- M.Sc Applied Mathematics
- M.Sc. Electronics Science/ M.Sc. Physics
- M.Sc. Chemistry (Analytical/Organic) / M.Sc. Pharmaceutical Chemistry
- M.Sc. Biotechnology/ Biochemistry/ Bioinformatics/Microbiology/Food Science & Technology
- M.Sc. Environmental Science
- M.Sc. Biotechnology/ B.Sc. Programmes
- Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)
- Master of Computer Application (MCA)
- Integrated M. Sc. Chemistry
GITAM Science Admission Test (GSAT) Syllabus
GITAM Science Admission Test (GSAT) is an yearly exam conducted for admissions to UG & PG Courses at Gitam University, Visakhapatnam. Candidates seeking admission to various M.Sc. programmes of GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University are required to appear for GITAM Science Admission Test (GSAT) to be held at various centres in Andhra Pradesh and other parts of India. Admission is based on the rank obtained in the entrance test. Requirement for admission to all science programmes is a minimum aggregate of 50% or second division marks in group (optional) subjects in the qualifying examination.
M.Sc Applied Mathematics
Real Number System, Sequences And Series:
Field axioms, Dedikind’s axiom, Bolzano weistrass’s theorem, Countability of sets, Sequences and their limits, Subsequences,Convergence and Divergence of sequences, Limit of a sequence, Cauchy sequences, Cauchy general principle of convergence, Definition of infinite series, necessary condition for convergence, Comparison test, nth root test, Ratio test, Integral test, Alternating series, Leibnitz test, Absolute convergence and Conditional convergence
Limits, Continuity, Differentiation And Integration
Real valued functions, Limit of a function, Algebra of limits, Continuity of a function at a point, Uniform continuity, Derivative, Mean value theorems, Taylor’s theorem Riemann integral, Riemann integrable functions, Fundamental theorem on integral calculus
Vector differentiation, Ordinary derivatives of vectors, Space curves, Continuity, Differentiability, Gradient, Divergence, Curl operators, Formulae involving these operators.
Vector integration, theorems of Gauss and Stokes, Green’s theorem in plane and applications of these theorems.
Definition and basic properties, Fields, Integral domains, divisors of zero and cancellation laws, Integral domains, the characteristic of ring, some non-commutative rings, matrices over a filed, homomorphism of rings-definition and elementary properties, maximal and prime ideal, prime fields
Vector spaces, Vector subspaces, Linear span, linear sum of two subspaces, linear independence and dependence of vectors, basis of vector space, finite dimensional vector spaces, linear transformations, linear operators, Range and Null space of linear transformation, Rank and Nullity of linear transformations
Inner product spaces, Euclidean and unitary spaces, Norm or length of a vector, Schwartz inequality, orthogonality, orthonormal set, complete orthonormal set, Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process
Linear differential equations, Exact differential equations, Simultaneous differential equations, orthogonal trajectories, equations solvable for p,x,y, solution of homogeneous linear differential equations of order n with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters
Equation of plane, equation of line, angle between a line and a plane, the shortest distance between two lines, definition and equation of the sphere, intersection of a sphere and a line, power of a point, tangent plane, plane of contact, polar plane, pole of a plane, conjugate points, conjugate planes, radical plane, coaxial system of spheres
Determinants, properties of determinants, elementary matrix operations and elementary matrices, the rank of a matrix and matrix inverse, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization, Caley-Hamilton theorem
Groups, subgroups and cyclic groups, Permutations, Isomorphism-definition and elementary properties, Cayley’s theorem, Groups of Cosets, Normal subgroups-factor groups, the fundamental theorem of homomorphisms
M.Sc. Electronics Science/ M.Sc. Physics
1.(a) AC Fundamentals:
The Sine wave –Average and RMS values–The J operator – Polar and rectangular forms of complex numbers – Phasor diagram – Complex impedance and admittance. Network theorems (DC and AC): Superposition Theorem–Thevenin’s Theorem– Norton’s Theorem–Maximum power transfer Theorem–Millman Theorem- Reciprocity Theorem– Application to simple networks.
1.(b) Mechanics of rigid bodies:
Definition of Rigid body, rotational kinematic relations, equation of motion for a rotating body, angular momentum and inertial tensor. Eulers equation, precession of a top, Gyroscope, precession of the equinoxes
2. (a) RC and RL Circuits:
Transient response of RL and RC circuits with step input– time constants. Frequency response of RC and RL circuits – Types of Filters: Low pass filter – High pass filter – frequency response - Passive differentiating and integrating circuits. Resonance: Series resonance and parallel resonance RLC circuits – Resonant frequency – Q factor – Band width – Selectivity.
