

Theories of Underdevelopment :

Liberal : Max Weber, Gunnar Myrdal

Dependency : Centre-periphery (Frank), Uneven development (Samir Amin), World system (Wallerstein)

Paths of Development :

Modernisation, Globalisation

Socialist, Mixed, Gandhian

Social Structure and Development :

Social structure as a facilitator/inhibitor, Development and socio-economic disparities, Gender and development

Culture and Development :

Culture as an aid/impediment, Development and displacement of tradition,

Development and upsurge of ethnic movements

#### Elective—IV : Population and Society

Theories of Population Growth :

Malthusian, Demographic transition

Population Growth and Distribution in India :

Growth of Indian population since 1901, Determinants of population

Concepts of Fertility, Mortality, Morbidity and Migration :

Age and Sex composition and its consequences, Determinants of fertility,

Determinants of mortality, infant, child and maternal mortality, Morbidity rates,

Determinants and consequences of migration

Population and Development :

Population as a constraint on and a resource for development,

Socio-cultural factors affecting population growth

Population Control :

Population policy : Problems and perspectives

Population education, Measures taken for population control

#### Elective—V : Gender and Society

Gender as a Social Construct :

Models of Gendered socialisation, Cultural symbolism and general roles

Social Structure and Gender Inequality :

Patriarchy and Matriarchy, Division of labour—Production and reproduction

Theories of Gender Relations :

Liberalist, Radical, Socialist, Post-modernist

Gender and Development :

Effect of development policies on gender relations,

Perspectives on gender and development—Welfarist, developmentalist Empowerment

Women and Development in India :
Indicators of women’s status : Demographic, social, economic and cultural

Special schemes and strategies for women’s development, Voluntary sector and women’s development, Globalisation and women’s development, Eco-feminism

### Sociology In Gujarati

Sociology In Gujarati

### Paper II

1. Micro-economic Analysis

Demand analysis—Marshallian, Hicksian and Revealed preference approaches

Theory of Production and Costs

Pricing and output under different forms of market structure

Factor Pricing analysis

Elements of general equilibrium and new welfare economics

2. Macro-economic Analysis

Determination of output and employment—Classical approach, Keynesian approach,

Consumption hypotheses

Demand for Money—Fisher and Cambridge versions, Approaches of Keynesian,

Friedman, Patinkin, Baumol and Tobin

Supply of Money, Determinants of money supply, High-powered money, Money multiplier

Phillips Curve analysis

Business cycles—Models of Samuelson, Hicks and Kaldor.
Macro-economic Equilibrium—Relative roles of monetary and fiscal policies

3. Development and Planning

Economic Growth, Economic Development and sustainable Development—

Importance of institutions—Government and markets—Perpetuation of underdevelopment—Vicious circle of poverty, circular causation, structural view of underdevelopment—Measurement of development conventional, HDI and quality of life indices

Theories of Development—Classical, Marx and Schumpeter; Economic Growth—

Harrod-Domar model, instability of equilibrium, Neoclassical growth—Solow’s model, steady state growth. Approaches to development : Balanced growth, critical minimum effort, big push, unlimited supply of labour, unbalanced growth, low income equilibrium trap

Indicators and measurement of poverty

Importance of agriculture and industry in economic development—choice of techniques and appropriate technology—Investment criteria— Elementary idea of cost-benefit analysis

Trade and Aid—International trade as ‘engine of growth’—Globalization and LDC’s

Objectives and role of monetary and fiscal policies in economic development

Techniques of planning; Plan Models in India; planning in a market-oriented economy

4. Public Finance

Role of the Government in Economic activity—Allocation, distribution and stabilization functions; Private, Public and Merit goods

The Public Budgets—Kinds of Budgets, Zero-base budgeting, different concepts of budget deficits; Budgets of the Union Government in India

Public Expenditure—Hypotheses; effects and evaluation

Public Revenue—Different approaches to the division of tax burden, incidence and effects of taxation; elasticity and buoyancy; taxable capacity

Public Debt—Sources, effects, burden and its management

Fiscal Federalism—Theory and problems; Problems of Centre-State Financial relations in India

Fiscal Policy—Neutral and compensatory and functional finance; balanced budget multiplier

5. International Economics

Theories of International Trade : Empirical verification and Relevance

International Trade under Imperfect competition

Terms of Trade and Economic Growth—Secular

Deterioration of Terms of Trade Hypothesis—a critical review

Equilibrium/disequilibrium in Balance of Payment—Traditional, Absorption and

Monetary approaches for adjustment in the Balance of Payments, Foreign Trade multiplier

Impact of Tariffs, Partial and general equilibrium analysis; Political economy of NonTariff Barriers

Theory of regionalism at Global level—Collapse of Bretton-Wood System—Recent Monetary reforms

Trade Policy and Reforms in India

6. Indian Economy

Basic Economic indicators—National income, performance of different sectors Trends in prices and money supply

Agriculture—Institutional and technological aspects, new agricultural policy Industry—New industrial policy and liberalization

Money and banking—Concepts of money supply, inflation, monetary policy and financial sector reforms

Public finance—Trends in revenue and expenditures of the Central and State Governments, Public debt; analysis of the Union Budget

Foreign trade—Trends, Balance of payments and trade reforms Poverty, unemployment, migration and environment

7. Statistical Methods

Measures of Central tendency, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis

Elementary theory of probability—Binomial, Poisson and Normal distributions

Simple correlation and regression analysis

Statistical inferences—Applications, sampling distributions (t, c2 and F tests), sampling of attributes, testing of Hypothesis

Index numbers and time series analysis

Sampling and census methods, types of sampling and errors

### Paper-III (A) (Core group)

#### Unit—I

Theory of Demand—Axiomatic approach, Demand functions, Consumer behaviour under conditions of uncertainty

Theory of production

Collusive and non-collusive oligopolies

Different models of objectives of the firm—Baumol, Morris and Williamson

Factor pricing

General equilibrium and Welfare Economics

#### Unit—II

Keynesian and post-Keynesian approaches to theory of output and employment; concept of investment multiplier; consumption hypotheses

Theories of investment and accelerator

Theories of demand for money—Keynesian and post-Keynesian

Different approaches to money supply; money supply; components and determinants; money multiplier

Output—price determination (aggregate supply and aggregate demand curve analysis)

Fleming-Mundell open economy model

#### Unit—III

Development and Growth—Role of institutions

Theories of growth and development—Models of growth of Joan Robinson and Kaldor; Technical Progress—Hicks, Harrod and learning by doing, production function approach to the determinants of growth : Endogenous growth : role of education, research and knowledge—explanation of cross country differentials in economic development and growth.

Theories of development—Classical, Marx, Schumpeter and structural analysis of development—Imperfect market paradigm, Lewis model of development, Ranis-Fei model, Dependency theory of development

Factors in economy development—natural resources, population, capital, Human

Resource Development and infrastructure

Trade and development—trade as engine of growth, two-gap analysis, Prebisch, Singer and Myrdal views; gains from trade and LDCs

#### Unit—IV

Theories of taxation, types, incidence and effects

Theories of public expenditure—effects on savings, investment and growth Burden of public debt Union Finance—Trends in Revenue and Expenditure of the Government of India

State finance—Trends in Revenue and Expenditure of the State Governments

Public Debt—India’s Public debt since 1951—growth composition, ownership pattern and debt management

Union-State Financial Relations—Horizontal and vertical imbalances; the Finance Commissions

Fiscal Policy and Fiscal Reforms in India

#### Unit—V

‘Monetary approach’ and adjustment in the balance of payments

Regional blocs—multilateralism and world trading system

The Political Economy of imposition of non-tariff barriers

International trade under conditions of imperfect competition in goods market

Theory of International reserves Optimum Currency Areas—Theory and impact in the developed and developing countries

WTO and its impact on the different sectors of the economy

#### Unit—VI

Components of money supply

Role, constituents and functions of money and capital markets

RBI—recent monetary and credit policies Commercial banks and cooperative banks

Specialized financial and investment institutions

Non-Bank financial institutions and Regional Rural Banks

#### Unit—VII

Industrial structure and economic growth

Pattern of industrialization—Public and Private; large and small industries

Theories of Industrial location—Indian experience

Industrial productivity—measurement, partial and total trends

Industrial Finance in India

Industrial Labour—Problems, policies and reforms in India

Economic Reforms and industrial growth

#### Unit—VIII

Population and Economic development—interrelation between population, development and environment, sustainable development

Malthusian theory of population, Optimum theory of population, theory of demographic transition, population as ‘Limits to Growth’ and as ‘Ultimate Source’

Concepts of Demography—Vital rates, Life tables, composition and uses,

Measurement of fertility—Total fertility rate, gross and net reproduction rate—Age pyramids, population projection—stable, stationary and quasi-stationary population; characteristics of Indian population through recent census

Poverty in India—Absolute and relative; analysis of poverty in India

Environment as necessity—amenity and public good; causes of environmental and ecosystem degeneration—policies for controlling pollution—economic and persuasive; their relative effectiveness in LDCs; Relation between population, poverty and environmental degradation—microplanning for environment and ecopreservation —water sheds, joint forest management and self-help groups

Role of State in environmental preservation—Review of environmental legislation in India

#### Unit—IX

Role of Agriculture in Indian Economy—Share of Agriculture, interrelationship between agriculture and industry

Institutional aspects—Land reforms, Green revolution

Technological aspects—Agricultural inputs an shifts in production function

Capital formation in the rural sector—Savings, assets and credits

Strategies for rural development

Regional disparities in Indian agriculture

Cooperative movement in India—Organization, structure and development of different types of cooperatives in India

#### Unit—X

Application of Differential and Integral Calculus in theories of consumer behaviour, Production and pricing under different market conditions

Input-output analysis and linear programming

Application of Correlation and Regression

Testing of Hypothesis in Regression Analysis

### Paper—III (B)( Elective/Optional)

#### Elective—I

Single Equation Linear Model :

Assumption and properties of OLS

Multiple Regression Model—Estimation and Interpretation

Multi-collinearity—Auto-correlation and heteroscedasticity—Causes, detection, consequences and remedy

Dummy variables, distributed lags—Need, limitations and interpretation

Applications in Economics

Simultaneous Equation models :

Structural and reduced forms

Endogenous and exogenous variables

Identification problems and conditions

Single equation methods of estimations—TSLS, indirect least squares and least variance ratio Techniques of Forecasting :

ARMA, ARIMA

Econometric properties of time series, Unit root, integrated series, random walk and white noise

#### Elective—II

Theory of Consumer Behaviour and Theory of Firms

Theory of Pricing—Monopoly, Monopolistic competition, Duoploy and Oligopoly

Theory of Games—Two-person, Zero-sum Game, Pure and Mixed strategy, Saddle point solution, Linear programming and input output analysis
Static and Dynamic Multiplier and Accelerator, Samuelson-Hicks trade cycle model.