2. (b) Central forces:
Central forces – definition and examples, conservative nature of central forces, conservative force as a negative gradient of potential energy, equation of motion under a central force, gravitational potential and gravitational field, motion under inverse square law, derivation of Kepler’s laws, Coriolis force and its expressions.
3. (a) PN Junction:
Depletion region – Junction capacitance – Diode equation– Effect of temperature on reverse saturation current – construction, working, V-I characteristics and simple applications of i) Junction diode ii) Zener diode iii) Tunnel diode and iv) Varactor diode. Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT): PNP and NPN transistors–current components in BJT – BJT static characteristics (Input and Output) – Early effect- CB, CC,CE configurations (cut off, active, and saturation regions) Field Effect Transistor (FET): Structure and working of JFET and MOSFET – output and transfer characteristics. Advantages of FET over transistor.
3. (b) Ultrasonics:
Ultrasonics, properties of ultrasonic waves, production of ultrasonics by piezoelectric and magnetostriction methods, detection of ultrasonics, determination of wavelength of ultrasonic waves. Velocity of ultrasonics in liquids by Sear’s method. Applications of ultrasonic waves.
4. (a) RC Coupled Amplifier:
Analysis and frequency response of single stage RC coupled CE amplifier. Feedback: Positive and negative feedback- Effect of feedback on gain, band width, noise, input and output impedances.
4. (b) Thermodynamics:
Introduction – Reversible and irreversible processes – Carnot’s engine and its efficiency – Carnot’s theorem – Second law of thermodynamics, Kelvin’s and Claussius statements – Thermodynamic scale of temperature – Entropy, physical significance – Change in entropy in reversible and irreversible processes – Entropy and disorder – Entropy of universe – Temperature- Entropy (T-S) diagram – Change of entropy of a perfect gas-change of entropy when ice changes into steam.
5. (a) Operational Amplifiers:
Differential amplifier- Block diagram of Op-Amp- Ideal characteristics of Op-Amp- Op-Amp parameters- Input resistance- Output resistance- Common mode rejection ratio (CMMR)- Slew rate- Offset voltages – Input bias current- Basic Op-Amp circuits- Inverting Op-Amp- Virtual ground- Non-inverting Op-Amp- Frequency response of OpAmp. Interpretation of Op-Amp .Applications of Op-Amps: Summing amplifier- subtractor Voltage follower- Integrator-Differentiator - Comparator- Logarithmic amplifier.
5. (b) Quantum theory of radiation:
Black body-Ferry’s black body – distribution of energy in the spectrum of Black body – Wein’s displacement law, Wein’s law, Rayleigh-Jean’s law –Quantum theory of radiation - Planck’s law – deduction of Wein’s law, Rayleigh-Jeans law, from Planck’s law - Measurement of radiation – Types of pyrometers – Disappearing filament optical pyrometer – experimental determination – Angstrom pyroheliometer - determination of solar constant, effective temperature of sun.
6. (a) Communications:
Need for modulation-Types of modulation- Amplitude, Frequency and Phase modulation. Amplitude modulation-side bands- modulation index- square law diode modulator- Demodulation- diode detector. Frequency modulation working of simple frequency modulator- Ratio detection of FM waves- Advantages of frequency modulation.AM and FM radio receivers
6. (b) Optics:
Principle of superposition – coherence – temporal coherence and spatial coherence – conditions for Interference of light. Interference by division of wave front. Interference by division of amplitude. Introduction – Distinction between Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction. Resolving Power of grating. Methods of Polarization, Polarizatioin by reflection, refraction, Double refraction, selective absorption , scattering of light – Brewsters law – Malus law – Nicol prism polarizer and analyzer.
7. (a) Power Supplies:
Rectifiers– Halfwave, fullwave and bridge rectifiers- Efficiency- Ripple factor- Regulation – Harmonic components in rectified output – Types of filters- Choke input (inductor) filter- Shunt capacitor filter- L section and ∏ section filters – Block diagram of regulated power supply - Series and shunt regulated power supplies.