Growth Models—Harrod and Domar, Neoclassical models—Solow, Meade,

Kaldor’s Model with technological progress, endogenous growth models

Employment and output determination with fixed and flexible prices (IS-LM, Aggregate demand and aggregate supply analysis)

#### Elective—III

The Rise and Fall of Bretton-Wood and emerging International Monetary System World Trading System—Evolution and Distortions

Globalization—Developments in Exchange Markets, Euro-Currency Markets, and International Bond Markets, International Debt crisis

Theory of Foreign Exchange Markets—Exchange Trading, Arbitrage and Market Hedging

#### Elective—IV

Growth and Productivity trends in Indian Agriculture

Development of distributive institutions—Costs and price policies

Agricultural marketing and credit

Trends in migration and labour markets. Minimum Wages Act

WTO and sustainable agricultural development

Reforms in Indian agriculture

#### Elective—V

University Grants Commission

Planning and Economic Development

Costs, Prices, WTO and Indian Agriculture

Globalization, Liberalization and the Indian Industrial Sector

Infrastructure and Economic Development

Social Sector, Poverty and Reforms in India

Women, Environment and Economic Development

Trade Reforms and Liberalization

Financial sector reforms

Fiscal policy and fiscal reforms

### Economics In Gujarati

Economics In Gujarati

### Paper II

1. Political Theory and Thought

Ancient Indian Political Thought : Kautilya and Shanti Parva.

Greek Political Thought : Plato and Aristotle.

European Thought–I : Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau.

European Thought–II : Bentham, J. S. Mill, Hegel, Marx and Green.

Contemporary Political Thought–I : Lenin, Mao, Gramsci.

Contemporary Political Thought–II : Rawls, Nozic and Communitarians.

Modern Indian Thought : Gandhi, M. N. Roy, Aurobindo Ghosh, Joy Prakash Ambedkar, Savarkar.

Concepts and Issue–I : Medieval Political Thought : Church State Relationship and Theory of Two Swords.

Concepts and Issue–II : Behaviouralism and Post-Behaviouralism, Decline and Resurgence of Political Theory.

Democracy, Liberty and Equality.

2. Comparative Politics and Political Analysis

Evolution of Comparative Politics as a discipline; nature and scope.

Approaches to the study of comparative politics : Traditional, Structural-Functional, Systems and Marxist.

Constitutionalism : Concepts, Problems and Limitations.

Forms of Government : Unitary—Federal, Parliamentary—Presidential.

Organs of Government : Executive, Legislature, Judiciary—their interrelationship in comparative perspective.

Party Systems and Pressure Groups; Electoral Systems.

Bureaucracy—types and roles.

Political Development and Political Modernization.

Political Culture, Political Socialization and Political Communication.

Political Elite; Elitist theory of Democracy.

Power, Authority and Legitimacy.

Revolution : Theories and Types.

Dependency : Development and Under Development

3. Indian Government and Politics

National Movement, Constitutional Developments and the Making of Indian Constitution.

Ideological Bases of the Indian Constitution, Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties and Directive Principles.

Constitution as Instrument of Socio-Economic Change, Constitutional Amendments and Review.

Structure and Process–I : President, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers, Working of the Parliamentary System.

Structure and Process–II : Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Legislature.

Panchayati Raj Institutions : Rural and Urban, their working.

Federalism : Theory and Practice in India; Demands of Autonomy and Separatist Movements; Emerging trends in Centre-State Relations.

Judiciary : Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism including Public Interest Litigation cases, Judicial Reforms.

Political Parties, Pressure Groups, Public Opinion, Media; Subaltern and Peasant Movements.

Elections, Electoral Behaviour, Election Commission and Electoral Reforms.

Development of Public Administration as a discipline; Approaches to the study of Public Administration : Decision-making, Ecological and Systems; Development

Theories of organization.

Principles of organization : Line and staff, unity of command, hierarchy, span of control, centralization and decentralization, Types of organization—formal and informal; Forms of organization; department, public corporation and board.

Chief Executive : Types, functions and roles.

Personnel administration : Recruitment, Training, Promotion, Discipline, Morale;

Employee-Employer Relations.

Bureaucracy : Theories, Types and Roles; Max Weber and his critics. Civil servant—Minister relationship.

Leadership, its role in decision-making; Communication.

Financial Administration : Budget, Audit, Control over Finance with special reference to India and UK.

Good Governance; Problems of Administrative Corruption; Transparency and Accountability; Right to Information.

Grievance Redressal Institutions : Ombudsman, Lokpal and Lokayukta.

5. International Relations

Contending Theories and Approaches to the study of International Relations;

Idealist, Realist, Systems, Game, Communication and Decision-making.

Power, Interest and Ideology in International Relations; Elements of Power :

Acquisition, use and limitations of power, Perception, Formulation and Promotion of National Interest, Meaning, Role and Relevance of Ideology in International Relations.

Arms and Wars : Nature, causes and types of wars/conflicts including ethnic disputes; conventional, Nuclear/bio-chemical wars; deterrence, Arms race, Arms control and Disarmament.

Peaceful settlement of disputes, conflict resolution, Diplomacy, World-order and Peace studies.

Cold war, Alliances, Non-alignment, End of Cold war, Globalisation.

Rights and Duties of states in international law, intervention, Treaty law, prevention and abolition of war.

Political Economy of International Relations; New International Economic Order, North-South Dialogue, South-South Cooperation, WTO, Neo-colonialism and Dependency.

Regional and sub-regional organisations especially SAARC, ASEAN, OPEC, OAS.

United Nations : Aims, Objectives, Structure and Evaluation of the working of UN;

Peace and Development perspectives; Charter Revision; Power-struggle and Diplomacy within UN, Financing and Peace-keeping operations.

India’s Role in International affairs : India’s relations with its neighbours, wars, security concerns and pacts, Mediatory Role, distinguishing features of Indian Foreign Policy and Diplomacy

### Paper-III (Part A & B)(Core And Elective/Optional)

#### Unit—I

Political Theory

Nature of Political Theory, its main concerns, decline and resurgence since 1970s

Liberalism and Marxism

Individual and Social Justice

Role of Ideology

Theories of change : Lenin, Mao, Gandhi

#### Unit—II

Political Thought

Plato and Aristotle

Machiavelli

Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau and J. S. Mill

Karl Marx

Gandhi, M. N. Roy, Aurobindo Ghosh

#### Unit—III

Comparative Politics and Political Analysis

Approaches to the study of comparative Politics

Constitutionalism in theory and practice

Executive, Legislature and Judiciary with special reference to India, USA,

UK and Switzerland

Party system and role of opposition. Electoral Process

Separation of Powers, Rule of Law and Judicial Review

#### Unit—IV

Political Development

Political Modernization

Political Socialisation and Political Culture

Power and Authority

Political Elite

#### Unit—V

Making of the Indian Constitution

Fundamental Rights and Duties, and Directive Principles

Union Executive, Parliament

Supreme Court, Judicial Activism

Indian Federalism : Theory, Practice and Problems

#### Unit—VI

Dynamics of state politics

Local Governments : Rural and Urban

Political Parties, Pressure Groups, and Public Opinion

Elections, Electoral Reforms

Class, Caste, Gender, Dalit and Regional Issues, Problems of Nation-Building and Integration

#### Unit—VII

Growth of Public Administration as a discipline; and New Public Administration

Theories of Organisation (Classical, Scientific, Human Relations); Principles of Organisation.

Chief Executive

Control over Administration—Judicial and Legislative Bureaucracy

#### Unit—VIII

Development Planning and Administration in India

Bureaucracy and Challenges of Development

Panchayati Raj

Impact of Liberalization on Public Administration

#### Unit—IX

Theories of International Relations

Ideology, Power and Interest

Conflicts and Conflict-Resolution

Changing concept of National Security and Challenges to the Nation-State System

Arms and Arms-control

#### Unit—X

End of Cold War, Globalisation and Political Economy of International Relations in the Contemporary World.

Determinants and Compulsions of India’s Foreign Policy; India’s Nuclear Policy.

India’s Relations with Neighbours and USA.

India’s Role in the UN.

India and Regional Organizations (SAARC, ASEAN), Indian Ocean.

### Political Science In Gujarati

Political Science In Gujarati

### English

#### Paper—II

1. Chaucer to Shakespeare
2. Jacobean to Restoration Periods
3. Augustan Age : 18th Century Literature
4. Romantic Period
5. Victorian Period
6. Modern Period
7. Contemporary Period
8. American and other non-British Literatures
9. Literary Theory and Criticism
10. Rhetoric and Prosody

### Paper—III (A) (Core Group)

1. British Literature from Chaucer to the present day

2. Criticism and Literary Theory

#### Unit—I :

Literary Comprehension (with internal choice of poetry stanza andprose passage; four comprehension questions will be asked carrying 4 marks each).