7. (b) Laser & Fiber Optics:
Lasers: Introduction – Spontaneous emission – Stimulated emission – Population inversion . Laser principle – Einstein coefficients – Types of Lasers – He-Ne laser –Ruby laser – Applications of lasers. Fiber Optics : Introduction – Optical fibers – Types of optical fibers – Step and graded index fibers
8. (a) Digital Electronics:
Introduction to number systems, Logic gates OR, AND, NOT, X-OR, NAND, NOR gates - Truth tables – Positive and negative logic – Logic families and their characteristics – RTL, DTL, ECL, TTL and CMOS.– Universal building blocks NAND and NOR gates. Laws of Boolean algebra De Morgan’s Theorems – Boolean identities – Simplification of Boolean expressions– Karnaugh Maps – Sum of products (SOP) and Product of sums (POS).
8. (b) Dielectrics:
An atomic view of dielectrics, potential energy of a dipole in an electric field. Polarization and charge density, Gauss’s law for dielectric medium– Relation between D,E, and P. Dielectric constant, susceptibility and relation between them. Boundary conditions at the dielectric surface. Electric fields in cavities of a dielectric-needle shaped cavity and disc shaped cavity.
9. (a) Combinational and Sequential circuits:
Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer – Decoder, Half adder, Full adder and Parallel adder circuits. Flip flops – RS, D, JK and JK Master-Slave (working and truth tables) - Semiconductor memories – Organization and working- Synchronous and asynchronous binary counters, Up/Down counters- Decade counter (7490) - working, truth tables and timing diagrams.
9. (b) Moving charge in electric and magnetic field:
Hall effect, cyclotron, synchrocyclotron and synchrotron – force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field, force and torque on a current loop, Biot –Savart’s law and calculation of B due to long straight wire, a circular current loop and solenoid.
10. (a) Introduction to Microcomputer and Microprocessor:
Intel 8085 Microprocessor – central processing unit CPU – arithmetic and logic unit ALU – timing and control unit – register organization – address, data and control buses- pin configuration of 8085 and its description. Timing diagrams- Instruction cycle, machine cycle, fetch and execute cycles. Instruction set of 8085, instruction and data formats- classification of instructions –addressing modes.
10. (b) Electromagnetic induction:
Faraday’s law –Lenz’s law – expression for induced emf –time varying magnetic fields – Betatron –Ballistic galvanometer – theory – damping correction –self and mutual inductance, coefficient of coupling, calculation of self inductance of a long solenoid – toroid – energy stored in magnetic field – transformer – Construction, working, energy losses and efficiency
M.Sc. Chemistry (Analytical/Organic) / M.Sc. Pharmaceutical Chemistry
1. s-block & p-block elements:
General characteristics of groups I & II elements, diagonal relationship between Li & Mg, Be & Al. General characteristics of elements of groups 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17. Inter halogen compounds and pseudo halogens
2. Chemistry of d-block elements:
Characteristics of d-block elements with special reference to electronic configuration, variable valence, magnetic properties, catalytic properties and ability to form complexes. Stability of various oxidation states and e.m.f. Comparative treatment of second and third transition series with their 3d analogues. Study of Ti, Cr and Cu traids in respect of electronic configuration and reactivity of different oxidation states.
3. Coordination Chemistry:
Bonding theories – review of Werner’s theory, Valence bond theory, Crystal field theory.
4. Structural theory in Organic Chemistry:
Types of bond fission and organic reagents (Electrophiloic, Nucleophilic), Bond polarization, Electro negativity – Inductive effect.
5. Carbonyl compounds:
Synthesis of aldehydes and ketones. Reactivity, Nucleophilic addition, Base catalysed reactions: a) Aldol, b) Cannizzaro reaction, c) Perkin reaction, d) Benzoin condensation; Oxidation of aldehydes, Reduction: Clemmensen reduction, Wolf-Kishner reduction, reduction with LiAlH4 and NaBH4.
6. Nitrogen compounds:
Preparation of Nitroalkanes. Reactivity – halogenation, reaction with HONO, Amines (Aliphatic and Aromatic): Classification into 10 , 20 , 30 Amines and Quarternary ammonium compounds.
Conductance, Kohlrausch’s law. Ostwald’s dilution law. Debye-Huckel-Onsagar’s equation for strong electrolytes. Transport number.
Electrode reactions, Nernst equation, Single electrode potential, Reference electrodes, Electrochemical series and its applications.
8. Chemical kinetics:
Rate of reaction, Order and Molecularity, Derivation of rate constants, Effect of temperature, Theories of reaction rate, collision theory.
9. Atomic Structure:
Blackbody radiation, Planck’s radiation law, photoelectric effect, Compton Effect, de Broglie’s hypothesis, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.
10. Chemical Bonding:
Valence bond theory, hybridization, Dipole moment , Molecular orbital theory.