#### Unit—II :

Up to the Renaissance

#### Unit—III :

Jacobean to Restoration Periods

#### Unit—IV :

Augustan Age : 18th Century Literature

Romantic Period

#### Unit—VI :

Victorian and Pre-Raphaelites

#### Unit—VII :

Modern British Literature

#### Unit—VIII :

Contemporary British Literature

#### Unit—IX :

Literary Theory and Criticism up to T. S. Eliot

#### Unit—X :

Contemporary Theory

### Paper—III (B)(Elective/Optional)

#### Elective—I :

History of English Language, English Language Teaching

#### Elective—II :

European Literature from Classical Age to the 20th Century

#### Elective—III :

Indian writing in English and Indian Literature in English translation

#### Elective—IV :

American and other non-British English Literatures

#### Elective—V :

Literary Theory and Criticism sample questions

### Education (Paper II)

1. Philosophical Foundation of Education

Relationship of Education and Philosophy

Western Schools of Philosophy :

Idealism, Realism, Naturalism, Pragmatism, Existentialism, Marxism with special reference to the concepts of knowledge, reality and values their educational implications for aims, contents and methods of education.

Indian Schools of Philosophy (Sankhya, Vedanta, Buddhism, Jainism, Islamic traditions) with special reference to the concept of knowledge, reality and values and their educational implications

Contributions of Vivekananda, Tagore, Gandhi and Aurobindo to educational thinking

National values as enshrined in the Indian Constitution, and their educational implications

Modern concept of Philosophy : Analysis—Logical analysis, Logical empiricism and

Positive relativism—(Morris L. Prigge)

2. Sociological Foundations of Education

Relationship of Sociology and Education

Meaning and nature of Educational sociology and Sociology of education

Education—as a social sub-system—specific characteristics

Education and the home

Education and the community with special reference to Indian society

Education and modernization

Education and politics

Education and religion

Education and culture

Education and democracy

Socialization of the child

Meaning and nature of social change

Education as related to social stratification and social mobility

Education as related to social equity and equality of educational opportunities

Constraints on social change in India (caste, ethnicity, class, language, religion,regionalism)

Education of the socially and economically disadvantaged sections of the society with special reference to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, women and rural population

3. Psychological Foundations of Education

Relationship of Education and Psychology

Process of Growth and Development

— physical, social, emotional and intellectual

— development of concept formation, logical reasoning, problem solving and creative thinking; language development

— individual differences—determinants; role of heredity and environment; implications of individual differences for organising educational programmes

Intelligence—its theories and measurement

Learning and Motivation

Theories of learning—Thorndike is connectionism; Pavlov’s classical and Skinner’s operant conditioning; Learning by insight; Hull’s reinforcement theory and Tolman’s theory of learning; Lewin’s Field theory

— Gagne’s hierarchy of learning

— Factors influencing learning

— Learning and motivation

— Transfer of learning and its theories

Psychology and education of exceptional children—creative, gifted, backward, learning disables and mentally retarded

Personality—type and trait theories—measurement of personality

Mental health and hygiene—process of adjustment, conflicts and defence mechanism,

mental hygiene and mental health. Sex Education

Guidance

4. Methodology of Educational Research

Nature and Scope of Educational Research

Meaning and Nature

Need and Purpose

Scientific Inquiry and Theory Development—some emerging trends in research

Fundamental—Applied and Action Research

Formulation of Research Problem

Criteria and sources for identifying the problem

Delineating and Operationalizing variables

Developing assumptions and hypothesis in various types of research

Collection of Data

Concept of population and sample

Various methods of sampling

Characteristics of a good sample

Tools and Techniques

Characteristics of a good research tool

Types of research tools and techniques and their uses

Questionnaire-Interviews-Observations

Tests and scales, projective and sociometric techniques

Major Approaches to Research

Descriptive Research

Ex-post facto Research

Laboratory Experiment

Field Experiment

Field Studies

Historical Research

Analysis of Data

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics. The null hypothesis, test of significance, types of error, one-tailed and two-tailed tests

The t-test

The F-test (one-way and ANOVA)

Non-parametric tests (Chi-square test)

Biserial, point-biserial, tetrachoric and phi-coefficient of correlation

Partial and multiple correlations

### Education PAPER—III (A) (Core Group)

#### Unit—I

Western Schools of Philosophy :

Idealism, Realism, Naturalism, Pragmatism, Existentialism; with special reference to the concepts of knowledge, reality and values; their educational implications for aims, contents and methods of education.

Indian schools of philosophy (Vedanta, Buddhism, Jainism, Islamic traditions) with special reference to the concepts of knowledge, reality and values and their educational implications

Contributions of Indian Thinkers, like Vivekananda, Tagore, Gandhi and Aurobindo to educational thinking

#### Unit—II

Meaning and nature, Education and Social change, constraints on social change (caste, ethnicity, class, language, religion, population and regionalism)

Education as related to social equity and equality of educational opportunities

Education of socially and economically disadvantaged section of society with special reference to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, women and rural populations

#### Unit—III

Process of Growth and Development

— physical, social, emotional and intellectual

— development of concept formation, logical reasoning, problem-solving and creative thinking language development

Individual differences—determinants—role of heredity and environment. Implications of individual differences for organising educational programmes

#### Unit—IV

Intelligence—its Theories and Measurement

Learning and Motivation :

— Theories of learning : Thorndike’s conditions, Pavlov’s classical and Skinner’s operant conditioning; learning by insight. Hull’s reinforcement theory and Tolman’s theory of learning.

— Gagne’s hierarchy of learning

— Factors influencing learning

— Learning and motivation

— Transfer of learning and its theories

#### Unit—V

Personality—type and trait theories—measurement of personality

Mental health and hygiene

Process of adjustment, conflicts and defence mechanism, mental hygiene

#### Unit—VI

Concept and principles of guidance and counselling, types of guidance and counselling

Tools and Techniques of Guidance—records, scales and tests, techniques, interview

Organizing Guidance services at different levels of education, occupational information,

kinds of services, like information, testing, counselling and follow-up

#### Unit—VII

Sample : Concept of population and sample, various methods of sampling.

Hypotheses : Concept, difference with assumptions, source, various types of hypothesis

Tools : Questionnaire, observation and interview as tools of data collection, tests and scales

#### Unit—VIII

Descriptive Research, Ex-post facto Research, Survey Research, Historical Research

Experimental Research : Designs of experimental research, characteristics, Internal and external validity in experimental research

Qualitative Research : Phenomenological research, Ethnomethodical and Naturalistic inquiry

#### Unit—IX

Universalization of elementary education in India

Vocationalization of education in USA and India

Educational administration in USA, UK (Britain and Ireland) and India

Distance education and continuing education in Australia, UK and India

#### Unit—X

Construction and Development of Curriculum

— different models

— grass root

— demonstration

— system analysis

Curriculum Evaluation

— formative

— summative

— interpretation of evaluation results

### Paper—III (B) (Elective/Optional)

#### Elective—I

Development of Modern Concept of Educational Administration from 1900 to Presentday

Taylorism

Administration as a process

Administration as a bureaucracy

Human Relations Approach to Administration

Meeting the Psychological needs of employees, systems approach specific trends in Educational Administration such as (a) Decision making, (b) OrganizationalCompliance,(c) Organizational Development, (d) PERT, (e) Modern Trends in Educational
Management.

Meaning and Nature of Leadership

Educational Planning :

Meaning and Nature

Approaches to Educational Planning

Perspective Planning

Institutional Planning

Educational Supervision :

Meaning and Nature

Supervision as service activity

Supervision as a process

Supervision as functions

Supervision as educational leadership

Modern supervision

Functions of supervision

Planning the supervisory programme

Organizing supervisory programme

Implementing supervisory programme

#### Elective—II

Educational Measurement and Evaluation concept, scope, need and relevance

Tools of measurement and evaluation subjective and objective tools, essay test,objective test, scales, questionnaires, schedules, inventories, performance tests.

Characteristics of a good measuring instrument :

Validity

Reliability

Norms

Usability, etc.

Test standardization :

Norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests, scaling-standard scores,

T-scores and C-scores

Steps in the standardization of a test

Measurement of achievement, aptitudes, intelligence, attitudes, interests and skills

Interpretation of test-scores and methods of feedback to students

New trends :

Grading, semester, continuous internal assessment, question bank, uses of computer in evaluation, qualitative analysis

#### Elective—III

Meaning and Scope of Educational Technology

— educational technology as systems approach to education

— systems approach in educational technology and its characteristics

— components of educational technology, software, hardware

Multi-media approach in Educational Technology

Modelities of Teaching—difference between teaching and instruction, conditioning and training

Stages of teaching—pre-active, interactive and post-active

Teaching at different levels—memory, understanding and reflective

Modification of teaching behaviour : Microteaching, Flander’s Interaction Analysis, simulation

Programmed Instruction (origin, types, linear and branching, development of

programmed instruction material—linear/branching model, teaching machines, computer assisted instruction

Models of Teaching : Concept, different families of teaching models Designing Instructional System

— formulation of instructional objectives

— designing of instructional strategies, such as lecture, team teaching, discussion, panel discussion, seminars and tutorials

Communication Process : Concept of communication, Principles, Modes and Barriers of communication, Classroom communication (interaction verbal and non-verbal)

Distance Education : Concept, Different contemporary systems, viz., Correspondence,Distance and open; Student support services; Evaluation Strategies in Distance Education;

Counselling Methods in Distance Education

Development of Evaluation Tools—Norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests

#### Elective—IV

Concept and nature of special education

— objectives

— types

— historical perspective

— integrated education Education of Mentally Retarded

— characteristics of the retarded

— educable mentally retarded

— teaching strategies

— enrichment programmes

— remedial programmes

— etiology and prevention

— mental hygiene as remediation

Education of the visually impaired :

— characteristics

— degree of impairment

— etiology and prevention

— educational programmes

Education of the Hearing Impaired

— characteristics

— degree of impairment

— etiology and prevention

— educational programmes

Education of the Orthopaedically Handicapped

— types of handicap

— characteristics

— educational programmes

Education of the Gifted and Creative Children

— characteristics

— creativity and identification process

— educational programmes

Learning Disabled Children

— characteristics

— identification

— educational programme

Education of Juvenile Delinquents

— characteristics

— problems of alcoholion, drug adiction

— anti-social and character disorder

— educational programmes for Rehabilitation

#### Elective—V

Teacher Education : Historical perspective Recommendations of various commissions on teacher education; Kothari Commission
National Policy on Education