M.Sc. Biotechnology/ Biochemistry/ Bioinformatics/Microbiology/Food Science & Technology
Classification, structure, properties, functions, metabolic pathways and disorders of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids.
Laws of thermodynamics, concepts of free energy, entropy and enthalpy. Activation energy, rate of reaction, order of reaction and factors influencing the rate of a reaction. Nomenclature, preparation and properties of Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes. Aromaticity. Isomerism. Acid-base theories, oxidation-reduction reactions, pH and buffers. Solutions. Organic reactions - addition, substitution, free radical reactions and elimination reactions.
Structure of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. Structure and composition of Plasma membrane. Cell division - Mitosis and Meiosis. Ultra structure and functions of Cell organelles. Photosynthesis and photorespiration. Biological nitrogen fixation, Nitrogen cycle and Phytohormones.
Principles of Mendelian inheritance, back cross and test cross. Linkage and crossing over. Sex linkage, Sex determination and Cytoplasmic inheritance. Mutations. Biosphere, Biodiversity, Plant succession, Biological pyramids, food chain, food web. Theories of Organic Evolution.
Classification invertebrates and vertebrates. Structure and function of kidney, liver and heart. Physiology of muscle and nerve. Digestion and absorption of food. Vitamins, hormones and Mineral metabolism. Calorific value of food stuffs, Respiratory quotient, BMR.
Nomenclature and classification of Enzymes. Factors affecting enzyme activity– Temperature, pH, substrate concentration. Enzyme inhibition, Coenzymes, metalloenzymes, allosteric enzymes, and isoenzymes.
DNA replication, transcription and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Principles and applications of chromatography, electrophoresis, centrifugation, Spectroscopy and microscopy. Application of radio isotopes in biological sciences. Genetic engineering; cloning vectors, Blotting techniques DNA sequencing, gene transfer techniques and applications.
Concepts of immune response, cells and organs of the immune system, Antigen and antibody reactions: Precipitation and agglutination. Principle of vaccination and types of vaccines Structure of bacteria and viruses and their classification. Bacterial staining techniques.
Isolation and cultivation of Bacteria and Bacteriophages. Bacterial growth curve. Methods of sterilization and pasteurization. Clinically important bacteria and viruses. Bacterial recombination-transformation, conjugation and Transduction.
M.Sc. Environmental Science
Multidisciplinary nature of Environmental Studies: Definition, Scope and Importance – Need for Public Awareness.
Ecosystems: Concept of an ecosystem - Structure and function of an ecosystem - Producers, consumers and decomposers - Energy flow in the ecosystem - Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids. Typical Structure of Ecosystem – Forest, Grassland, Desert and Aquatic ecosystems.
Biodiversity and its conservation: Biodiversity, Definition, Types of Biodiversity (Genetic, Species and Ecosystem), Causes for depletion of biodiversity, Ecological importance of biodiversity Conservation of Biodiversity at national level.
Sectopm – B
Natural Resources : Forest resources – Use and over – exploitation, deforestation - Mining, dams and other effects on forest and tribal people.
Water Resources – Use and over utilization of surface and ground water – Floods, drought, dams – benefits and problems - Food resources: World food problems, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging and salinity.
Energy and Land resources: Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Types of Indian Soils, Reasons for depletion of fertile soil and conservation of soils.
Sectopm – C
Environmental Pollution: Definition, Cause, effects and control measures of Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution and Noise pollution.
Solid waste Management:Causes, effects and control measures of urban and industrial wastes. – Role of an individual in prevention of pollution.
Social Issues and the Environment: From Unsustainable to Sustainable development -Urban problems related to energy - Water conservation, rain water harvesting, and watershed management.
Global Environmental Problems:Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents.
Human Population and the Environment: Environment and human health. Trends of Population growth in urban areas, reasons for population explosion and its control.
M.Sc. Biotechnology/ B.Sc. Programmes
Statements and Sets:
statement, connectives, tautologies & contradictions, set, algebra of sets, disjoint sets, Venn diagrams.
definition, Types of functions: One-One, Onto, One-One Onto, inverse of a function, identity function, constant function.
Polynomials over integers:
Remainder theorem, Horner’s method of synthetic division, quadratic inequalities in one variable, Binomial theorem, middle terms, constant term.
Laws of rational indices, Modulus of a real number, absolute value inequalities (greater than & less than type).
Arithmetic progression, Geometric progression.
points in a plane, distance between the points, mid point, slope of a line, division of a segment internally and externally in a given ratio, area of a triangle given the coordinates of the three vertices, equations of straight lines in the standard forms.
units of measurement of angles, trigonometric ratios & their definitions, behavior, trigonometric identities.
Arithmetic Mean, Median, Mode, Empirical relation among Mean, Median and Mode.
definition, addition, subtraction, multiplication, determinant, singular & nonsingular matrices.
Algorithm, flow charts.
Physics and Measurement :
S I units, Fundamental, derived units, measuring instruments, Errors in measurement and Significant figures. Dimensions of Physical quantities, analysis and its applications.
Newton's Laws of motion, Momentum, Law of conservation of linear momentum. Friction. Work done by a force; kinetic and potential energies, Potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity, Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite.
Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, Heat, work and internal energy. First, Second law of thermodynamics, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, latent heat. Conduction, convection and radiation, Newton’s law of cooling.
Oscillations and Waves :
Simple pendulum, resonance. Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound.
Electrostatics and Magnetostatics :
Electric field:, Electric flux, Gauss’s law. Electric potential, electric dipole. Electrical potential energy of a system. Electric current, Ohm’s law, ohmic and non-ohmic resistances, specific resistance, conductance, temperature dependence of resistivity, potentiometer, series and parallel combination of cells. Semiconductor devices. Ampere's law. definition of ampere. Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity, ammeter and voltmeter. magnetic dipole moment. Barmagnet, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field.
Properties of light, Total internal reflection. Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens, Huygens' principle. Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Einstein’s photoelectric equation; nature of light. de Broglie relation.
Thomson and Rutherford atomic models; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr’s model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie’s relation ship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Rules for filling electron in orbital.
Chemical bond formation. Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; Concept of electro negativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole moment; Valency shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSPER) theory and shapes of simple molecules– Concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals.
Modern periodic law, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements (tomic and ionic radii, ionization, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity)
Acids and Bases:
Arrhenius, Bronsted – Lowry and Lewis acid base concepts and their ionization, acid-base equilibria and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, buffer solutions.
Some basic principals of Organic Chemistry:
Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules – hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: -C-C-, -C=C-, and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism – Structural. Nomenclature (IUPAC). general methods of preparation, properties and reactions. Alkanes , Alkenes and Alkynes.
Five Kingdom classification –
Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and animalia. Nutritional types of microorganisms. Bacteria- structure, nutrition, reproduction and economic importance.
Typical structure of plant cell, functions of plant cell organelles, structure of animal cell and tissues, mitosis and meiosis. Phytohormones. Enzymes – properties and major groups of enzymes
Photosynthesis & Respiration :
photosynthetic pigments, light and dark reactions. Glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, Electron transport system.
Digestive system :
Animal digestive system, sequences of digestion and absorption. Sources and deficiency diseases of water and fat soluble vitamins. Excretion: excretory organs in animals and man. Structure and function of Nephron.
Types of reproduction in animals. Ex: Paramoecium. Blood and its components. Blood groups and its importance. Coagulation of blood
endocrine glands and the role of their hormones in brief.
Definition and applications. Plant & Tissue Culture.
Man and Environment :
Dimensions of environment – Physical biological and social. Human being and social partner in environmental education, Society and environment in India, Indian traditions customs and culture – past and Present, Population and environment, Impact of human activities on environment.
Environmental problems of urban and rural areas, Natural resources and their depletion. Stress on civic amenities supply of water and electricity, waste disposal, transport, health services. Vehicular emissions, Urbanization – land use housing migrating and floating population Role of society in development – public awareness through education ecoclubs, population education program, campaigns, public participation in decision making.
Environment and Development:
Economic and social needs – as basic considerations for development, Agricultural and industry as major sectors of environment, Social factors affecting development – Poverty, affluence, education, employment, child marriage and child labour human health – HIV/ AIDS/Social cultural and ethical values. Impact of development on environment – Resource depletion and environmental degradation Environmental Pollution and Control, Global Issues: Air, water, Soil, Noise and radiation pollution – sources and consequences. Ozone layer depletion and its effect, Green house effect : global warming and climate changes and their effects on human society, agriculture related diseases, Population related diseases, Disasters – natural and man made their impact on the environment. Strategies for reducing pollution and improving the environment.
Changing global pattern of energy consumption – from ancient to modern times, Rising demand for energy – fossil fuels and fire wood potential (Indian context)and limitations of each source of harnessing and environmental consequences of their use. Conventional energy sources – fossil fuels and firewood. Non – Conventional energy sources – Types of non-conventional sources ( biomass solar wind ocean hydel geothermal, nuclear ). Future sources of energy hydrogen alcohol, fuel cells, Enhancing efficiency of the devices and optimizing energy utilization.