Aims and objectives of teacher education at—

— elementary level

— secondary level

— college level

Teaching as a Profession :

Professional organisations for various levels of teachers and their role; performance

appraisal of teachers

Faculty improvement programme for teacher education

Types of teacher education programmes and agencies :

Inservice teacher education

Preservice teacher education

Distance education and teacher education

Orientation and Refresher courses

Current Problems :

Teacher education and practicing schools

Teacher education and other institutions

Preparing teachers for special schools

Implementation of curricula of teacher education

Areas of Research :

Teaching effectiveness

Modification of teacher behaviour

School effectiveness

### Education In Gujarati

Education In Gujarati

### Psychology (Paper II)

#### 1. Perceptual Processes

Approaches to the Study of Perception : Gestalt and physiological approaches

Perceptual Organization : Gestalt, Figure and Ground, Laws of Organization

Perceptual Constancy : Size, Shape and Brightness, Illusion; Perception of Depth and Movements

Role of motivation and learning in perception

#### 2. Learning Process

Classical conditioning : Procedure, Phenomena and related issues

Instrumental learning : Phenomena, Paradigms and theoretical issues Reinforcement : Basic variables and schedules

Verbal learning : Methods and materials, organizational processes

#### 3. Memory and Forgetting

Memory Processes : Encoding, Storage, Retrieval

Stages of memory : Sensory memory, Short-term Memory (STM) and Long-term Memory (LTM)

Episodic and Semantic memory

Theories of Forgetting : Interference, decay, retrieval

#### 4. Thinking and Problem Solving

Theories of thought processes : Associationism, Gestalt,

Information processing Concept formation : Rules and

strategies Reasoning : Deductive and inductive Problem-solving : Types and strategies Role of concepts in thinking

#### 5. Motivation and Emotion

Basic motivational concepts : Instincts, needs, drives, incentives,

motivational cycle

Approaches to the study of motivation : Psychoanalytical, ethological, S-R, Cognitive, humanistic

Biological Motives : Hunger, thirst, sleep and sex

Social Motives : Achievement, affiliation, approval

Exploratory behaviour and curiosity

Physiological correlates of emotions

Theories of emotions : James-Lange, Canon-Bard, Schachter and Singer

Conflicts : Sources and types

#### 6. Human Abilities

Intelligence : Biological, Social, Eco-cultural

determinants Theories of intelligence : Spearman,

Thurston, Guilford Individual and group differences : Extent and causes Measurement of human abilities

#### 7. Personality

Determinants of personality : Biological and socio-cultural

Approaches to the study of personality : Psychoanalytic, neo-freudian,

social learning, trait and type, cognitive

Personality assessment : Psychometric and projective

tests Self-concept : Origin and development

#### 8. Research Methodology

Research problems, hypothesis, variables and their operationalization

Types of psychological research

Methods of psychological research : Experimental, Quasi-experimental, case studies, field studies, and cross-cultural studies

Methods of data collection : Observation, interview, questionnaire, tests and scales.

Non-parametric tests

#### 9. Measurement and Testing

Test construction : Item writing, item-analysis

Test standardization : Reliability, validity and norms

Types of tests : Intelligence, aptitude, personality—characteristics and important examples

Attitude scales and interest

inventories Educational measurement and evaluation

#### 10. Biological Basis of Behaviour

Receptors, effectors and adjuster mechanisms

Neural impulse : Origin, conduction and measurement Sensory system : Vision and Audition

Human nervous system : Structure and functions

### Psychology Paper (A) (Core Group)

#### Unit—I

Signal detection theory, subliminal perception and related factors, information processing approach to perception, culture and perception, perceptual styles. Ecological perspective on perception.

#### Unit—II

Learning theories : Hull, Tolman, Skinner

Cognitive approaches in learning : Latent learning, observational learning

Experimental analysis of behaviour : Behaviour modification, shaping Discrimination learning Neurophysiology of learning

#### Unit—III

Models of memory : Atkinson and Shiffrin, Craik and Lockhart, Tulving

Semantic memory : Episodic, trace model and network model

Long-term memory : Retrieval cues, flashbulb memory, constructive

processes in memory, eyewitness testimony, autobiographical memory

Biological basis of memory : The search for the engram, PET scan, and biochemical factors in memory

Improving memory : Strategies

#### Unit—IV

Cognitive strategies : Algorhythms and heuristics Convergent and divergent thinking Decisionmaking; impediments to problem-solving
Creative thinking and problem-solving Language and thought

#### Unit—V

Historical Antecedents of motivation from Mechanism to Cognition Cognitive bases of motivation : Intrinsic motivation,Attribution, Competence

Measurement of motives : Issues and techniques Cross-cultural

perspectives of motivation : Achievement, Aggression Components of

emotion : Physiological, expressive and cognitive Neural mechanism

of emotion : Central and peripheral

Measurement of emotions : Physiological, expressive and cognitive measures

Current theories of emotions and facial feedback hypothesis

Stress and coping : Reactions to stress, outcomes of stress

#### Unit—VI

Theories of intelligence : Cattell, Jensen, Sternberg Goleman

Creativity : Views of Torrance, Getzels, Guilford

Intelligence and creativity : Relationship

Abilities and achievement : Concept and role of emotional intelligence

#### Unit—VII

Clinical and growth approaches to personality

Existential and humanistic theories of personality : Frank!, Rollo May, Maslow, Rogers

Personality assessment : Projective, psychometric and behavioural measures

Psychology of self : Western and Eastern perspectives, measurement of self

#### Unit—VIII

Research designs : Correlational, factorial, randomized block, matched group, quasi-experimental, time series design

ANOVA : Randomized and repeated

Correlational analysis : Partial, multiple and regression analysis

Factor analysis : Assumptions, methods, rotation and interpretation

#### Unit—IX

Psychological scaling : Purpose and methods Sources of bias in psychological testing Ethical issues in psychological testing

Application of factor analysis in standardization of tests—with important illustrations

#### Unit—X

Methods of Physiological Psychology : Lesion and Brain Stimulation Sleep and waking : Stages of sleep, Disorders of sleep, and

Physiological mechanisms of sleep and waking Ingestive Behaviour : Drinking and its neural mechanism; hunger and its neural mechanism

Endocrine system : Chemical and glandular

### Psychology Paper-III (B)(Elective/Optional)

#### Elective—I

Current trends in Social Psychology

Social cognition

Social influence

Prosocial behaviour

Anti-social behaviour

Applied social psychology : Health, Environment and Law

#### Elective—II

Developmental processes : Nature, Principles and related

concepts—maturity, experience factors in development : Biogenic, Psychogenic and Sociogenic

Stages of Development : Theories of Development : Psychoanalytic, Behaviouristic and cognitive

Various aspects of development : Sensory-motor, cognitive, language, emotional, social and moral

#### Elective—III

Human development and individual differences

Motivation and learning

Factors in educational achievement

Social psychology of education

Teacher effectiveness

Guidance in schools : Needs, organizational set up and techniques

Counselling : Process and areas

#### Elective—IV

Development of industrial and organizational psychology

Selection processes in organization

Organizational training

Performance appraisal

Motivation and work

Work environment

Organizational behaviour : Theories, socialization, effectiveness

#### Elective—V

Psychopathology : Concepts, classification and causes; clinical diagnostics

Common clinical disorders

Mental retardation

Mental Health : Intervention models and psychotherapies

### Psychology In Gujarati

Psychology In Gujarati

## Paper-II and Paper-111 (Part A & B)

### Library And Information Science

#### Unit—I

Information, Information Science, Information Society Information as a Resource/ Commodity

Information Transfer Cycle—Generation, Collection, Storage and Dissemlnation Role of

Information in Planning, Management. Socio-economic Development, Technology transfer Communication—Channels, barriers

Intellectual Property Rights—Concept, Copyright, Censorship—Print and Non-print Media Library and Information Policy at the National Level

#### Unit—II

Laws of Library Science

Library Resource Sharing and Networking

Library Movement and Library Legislation In India

Library Extension Services

Library and Information Science Education in India

Library and Information Profession

Library Associations In India, UK and USA—ILA, IASLIC. IATLIS, SIS, LA ASLIB, SLA and ALA

Library Associations Organisations at International level—FID. IFLA and UNESCO

#### Unit—III

Sources of Information—Primary, Secondary and Tertiary—Documentary and Non-documentary

Reference Sources—Encyclopaedias, Dictionaries, Geographical Sources,

Biographical Sources, Year-books/Almanacs, Directories, and Handbooks.

Statistical (salient features and evaluation)

Bibliographical Sources—Bibliographies. Union Catalogues, Indexing and Abstracting Journals (salient features and evaluation)

E-documents, E-books, E-Journals

Databases—Bibliographic, Numeric and Full text—Evaluation

#### Unit—IV

Reference and Information services. Referral Service

Bibliographic Service, Indexing and Abstracting Service, CAS, SDI, Digest

Service, Trend Report

Online Services

Translation Services

Reprographic Services

#### Unit—V

Organisation of knowledge/Information

Modes of formation of subjects

Library Classification—Canons and Principles

Library Classification Schemes—DDC, UDC and CC

Library Cataloguing—Canons and Principles

Library Cataloguing Codes—CCC and AACR-II

Bibliographic Records—International standards—ISBDs, MARC and CCF

Indexing—Pre-coordlnate, Post-coordinate

Vocabulary Control—Thesaurus, Lists of Subject Headings

Databases—Search Strategies, Boolean Operators

Knowledge Management

#### Unit—VI

Management—Principles, Functions, Schools of Thought

Planning, Organisation Structure

Decision making

System Study—Analysis, Evaluation and Design

Collection Development—Books, Serials. Non-book Materials-Selection, Acquisition, Maintenance; ISBN. ISSN, Cataloguing-in-Publicatlon (CIP)

Human Resources Management—Manpower Planning, Job analysis.