Need for sustainable agriculture, Green Revolution and its Impact on environment, Impact oft agrochemicals on environment, use of bio fertilizers, bio pesticides, biological pest control, integrated pest management, Applications of biotechnology in environment. Management of agricultural produce – storage, preservation, transportation and processing.
Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA)
- Problems on Numbers
- Problems on Ages
- Profit & Loss
- Problems on Trains
- Simple and Compound Interest
- Odd Man Out & Series
- Data Interpretation
Master of Computer Application (MCA)
Part-A - Communication Ability
Correct forms of the verb, Tenses, correction of sentences, Proposition and passage
Part-B – Quantitative Ability
- HCF & LCM of Numbers
- Profit & Loss
- Ratio & Proportions
- Time & Work
- Pipes & Cistern
- Time and Distance
- Simple Interest
- Compound Interest
- Volume & Surface Areas
- Odd Man Out & series
Integrated M. Sc. Chemistry
Section – A1: Mathematics
Types of functions, composition of functions, Inverse function, Properties of Inverse function, Extension of Domain, Periodic function, Transformation of graphs. Hyperbolic functions, Surds, Logarithms, Mathematical Induction.
(a) Partial Fractions: Resolving f(x)/g(x) into Partial fractions when g(x) contains: Non-repeated linear factors; g(x) contains repeated and non repeated linear factors. g(x) contains non-repeated and irreducible quadratic factors , g(x) contains repeated and non-repeated irreducible quadratic factors . (Note: Number of factors of g(x) should not exceed 4). (b) Exponential And Logarithmic Series : Expansion of e x for real x; log (1+x) expansion, condition on x (Note: Statements of the results and very simple problems such as finding the general term should only be given). (c) Successive Differentiation: nth derivative of standard functions, libnitz theorem and its applications. (d) Partial Differentiation: Partial derivative of Ist , 2nd orders and Euler’s. Theorem on Homogeneous functions.
3. Quadratic Equations And Theory Of Equations:
Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions. Reminder and Factor Theorems, common Roots, General Quadratic
expression, Finding the range of a function, Location of roots, Solving inequalities using location of roots.
4. Theory Of Equations:
The relation between the roots and coefficients in an equation; Solving the equation when two or more roots of it are connected by certain relations; Equations with real coefficients, imaginary roots occur in conjugate pairs and its consequences; Transformation of equations, Reciprocal equations. (a) Bionomial Theorem And Its Applications Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term,properties of Binomial coefficients and simple applications. (b) Sequences And Series: Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two given numbers. Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum to n terms of special series n, n 2 , n 3 Arithmetic - Geometric rogression.
5. Matrices And Determinants:
Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and three. Properties of determinants, evaluation
of determinants, area of triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test for consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices, and rank of matrix.
6. Vector Algebra And 3D:
(a) Vector Algebra: Algebra of Vectors – angle between two non-zero vectors – Linear combination of vectors – Geometrical applications of vectors. Scalar and vector product of two, three and four vectors and their application.
(b) 3-D Geometry: Co-ordinates in three – dimensions – Distance between two points in the space – section formulas and their applications. DCs and DRs of line, angle between two lines. Cartesian equation of a plane in (i)General form (ii) Normal Form (iii) Intercept Form (iv) Angle between two planes and angle between line and plane. Sphere – cartician equation – centre and radius. Section of sphere by plane.
Trigonometric ratios, Compound angles, multiple and submultiple angle, Transformations, Trigonometric expansions using Demovier’s Theorem. Trigonometric equations, Inverse Trigonometry and Heights and distances(only 2D problems). Properties Of Triangles : Sine rule, cosine rule, Tangent rule, projection rule, Half angle formulae and area of triangle. In-circle and ex- circle of a Triangle. Pedal Triangle, Ex-central Triangle, Geometry relation of Ex-centres, Distance between centres of Triangle. m-n Theorem, problems and quadrilateral, regular polygon, solution of Triangle (Ambiguous cases).
8. Limits, Continuity And Differentiability (LCD):
Real - valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two
functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two.
9. Applications Of Derivatives:
Rate of change of quantities, Errors and approximations, Tangent and normals, maxima and minima of functions of one variable, mean value theorems (Rolle’s, lagrange’s, Intermediate value theorem).