Job description. Selection, Recruitment, Motivation Training and Development, Staff Manual, Leadership and Performance Evaluation
Delegation of authority Financial Management—Resource Generation, Types of Budgeting, Cost and Cost-Benefit analysis PERT, CPM

Library Buildings and Equipments

Performance Evaluation of Libraries/Information Centres and Services

Marketing Information product and services

Total Quality Management (TQM)

#### Unit—VII

Information Technology—Components; Impact of IT on Society

Computers—Hardware. Software, Storage Devices, Input/Output Devices

Telecommunication—Transmission media Switching systems Bandwidth

Multiplexing, Modulation, Protocols, Wireless Communication

Fax, E-Mail, Tele-conferencing/Video-conferencing, Bulletin Board Service,

Teletext, Videotex, Voice Mall

Networking—Concepts, Topologies, Types—LAN, MAN and WAN Hypertext, Hypermedia, Multimedia

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)

#### Unit—VIII

Library Automation—Areas of automation, Planning, Hardware and Software Selection, OPAC

Networks—ERNET, NICNET. DELNET, JANET, BLAISE, OCLC. INFLIBNET

INTERNET—Components, Services, Browsing—Web Browsers. Search Engines

Meta-Data, Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

National and International Information Systems—NISSAT. NASSDOC, INSDOC.

DESIDOC. INIS. AGRIS, MEDLARS, INSPEC

#### Unit—IX

Types of Research—Basic. Applied, Interdisciplinary

Research Design

Scientific Method, Hypotheses, Data Collection, Sampling

Methods of Research—Historical, Descriptive, Case Study. Survey, Comparative and Experimental.

Statistical Methods, Data Analysis

Report Writing

Research Methods In Library and Information Science and Services

Bibliometrics

#### Unit—X

Types of Libraries—National, Public, Academic and Special Objectives, Structure and Functions

Digital Libraries—Concept

Virtual Libraries—Concept

Types of users. User studies. User education

Role of UGC In the growth and development of libraries and Information centres In

Institutions of higher education In India

Role of Raja Rammohan Roy Library Foundation (RRLF)

### Law Paper II

#### 1. Constitutional Law of India

Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles of State Policy,

Judiciary Executive, Union State Legislative Relations, Emergency Provisions,

Amendment of the Constitution, Writ Jurisdiction

#### 2. Legal Theory

Nature and Sources of Law, Positivism, Natural Law Theory,

Sociological Jurisprudence Theories of Punishment, Rights and Duties,

Concepts of Possession and Ownership

#### 3. Public International Law

Nature of International Law and its relationship with Municipal Law,

Sources of International Law,

Recognition of States and Governments,

United Nations, Settlement of International Disputes, Human Rights

#### 4. Family Law

Concepts in Family Law, Sources of Family Law in India, Marriage and Dissolution of Marriage

#### 5. Law of Contracts—General Principles

Essentials of a valid contract Offer, acceptance and consideration

Capacity to Contract—Minor’s contract

Elements vitiating contract—mistake, fraud, misrepresentation, public policy, coercion, undue influence, frustration of contract

Remedies for breach of contract—Damages.

#### 6. Law of Torts

Foundation of Tortuous Liability, General Defences to an action of Torty, Vicarious Liability, Remoteness of Damages, Contributory Negligence, Absolute and Strict Liability

#### 7. Law of Crimes—General Principles

Nature and Definition of Offence, General Exceptions Common Intention and Common Object, Criminal Attempt, Conspiracy and Abetment, Offences against Women

#### 8. Labour Law

Concepts—Industry, Industrial Dispute and Workman

Trade Unions-Rights and Immunities of Registered Trade Union; Registration and its advantages

Methods for Settlement of Industrial Disputes under Industrial Disputes Act, 1947

Strike and Lockout as Instruments of Collective Bargaining

Retrenchment, Lay-off and Closures

### Law Paper—III (Parts A & B)(Core And Elective/Optional)

#### Unit—I

Essential Features of Indian Constitution

Distribution of Legislative Powers between Union and States

Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles of State Policy

Judiciary

Parliament and State Legislatures

Amending Process of the Constitution

Role of Election Commission in Democratic Process

#### Unit—II

Nature, Scope and Importance of Administrative Law

Principles of Natural Justice

Administrative Discretion and its control

Judicial Review of Administrative Action—Writ Jurisdiction

Lokpal and Lokayukta

#### Unit—III

Nature and Sources of Law

Legal Concepts—Right, Duty, Ownership, Possession and Person

Judicial Process—Application of Doctrine of Precedent of India

Judicial Contribution in Bringing Social Changes

Law and Morality

#### Unit—IV

General Principles of Criminal Law—meaning, nature, essentials and stages of offence

Joint Liability; Abetment and Criminal Conspiracy

Offences against Human Body

Offences against Property

Defamation

#### Unit—V

Environmental Pollution—Meaning of Environment and Environmental Pollution; Kinds of Pollution

Legislative Measures for Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution in India—

Air and Water Pollution and General Protection of Environment

International Development for protection of Environmental Pollution

Remedies for Environmental Protection—Civil, Criminal and Constitutional

Importance of Forest and Wildlife in protecting environment

Environmental impact assessment and control of Hazardous wastes

#### Unit—VI

Nature of International Law and its sources

Concept of sovereignty and its relevance today

Recognition of State and Goverments

Extradition, Asylum, Nationality and Status of Refugees

International Court of Justice

UNO and its organs

Global Trade Regime under International Law

#### Unit—VII

Marriage, Divorce, Adoption and Guardianship, Maintenance, Matrimonial Remedies
Uniform Civil Code

#### Unit—VIII

Concept and Development of Human Rights

Contribution of United Nations in the development and implementation of Human Rights

Implementation of Human Rights in India—Role of National Human Rights Commission

Protection of Marginalised Groups—Women, Children, Minorities and Refugees

#### Unit—IX

Nature and definition of Tort

General Principles of Tortuous Liability

Specific Torts—Negligence, Nuisance and Defamation

Absolute Liability—Emerging trends in India

Consumer Protection—Evolution of Consumer Rights and Redressal of Consumer

Grievances

#### Unit—X

Partnership Act—Nature and essentials of partnership mutual rights and liabilities of partners, advantages of registration of firms

Sales of Goods Act

Negotiable Instruments Act

Company Law—-Role of Directors, Doctrines of Indoor Management and Ultra Vires sample questions

### Law Syllabus In Gujarati

Law Syllabus In Gujarati

### Commerce -Paper-II And Paper-III(A) (Core Group)

#### Unit—I

Meaning and Elements of Business Environment

Economic environment, Economic Policies, Economic Planning

Legal environment of Business in India, Competition policy, Consumer protection, Environment protection

Policy Environment : Liberalization, Privatisation and globalisation,

Second generation reforms, Industrial policy and implementation.

Industrial growth and structural changes

#### Unit—II

Financial & Management Accounting

Basic Accounting concepts, Capital and Revenue, Financial statements

Partnership Accounts : Admission, Retirement, Death, Dissolution and Cash Distribution

Advanced Company Accounts : Issue, forfeiture, Purchase of Business, Liquidation, Valuation of shares, Amalgamation, Absorption and Reconstruction, Holding Company Accounts

Cost and Management Accounting : Ratio Analysis, Funds Flow Analysis, Cash Flow Analysis, Marginal costing and Break-even analysis, Standard costing, Budgetary control, Costing for decision-making Responsibility accounting

#### Unit—III

Nature and uses of Business Economics, Concept of Profit and Wealth maximization. Demand Analysis and Elasticity of Demand, Curve
Analysis, Law

Utility Analysis and Indifference of Returns and Law of variable proportionsCost, Revenue, Price determination in different market situations : Perfect competition, Monopolistic competition, Monopoly, Price discrimination and Oligopoly, Pricing strategies

#### Unit—IV

Business Statistics & Data Processing

Data types, Data collection and analysis, sampling, need, errors and methods of sampling, Normal distribution, Hypothesis testing,

Analysis and Interpretation of Data Correlation and Regression, small sample tests—t-test, F-test and chisquare test

Data processing—Elements, Data entry, Data processing and Computer applications

Computer Application to Functional Areas—Accounting, Inventory control, Marketing

#### Unit—V

Principles of Management

Planning—Objectives, Strategies, Planning process, Decision-making

Organising, Organisational structure, Formal and Informal organisations,

Organisational culture

Staffing

Leading : Motivation, Leadership, Committees, Communication Controlling Corporate Governance and Business Ethics

#### Unit—VI

Marketing Management

The evolution of marketing, Concepts, Concept of marketing, Marketing mix, Marketing environment

Elements of consumer behaviour, Market segmentation

Product decisions

Pricing decisions

Distribution decisions

Promotion decisions

Marketing planning, Organising and Control

#### Unit—VII

Financial Management

Capital Structure, Financial and Operating

leverage Cost of capital, Capital budgeting

Working capital management Dividend Policy

#### Unit—VIII

Human Resources Management

Concepts, Role and Functions of Human Resource

management Human Resource Planning, Recruitment and Selection Training and Development, Succession Planning

Compensation : Wage and Salary Administration, Incentive and Fringe

benefits, Morale and Productivity

Performance Appraisal

Industrial Relations in India, Health, Safety, Welfare and Social security, Workers’ Participation in Management

#### Unit—IX

Banking and Financial Institution

Importance of Banking to Business, Types of Banks and Their Functions,

Reserve Bank of India, NABARD and Rural Banking

Banking Sector Reforms in India, NPA, Capital adequacy norms

E-banking

Development Banking : IDBI, IFCI, SFCs, UTI, SIDBI

#### Unit—X

Theoretical foundations of international business, Balance of Payments

International liquidity, International Economic Institutions—IMF, World Bank IFC, IDA, ADB

World Trade Organisation—its functions and policies

Structure of India’s foreign trade : Composition and direction, EXIM Bank,

EXIM Policy of India, Regulation and promotion of Foreign Trade

### Commerce Paper-III (B) (Elective/Optional)

#### Elective—I : Accounting and Finance

Accounting standards in India, Inflation Accounting, Human

Resource Accounting, Responsibility Accounting, Social Accounting

Money and Capital market, Working of stock exchanges in India, NSE,

OTCEI, NASDAQ, Derivatives and Options

Regulatory Authorities : SEBI, Rating Agencies; New Instruments : GDRs, ADRs

Venture Capital Funds, Mergers and Acquisitions, Mutual Funds,

Lease Financing, Factoring, Measurement of risk and returns securities and portfolios

Computer Application in Accounting and Finance

#### Elective—II : Marketing

Marketing Tasks, Concepts and Tools, Marketing Environment

Consumer Behaviour and Market Segmentation

Product decisions

Pricing decisions

Distribution decisions

Promotion decisions

Marketing Researchs

On-line marketing

Direct Marketing; Social, ethical and legal aspects of marketing in India

#### Elective—III : Human Resource Management

Concept; Role and Functions of Human Resource Manager

Human Resource Planning, Job analysis, Job description and specifications, Use of Job analysis information, Recruitment and Selection

Training and Development, Succession Planning

Compensation : Wage and Salary administration, Incentives and Fringe benefits, Morale and Productivity

Appraisal of Performance

Industrial Relations in India, Health, Safety, Welfare and Social Security,

Workers participation in Management

#### Elective—IV : International Business

Foreign Direct Investment and Multinational Corporations—MNCs Culture, MNCs and LDCs, Joint Ventures

Regional Economic Integration : SAARC, ASEAN, EC,

NAFTA India and WTO, Intellectual Property Rights

Foreign Exchange—Exchange rate, Mechanism, Risk management,

Transfer of international payments, Convertibility of Rupee, Current and Capital Accounts; Issues and Perceptions, Derivatives and Futures

Foreign investment Institutions; Instruments : GDRs, ADRs, FIIs—their role in Indian Capital Market

#### Elective—V : Income-tax Law and Tax Planning

Basic concepts, Residential status and tax incidence, exempted incomes, computation of taxable income under various heads

Computation of taxable income of individuals and firms

Deduction of tax, filing of returns, different types of assessment; Defaults and penalties

Tax planning : Concept, significance and problems of tax planning, Tax evasion and tax avoidance, methods of tax planning

Tax considerations in specific business decisions, viz., make or buy; own or lease, retain or replace; export or domestic sales; shut-down or closure; expand or contract; invest or disinvest

Computer Application in Income tax and Tax planning

### Commerce Syllabus In Gujarati

Commerce Syllabus In Gujarati

### Computer Science And Applications Paper II

#### 1. Discrete Structures

Sets, Relations, Functions. Pigeonhole Principle. Inclusion-Exclusion Principle.

Equivalence and Partial Orderings, Elementary Counting Techniques, Probability. Measure(s) for Information and Mutual Information.

Compatibility : Models of computation—Finite Automata, Pushdown Automata, Nondeterminism and NFA. DPDA and PDAs and Languages accepted by these structures.

Grammars, Languages, Non-computabllity and Examples of non-computable problems.

Graph: Definition, walks, paths, trails, connected graphs, regular and bipartite graphs, cycles and circuits. Tree and rooted tree. Spanning trees. Eccentricity of a vertex radius and diameter of a graph. Central Graphs. Centre(s) of a tree. Hamiltonian and Eulerian graphs, Planar graphs.

Groups : Finite fields and Error correcting/detecting codes.

#### 2. Computer Arithmetic

Prepositional (Boolean) Logic. Predicate Logic, Well-formed-formulae (WFF), Satisfiability and Tautology.

Logic Families : TTL, ECL and C-MOS gates. Boolean algebra and Minimization of Boolean functions. Flip-flops—types, race condition and comparison. Design of combinational and sequential circuits.

Representation of Integers : Octal, Hex, Decimal, and Binary. 2’s complement and 1’s complement arithmetic. Floating point representation.

#### 3. Programming in C and C++

Programming in C : Elements of C—Tokens, identifiers, data types in C. Control structures in C. Sequence, selection and iteration(s). Structured data types In C—arrays,struct, union, string, and pointers.

O-O Programming Concepts : Class, object. Instantiation. Inheritance, polymorphism and overloading.

C++ Programming : Elements of C++—Tokens, Identifiers. Variables and constants. Data types, Operators, Control statements. Functions parameter passing. Class and objects. Constructors and destructors. Overloading. Inheritance, Templates, Exception handling.

#### 4. Relational Database Design and SQL

E-R diagrams and their transformation to relational design, normalization—1NF, 2NF,

3NF, BCNF and 4NF. Limitations of 4NF and BCNF.

SQL : Data Definition Language (DDL). Data Manipulation Language (DML). Data Control Language (DCL) commands. Database objects like—Views, indexes, sequences, synonyms, data dictionary.

#### 5. Data and File structures

Data. Information, Definition of data structure. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, graphs, priority queues and heaps.

File Structures : Fields, records and files. Sequential, direct, index-sequential and relative files.

Hashing, Inverted lists and multi-lists. B trees and B+ trees.

#### 6. Computer Networks

Network fundamentals : Local Area Networks (LAN) Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN),

Wide Area Networks (WAN), Wireless Networks. Intel Networks.

Reference Models : The OSI model. TCP/IP model.

Data Communication : Channel capacity. Transmission media—twisted pair, coaxial cables, fibre-optic cables, wireless transmission—radio, microwave. Infrared and millimeter waves.

Lightwave transmission. Telephones— local loop, trunks multiplexing, switching, narrow band ISDN. broadband ISDN, ATM, High speed LANS. Cellular Radio. Communication satellites—geosynchronous and low-orbit.

Internetworking : Switch/Hub. Bridge, Router. Gateways. Concatenated virtual circuits, Tunnelling, Fragmentation. Firewalls.

Routing : Virtual circuits and datagrams. Routing algorithms. Conjestlon control.

Network Security : Cryptography—public key, secret key. Domain Name System (DNS)—

Electronic Mall and Worldwide Web (WWW). The DNS. Resource Records, Name servers.

E-mall-architecture and Serves.

#### 7. System Software and Compilers

Assembly language fundamentals (8085 based assembly language programming).

Assemblers—2-pass and single-pass. Macros and macroprocessors.

Loading, linking, relocation, program relocatability. Linkage editing. Text editors. Programming Environments. Debuggers and program generators.

Compilation and Interpretation. Bootstrap compilers. Phases of compilation process. Lexical analysis. Lex package on Unix system.
Context free grammars. Parsing and parse trees. Representation of parse (derivation) trees as rightmost and leftmost derivations. Bottom up parsers—shift-reduce, operator precedence, and LR. YACC package on Unix system.

Topdown parsers—left recursion and its removal. Recursive descent parser. Predictive parser, Intermediate codes—Quadruples. Triples, Intermediate code generation. Code generation. Code optimization.

#### 8. Operating Systems (with Case Study of Unix)

Main functions of operating systems. Multiprogramming, multiprocessing, and multitasking.

Memory Management: Virtual memory, paging, fragmentation.

Concurrent Processing : Mutual exclusion. Critical regions, lock and unlock.

Scheduling : CPU scheduling, I/O scheduling. Resource scheduling. Deadlock and scheduling algorithms. Banker’s algorithm for deadlock handling.

The Unix System: File system, process management, bourne shell, shell variables, command line programming.

Filters and Commands: Pr, head, tail, cut, paste, sort, uniq, tr, join, etc., grep, egrep, fgrep, etc., sed, awk, etc.

System Calls (like) : Creat, open, close, read, write, iseek, link, unlink, stat, fstat, umask, chmod, exec, fork, wait, system.

#### 9. Software Engineering

System Development Life Cycle (SDLC): Steps, Water fall model, Prototypes, Sprial model.

Software Metrics: Software Project Management.

Software Design: System design, detailed design, function oriented design, object oriented design, user interface design. Design level metrics.

Coding and Testing: Testing level metrics. Software quality and reliability, Clean room approach, software reengineering.

#### 10. Current Trends and Technologies

The topics of current interest in Computer Science and Computer Applications shall be covered.

The experts shall use their judgement from time to time to include the topics of popular interest, which are expected to be known for an application development software professional, currently, they include:

##### Parallel Computing

Parallel virtual machine (pvm) and message passing interface (mpi) libraries and calls.

Advanced architectures. Today’s fastest computers.

##### Mobile Computing

Mobile connectivity-Cells, Framework, wireless delivery technology and switching methods, mobile information access devices, mobile data internetworking standards, cellular data communication protocols, mobile computing applications. Mobile databases- protocols, scope,
tools and technology. M-business.

##### E-Technologies

Electronic Commerce: Framework, Media Convergence of Applications, Consumer

Applications, Organisation Applications.

Electronic Payment Systems : Digital Token, Smart Cards, Credit Cards, Risks in Electronic Payment System. Designing Electronic Payment Systems.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) : Concepts, Applications, (Legal, Security and Privacy) issues, EDI and Electronic Commerce.

Standardization and EDI, EDI Software Implementation, EDI Envelope for Message Transport, Internet-Based EDI.

Digital Libraries and Data Warehousing : Concepts, Types of Digital documents, Issues behind document Infrastructure, Corporate Data Warehouses.

Software Agents : Characteristics and Properties of Agents, Technology behind Software Agents (Applets, Browsers and Software Agents)
Broadband Telecommunications : Concepts, Frame Relay, Cell Relay, Switched Multlmegabit Data Service, Asynchronous Transfer Mode.

Main concepts In Geographical Information System (GIS). E-cash, E-Business, ERP packages.

Data Warehousing : Data Warehouse environment, architecture of a data warehouse methodology, analysis, design, construction and administration.

Data Mining : Extracting models and patterns from large databases, data mining techniques, classification, regression, clustering. summarization, dependency modelling, link analysis, sequencing analysis, mining scientific and business data.

##### Windows Programming

Introduction to Windows programming—Win32, Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC), Documents and views, Resources, Message handling in windows.