10. Indefinite Integration:
Fundamental Integration formulae, Method of integration, Integration by parts, Integration by substitution, Integration of Rational and Irrational
Algebraic functions, Integral of the form ∫ (a+ )p Integration using Euler’s substitution. Reduction formulae over indefinite integrals, Integration using differentiation. Applications Of Integrals: Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of integral calculus. Problems on all the properties of definite integrals. Libnitz rule. Determining areas of the regions bounded by curves.
11. Co-Ordinate Geometry:
Locus: Definition of locus; Equation of locus and its illustration on complete geometry; Translation & Rotation of axes and its illustrations
12. Straight Lines And Pair Of Straight Lines : Straight Lines :
Different forms of straight lines, distance of a point from a line, lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, angular bisectors of two lines, Foot of perpendicular, Image point (vs) point, point (vs) line and line (vs) line. Concurrences of lines, centroid, orthocenter, incentre and circumcentre of triangle.
Pair of straight lines:
Concepts related Homogeneous, and Non-Homogeneous pair of lines, Homogenisation of the second degree equation with a first degree equation in x and y
13. Circles And System Of Circles
Equation of a circle-Standard form-centre and radius-Equation of a circle with a given line segment as diameterEquation of circle through three non-colinear points-parametric equations of a circle. Position of a point in the plane of the circle- power of a point-Def. of a tangent-Length of
tangent. Position of a straight line in the plane of the circle-condition for a straight line to be a tangent– chord joining two points on a circle - equation of the tangent at a point on the circle – point of contact – Equation of normal. Chord of contact-Pole, Polar-conjugate points and conjugate lines- Equation of chord with given mid point. Relative positions of two circles- circles touching each other, -externally, internally, common tangents-points of similitude-Equation of tangents from an external point.
(b) System Of Circles :
Angle between two intersecting circles-conditions for orthogonality. Radical axis of two circles-properties-Common chord and common tangent of two circles, Radical centre. Coaxial system of circles- Equation of the coaxial system in the simplest form-limiting points of a coaxial system. Orthogonal system of a coaxial system of circles.
14. Differential Equations:
Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree.
Formation of differential equations. Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of homogeneous, Non- Homogenous, linear differential equations. Bernoulli’s Equation, Orthogonal Trajectory, Differential equation of first order and higher degree and Applications of Differential equations.
Probabilities And Random Variables And Distributions :
Probability: Random experiment, random event, elementary events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events, Sample space, Sample events, Addition theorem on Probability. Dependent and independent events, multiplication theorem, Baye’s theorem.
Random Variables and distributions: Random variables, Distributive functions, probability distributive functions, Mean, variance of a random variable; Theoretical discrete distributions like Binomial, poision distribution, Mean and variance of above distributions (without proof).
1. Internal Morphology: Histology: Meristems, Simple tissues, Complex tissues and special tissues. Tissue System: Epidermal, Ground and Vascular tissue systems. Anatomy: Anatomy of Dicot and monocot root, dicot and monocot stem, dicoct and monocot leaf, secondary growth in dicot stem and dicot root.
2. Cell Biology: Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life. Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, plant and animal cell. Cell wall, cell membrane, cell organelles structure and function 1 chromosomes. Biomolecules: Structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes. Cell division: Cell cycle, Mitosis and meiosis.
3. Plant Taxonomy: Introduction: Principles of plant classification, brief account of Bentham & Hooker’s system. Families: Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Solenacrae, Liliaceae poaceae.
4. Reproduction: a. Reproduction organisms, Modes of reproduction. Asexual and sexual. Asexual reproduction – Binary fission, Sporulation, Budding, gemmule, Fragmentation, Vegetative propagation in plants. b. Sexual reproduction flowering plants. Development of male and female gametophytes. Pollination types, agents. Out breeding devices, Double fertilization, post fertilization changes. Development of endosperm, embryo and seed. Apomixis, parthenocerpy, polyembryony.
5. Microbiology: a. Bacteria and Viruses b. Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment , energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
6. Biotechnology and its applications: a. Principles and process of Biotechnology, Genetic engineering. b. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture and health. Human insulin and vaccine production, genetherapy, Genetically modified organisms, Bt. Crops, Trasgeric animals, Biosafety issues - Biopiracy and patents.
7. Plant Physiology:
a. Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport – Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plantwater relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation. Transpiration – Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (Brief mention). b. Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms: Mineral Toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism; Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation. C. Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient. D. Plant growth and development : Seed germination; Phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
8. Structural Organisation in animals:(a) Cockroach: Brief account of morphology, anatomy and functions of digestive circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive systems. (b) Animal tissues: Epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues.