##### Simple Applications

(in windows)Scrolling, splitting views, docking toolbars, status bars. common dialogs.

##### Advanced Windows Programming

Multiple Document Interface (MDI), Multithreading. Object linking and Embedding (OLE).

Active X controls. Active Template Library (ATL). Network programming.

### Computer Science And Applications - Paper-III (A)(Core Group)

Unit-I

Combinational Circuit Design, Sequential Circuit Design, Hardwired and Microprogrammed processor design, Instruction formats, Addressing modes, Memory types and organization, Interfacing peripheral devices, Interrupts. Microprocessor architecture, Instruction set and Programming (8085, P-III/P-IV), Microprocessor applications.

Unit-II

Database Concepts, ER diagrams, Data Models, Design of Relational Database, Normalisation, SQL and QBE, Query Processing and Optimisation, Centralised and Distributed Database, Security, Concurrency and Recovery in Centralised and Distributed Database Systems, Object Oriented Database Management Systems (Concepts, Composite objects, Integration with RDBMS applications), ORACLE.

Unit-III

Display systems, Input devices, 2D Geometry, Graphic operations, 3D Graphics, Animation, Graphic standard, Applications.

Concepts, Storage Devices, Input Tools, Authoring Tools, Application, Files.

Unit-IV

Programming language concepts, paradigms and models Data. Data types, Operators, Expressions, Assignment. Flow of Control –Control structures, I/O statements, User-defined and built in functions, Parameter passing.

Principles, classes, inheritance, class hierarchies, polymorphism, dynamic binding, reference semantics and their implementation.

Principles, functions, lists, types and polymorphisms, higher order functions, lazy evaluation, equations and pattern matching.

Principles, horn clauses and their execution, logical variables, relations, data structures, controlling the search order, program development in prolog, implementation of prolog, example programs in prolog.

Principles of parallelism, coroutines, communication and execution. Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) and Message Passing Interface (MPI) routines and calls. Parallel programs In PVM paradigm as well as MPI paradigm for simple problems like matrix multiplication.

Preconditions, post-conditions, axiomatic approach for semantics, correctness.denotational semantics.

Compiler structure, compiler construction tools, compilation phases. Finite Automata, Pushdown Automata. Non-determinism and NFA. DPDA. and PDAs and languages accepted by these structures. Grammars, Languages—types of grammars—type 0, type1, type 2, and type 3. The relationship between types of grammars, and finite machines.

Pushdown automata and Context Free Grammars. Lexical Analysis—regular expressions and regular languages. LEX package on Unix. Conversion of NFA to DFA. Minimizing the number pf states In a DFA. Compilation and Interpretation. Bootstrap compilers.

Context free grammars. Parsing and parse trees. Representation of parse (derivation) trees as rightmost and leftmost derivations. Bottom up parsers—shift-reduce, operator precedence, and LR. YACC package on Unix system. Topdown parsers—left recursion and its removal.

Recursive descent parser. Predictive parser, Intermediate codes—Quadruples, triples.

Intermediate code generation, code generation. Code optimization

#### Unit—V

Analog and Digital transmission Asynchronous and ,1 Synchronous transmission Transmission media Multiplexing and Concentration, Switching techniques Polling. Topologies, Networking Devices. OSI Reference Model, Protocols for—(1) Data link layer, (ii) Network layer, and (iii) Transport layer. TCP/IP protocols, Networks security. Network administration.

#### Unit—VI

Definition, Simple and Composite structures Arrays, Lists, Stacks queues. Priority queues, Binary trees, B-trees, Graphs. Sorting and Searching Algorithms, Analysis of Algorithms, Interpolation and Binary Search, Asymptotic notations—big ohm, omega and theta. Average
case analysis of simple programs like finding of a maximum of n elements. Recursion and its systematic removal. Quicksort—Non-recursive implementation with minimal stack storage. Design of Algorithms (Divide and Conquer. Greedy method, Dynamic programming, Back tracking Branch and Bound). Lower bound theory Non-deterministic algorithm—Non-deterministic programming constructs. Simple non-deterministic programs. NP—hard and NP—complete problems.

#### Unit—VII

Object, messages, classes, encapsulation. Inheritance, polymorphism. aggregation, abstract classes, generalization as extension and restriction. Object oriented design. Multiple Inheritance, metadata. HTML, DHTML. XML. Scripting, Java, Servlets. Applets.

#### Unit—VIII

Software development models Requirement analysis and specifications, Software design Programming techniques and tools. Software validation and quality assurance techniques. Software maintenance and advanced concepts, Software management.

#### Unit—IX

Introduction, Memory management. Support for concurrent process, Scheduling. System deadlock Multiprogramming system. I/O management. Distributed operating systems Study of Unix and Windows NT.

#### Unit—X

Definitions. AI approach for solving problems. Automated Reasoning with prepositional logic and predicate logic—fundamental proof
procedure, refutation, resolution, refinements to resolution (ordering/ pruning/restriction strategies).
State space representation of problems, bounding functions, breadth first, depth first. A, A* AO*. etc. Performance comparison of various search techniques.

Frames, scripts, semantic nets. production systems, procedural representations.

Prolog programming.

Components of an expert system. Knowledge representation and Acquisition techniques.

Building expert system and Shell.

RTNs, ATNs, Parsing of Ambiguous CFGs. Tree Adjoining Grammars (TAGs).

Systems approach to planning. Designing, Development, Implementation and Evaluation of MIS.

Decision-making processes, evaluation of DSS, Group decision support system and case studies. Adaptive design approach to DSS development. Cognitive style In DSS, Integrating expert and Decision support systems.

### Computer Science And Applications- Paper-III(B) (Elective/Optional)

#### Elective—I

Theory of Computation : Formal language Need for formal computational models. Non computational problems, diagonal argument and Russel’s paradox.

Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA), Non-deterministic Finite Automaton (NFA), Regular languages and regular sets. Equivalence of DFA and NFA. Minimizing the number of states of a DFA. Non-regular languages, and Pumping lemma.

Pushdown Automaton (PDA), Deterministic Pushdown Automaton (DPDA), Non equivalence of PDA and DPDA.

Context free Grammars : Grelbach Normal Form (GNF) and Chomsky Normal Form (CNF), Ambiguity. Parse Tree Representation of Derivations. Equivalence of PDA’s and CFG’s.

Parsing techniques for parsing of general CFG’s—Early’s, Cook-KassamI-Younger (CKY), and Tomlta’s parsing.

Linear Bounded Automata (LBA) : Power of LBA. Closure properties.

Turing Machine (TM) : One tape, multitape. The notions of time and space complexity in terms of TM. Construction of TM for simple problems.

Computational complexity.

Chomsky Hierarchy of languages : Recursive and recursively-enumerable languages.

#### Elective—II

Models for Information Channel : Discrete Memoryless Channel, Binary Symmetric Channel (BSC), Burst Channel, Bit-error rates. Probability, Entropy and Shannon’s measure of Information. Mutual Information. Channel capacity theorem. Rate and optimality of
Information transmission.

Variable Length Codes: Prefix Codes, Huffmann Codes, Lempel-Ziev (LZ) Codes.

Optimality of these codes. Information content of these codes.

Error Correcting and Detecting Codes : Finite fields, Hamming distance. Bounds of codes, Linear (Parity Check) codes. Parity check matrix. Generator matrix,Decoding of linear codes, Hamming codes.

Image Processing : Image Registration, Spatial Fourier Transforms, Discrete Spatial (2-dlmenslonal) Fourier Transforms, Restoration, Lossy Compression of images (pictures).

Data Compression Techniques: Representation and compression of text, sound, picture, and video files (based on the JPEG and MPEG standards).

#### Elective—Ill

Linear Programming Problem (LPP) in the standard form, LPP in Canonical form.

Conversion of LPP in Standard form to LPP in Canonical form. Simplex—Prevention of cyclic computations In Simplex and Tableau, Big-M method, dual simplex and revised simplex.

Complexity of simplex algorithm(s). Exponential behaviour of simplex.

Ellipsoid method and Karmakar’s method for solving LPPs. Solving simple LPPs through these methods. Comparison of complexity of these methods.

Assignment and Transportation Problems : Simple algorithms like Hungarian method, etc.

Shortest Path Problems : Dijkstra’s and Moore’s method. Complexity.

Network Flow Problem : Formulation. Max-Flow Min-Cut theorem. Ford and Fulkerson’s algorithm. Exponential behaviour of Ford and Fulkerson’s algorithm. MalhotraPramodkumar-Maheshwari (MPM) Polynomial algorithm for solving Network flow problem. Bipartite Graphs and Matchlngs; Solving matching problems using Network flow problems.

Matroids : Definition. Graphic and Cographic matrolds. Matroid Intersection problem.

Non-linear Programming : Kuhn-Tucker conditions. Convex functions and Convex regions.

Convex programming problems. Algorithms for solving convex programming problems— Rate of convergence of Iterative methods for solving these problems.

#### Elective—IV

Neural Networks : Perceptron model Linear separability and XOR problem. Two and three layered neural nets, Backpropagatlon—Convergence. Hopfleld nets Neural net learning, Applications.

Fuzzy Systems : Definition of a Fuzzy set Fuzzy relations. Fuzzy functions, Fuzzy measures. Fuzzy reasoning, Applications of Fuzzy systems.

#### Elective—V

Unix : Operating System, Structure of Unix Operating System, Unix Commands, Interfacing with Unix, Editors and Compilers for Unix. LEX and YACC, File system System calls, Filters. Shell programming.

Windows : Windows environment, Unicode, Documents and Views, Drawing In a window. Message handling. Scrolling and Splitting views. Docking toolbars and Status bars Common dialogs and Controls. MDI, Multithreading, OLE, Active X controls, ATL. Database access Network programming.

### Physical Education (Paper–II and Paper–III (part A & B))

#### Unit–I

Introduction to and definition, aim and objectives of Physical Education and other terms —health education and recreation.

Philosophies of Education as applied to Physical Education–Idealism, Naturalism, Realism, Pragmatism, Existentialism, Humanism.

Biological basis of physical activity—benefits of exercise, growth and exercise, exercise and well-being sex and age characteristics of adolescent, body types.

Psychological basis of Physical Education—Play and Play theories, general principles of growth and development, Principles of motor—skill acquisition, transfer of training effects.

Sociological basis of Physical Education–socialization process, social nature of men and physical activity, sports as cultural heritage of mankind, customs, traditions and sport, competition and cooperation.

Physical Education in ancient Greece, Rome and Contemporary Germany, Sweden, Denmark and Russia.

Olympic Movement—Historical development of Ancient and Modern Olympic Games.

Physical Education in India.

#### Unit–II

Physiology of Muscular activity, Neurotransmission and Movement mechanism.

Physiology of respiration.

Physiology of blood circulation.

Factors influencing performance in sports.

Bioenergetics and recovery process.

Athletic injuries—their management and rehabilitation.

Therapeutic modalities.

Ergogenic aids and doping

#### Unit–III

Joints and their movements–planes and axes.

Kinetics, Kinematics–linear and angular, levers.

Laws of motion, principles of equilibrium and force, spin and elasticity.

Posture, Postural deformities and their correction.

Muscular analysis of Motor movement.

Mechanical analysis of various sports activities.

Mechanical analysis of fundamental movements—(running, jumping, throwing, pulling and pushing).

Massage manipulation and therapeutic exercises.

#### Unit–IV

Learning process—theories and laws of learning.

Motivation, theories and dynamics of motivation in sports.

Psychological factors affecting sports performance—viz., stress, anxiety, tension and aggression.

Personality, its dimensions, theories, personality and performance.

Individual differences and their impact on skill learning and performance.

Group dynamics, team cohesion and leadership in sports.

Sociometrics, economics and politics in sports.

Media and sports.

#### Unit–V

Development of teacher education in Physical Education.

Professional courses in Sports and Physical Education in India.

Professional Ethics.

Qualities and Qualifications of Physical Educational Personnel.

Principles of curriculum planning.

Course content for academic and professional courses.

Age characteristics of pupils and selection of activities.

Construction of class and school Physical Education time table.

#### Unit–VI

Health—Guiding principles of health and health education.

Nutrition and dietary manipulations.

Health-related fitness, obesity and its management.

Environmental and occupational hazards and first aid.

Communicable diseases—their preventive and therapeutic aspect.

School health programme and personal hygiene.

Theories and principles of recreation.

Recreation programme for various categories of people.

#### Unit–VII

Characteristics and principles of sports training.

Training load and periodization.

Training methods and specific training programme for development of various motor qualities.

Technical and Tactical preparation for sports.

Short-term and long-term training plans.

Sports talent identification—process and procedures.

Preparing for competition—(build up competitions, main competition, competition frequency, psychological preparation).

Rules of Games and Sports and their interpretations.

#### Unit–VIII

Nature, scope and type of research.

Formulation and selection of research problem.

Sampling—process and techniques.

Methods of research.

Data collection—tools and techniques.

Statistical techniques of data analysis—measures of central tendency and variability, correlation, normal probability curve, t-test and f-tests, chi-square, ztest.

Hypothesis—formulation, types and testing.

Writing research report.

#### Unit–IX

Concept of test, measurement and evaluation.

Principles of measurement and evaluation Construction and classification of tests.

Criteria of test evaluation.

Concepts and assessment of physical fitness, motor fitness, motor ability and motor educability.

Skill test for Badminton, Basket ball, Hockey, Lawn-tennis, Soccer, Volley ball.

Testing psychological variables—competitive anxiety, aggression, team cohesion, motivation, self-concept.

Anthropometric measurements and body composition.

#### Unit–X

Concept and principles of management.

Organisation and functions of sports bodies.

Intramurals and Extramurals.

Management of infrastructure, equipments, finance and personnel.

Methods and Techniques of teaching.

Principles of planning Physical Education lessons.

Pupil—teacher interaction and relationship.

Concept of techniques of supervision.

sample questions

<3> Physical Education In Gujarati

Physical Education In Gujarati

Philosophy

### Home Science-Paper-II & Paper-III(A)(CORE GROUP)

#### Unit—I : Food Science

Food Groups

Food Preparation

Food Preservation

Food Science and Food Analysis

Food Processing

#### Unit—II : Nutrition Science

Fundamentals of nutrition

Nutritional biochemistry

Food microbiology

Public nutrition

Therapeutic nutrition

#### Unit—III : Institutional Management

Management of Hospitality Institutes- Hospital/Hotel/Restaurant/Cafe and Outdoor catering

Management of Social Institutes-family as Institute, child care and Geriatric institutes, Panchayatas

Management of Educational Institutes-Pre-school, Primary and Secondary Schools, (Colleges and Universities) Higher Educational Institutes

Management of Special Institutes for physically, mentally and socially challenged hallenges and problems faced by Institutions

#### Unit—IV : Clothing

Principles of clothing - Socio-psychological aspects of clothing, selection of fabrics, clothing and family clothing

Clothing construction- basic principles of drafting, flat pattern and draping methods

Textile design- principles and concepts

Fashion design- fashion cycles, business and merchandizing

Care and maintenance of textile materials and garments; Laundry agents- methods and equipments

#### Unit—V : Textiles

General properties and fine structure of all textile fibers

Processing and manufacture of all natural and man-made fibers

Definition and classification of yarns; Identification of yarns and its use in various fabrics

Fabric construction, definition and types of woven, non-woven, knitted and other construction techniques

Testings of fibers, yarns and fabric; Importance of quality control and research institutes

#### Unit—VI : Resource Management

Concept of Home management and steps

Management of Human Resources; Classification of Resources; Basic Characteristics of Resources

Decision making in family; Steps in decision making; Methods of resolving conflicts Work simplification; Importance of work simplification in home; Mundel's classes of change; Simple pen and pencil technique in work simplification

Housing, Interior design, Principles of Interior design, Various colours and colour schemes

Household equipment-Selection and Care

#### Unit—VII : Human Development

Child Development- Principles and Stages

Life Span Development- Theories of Human Development and Behaviour

Child rearing, Socialization practices and Dynamics

Early Childhood Care and Education-Emerging trends

Development problems and disabilities during childhood and adolescence, guidance and counselling

Advanced child study methods and assessment

Women's Studies, Family Welfare Programme- Recent Approaches

#### Unit—VIII : Non-formal Education and Extension Education

History and Development of Home Science in Formal/Non-formal and Extension Education

Theory and Practices of Programme/curriculum planning and development

Management and Administration of Formal/Non-formal and Extension Education

Monitoring, Supervision and Evaluation of Formal, Non-formal and Extension Education

Vocationalization of Home Science in India

Theories and Principles of Guidance and Counselling in Formal/Non-formal/Extension

Problems and Challenges encountered in Formal/Non-formal/Extension

#### Unit—IX : Development and Educational Communication

Concept and classification of communication

Traditional Methods and Materials of communication - selection/preparation/use

Modern methods and materials of communication- selection/preparation/use

Strategies for developmental communication

Classroom communications in Home Science trends

Communication for publicity and public relations

Change and challenges in communication in contemporary society

#### Unit—X : Methods of Research

Trends in Research in Home Science

Research Designs

Types of Research

Sampling Techniques

Selection and Preparation of Tools for data collection

Type of variables and their selection

Data collection and classification/coding

Analysis of data through parametric and non-parametric statistics

Report writing-presentation of data, interpretation and discussion

### Home Science -Paper-III (B)(Elective/Optional)

#### Elective—I : Food and Nutrition

Food Science and Quality Control

Macro-and Micro-nutrients

Human Nutritional Requirements

Assessment of Nutritional Status

Food Biotechnology

#### Elective—II : Institutional Management and Dietetics

Advanced Management and Organisation

Management of Human Resources

Experimental Quantity Cookery

Financial and Profit Management

Quantity Food Preparation Techniques

Food Service and Delivery Systems

Marketing

Therapeutic Dietetics

#### Elective-III : Child and Human Development

Human Development- Rights perspective

Principles and theories of human development

Early childhood care and development- strategies, monitoring and supervision

Children with special needs and children at risk (child labour, street children. child abuse, chronically sick:); Intervention programmes

Socializaiton in various family contexts across different cultures

Advances in assessment of children

#### Elective-IV : Clothing and Textiles

Textile Chemistry- Fibers and dyes

Dyeing, printing and finishing of fibers yarns and fabrics

Textile and Apparel Industry-Fundamental of business, specifications, quality control agencies and marketing

Historic and Traditional Textiles of world with emphasis on India

Curriculum and Teaching in clothing and textiles, analysis and development of curriculum; teaching methods and aids

Consumer and Textiles and Clothing

Recent developments in Textile and Clothing

#### Elective—V : Home and Community Resource Management

Concept of Home management, System approach to family, Input, Output and feedback

Family Resources-Management of Resources like time energy and money; Basic characteristics of Resources; Efficient methods of utilization of Resources

Family life cycle-Demands upon resources like time, energy and money

Concept of Ergonomics-its importance and application in home

Concept of communication process and its importance in family; Barriers in

Communication process; Measures for effective communication

Concept of work simplification- its importance in home; Simple pen and pencil technique

Consumer Education-Laws protecting consumer; Role of consumer society in protecting consumer; Kinds of adulteration; Identification of adulteration

#### Elective—VI : Home Science Extension Education

Curriculum Development for formal education in Home Sciences

General and specific methods of teaching Home Science

Media and Materials for promoting Home Science in Formal/Non-formal/Adult/Extension Education

Non-formal and Adult Education in Home Science

Extension Education in Home Science

Women in Changing India and Plans for their development

Self-employment and Entrepreneurship through Home Science

Programmes of extension in Home Science

Measurement and Evaluation including monitoring and supervision for Formal/Non-formal/Adult Education/Extension Education

### Home Science Syllabus In Gujarati

Home Science Syllabus In Gujarati

### Geography

Geography

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