9. Human Physiology-Digestive and Respiratory systems: (a) Digestive System : Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders-PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, Jaundice, diarrhea. (b) Respiratory system: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans -Exchange of gases; transport of gases and regulation of respiration; Respiratory volumes; Disorders related respiration-Asthma Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
10. Human Physiology: Circulatory and Excretory Systems:
(a) Circulatory System:
Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system - Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, Cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of Cardiac activity, Disorders of circulatory system – Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
(b) Excretory System :
Modes of Excretion – Ammonotelism, ureotelism, Uricotelism; Human excretory system – Structures and function; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of Kidney function – Renin – angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor; ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion;
Disorders; Uremia, Renal Failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial Kidney
11. Human Physiology–Locomotion & Movement and Neuro Endocrine System:
(a) Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement – ciliary, Flagellor, muscular; Skeletal muscle – Contractile proteins muscle contraction; Disorder of muscles. Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular distrophy.
(b) Skeletal System and its functions: joints; Disorders of skeletal system –Osteoporosis, Arthritis, Gout.
(c) Nervous System: Neurons and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system, Peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs: Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
(d) Endocrine System: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system – Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo and hyperactivity and related
disorders(e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).
12. Human Physiology – Reproduction:
(a) Human Reproduction: Male and Female reproductive ystems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis – Spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual Cycle; Fertilization, Embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea);
Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea). (b) Reproductive Health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); Birth control – Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
(a) Heredity and Variations: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviation from Mendelism – Incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome Theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance – Hemophilia, Colourblindness; mendelian disorders in humans – Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans – Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s Syndromes.
(b) Molecular basis of Inheritance : Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription; genetic code; translation Gene expression and regulation – Lac operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular,
evidence - Darwin’s contribution , Modern synthetic theory of Evolution, Mechanism of evolution – Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift, Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation ; Human evolution.
15. Human Health and Diseases:
(a) Pathogens; Parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid Pneumonia, Common Cold, Amoebiasis, Ringworm).
(b) Basic concepts of immunology – Vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS.
(c) Adolescence, Drug and alcohol abuse.
1) Units And Measurements:
Introduction , The international system of units, Measurement of Length, accuracy, precision of instruments and errors in measurement, Systematic errors, random errors, least count error, Absolute Error, Relative Error and Percentage Error, Dimensions of Physical Quantities, Dimensional Formulae and dimensional equations.
Introduction, Scalars and vectors, parallelogram law of vectors , Position Vector and Displacement ,Average velocity and average speed, Instantaneous velocity and speed, Acceleration, Kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion, Relative
Relative velocity in two dimensions, Projectile motion, Equation of path of a projectile, Time of Maximum height, Maximum height of a projectile, Horizontal range of projectile, Uniform circular motion.
3) Laws Of Motion
The law of inertia, Newton’s laws of motion, Impulse, Conservation of momentum, Equilibrium of a particle, friction-its laws ,methods of reducing, motion of body on rough inclined plane, Circular motion, Motion of a car on a level road, Motion of a car on a Banked road.
4) Work, Energy And Power:
Introduction, The work-energy theorem, Work, Kinetic energy, Work done by a variable force, The work-energy theorem for a variable force, The concept of Potential Energy, The conservation of Mechanical Energy, The Potential Energy of a spring, Various forms of energy and its conservation..Power, Collisions, Elastic and Inelastic Collisions, Collisions in one dimension, Coefficient of Restitution and its determination, Collisions in Two Dimensions.
5) Systems Of Particles And Rotational Motion
Centre of mass, Centre of Gravity, Motion of centre of mass, Linear momentum of a system of particles, Angular velocity and its relation with linear velocity, Angular acceleration, Torque and angular momentum, Torque and angular momentum for a system of a particles, conservation of angular momentum, Equilibrium of a rigid body, Moment of inertia and related theorems. Conservation of Angular Momentum.
Introduction, Periodic and oscillatory motions, Period and frequency, Displacement, Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.), Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion, Velocity and acceleration in simple harmonic motion, Force law for Simple harmonic Motion, Energy in simple harmonic motion, Some systems executing Simple Harmonic Motion, Oscillations due to a spring and Simple Pendulum.
Introduction, Kepler’s laws, Universal law of gravitation, The gravitational constant, Acceleration due to gravity of the earth, Acceleration due to gravity below and above the surface of earth, Gravitational potential energy, Escape speed, Earth satellite, Energy of an orbiting satellite, Geostationary and polar satellites.
8) Mechanical Properties Of Solids And Fuids :
Hooke’s law of Elasticity, Stress-strain curve, Elastic moduli, Young’s Modulus of the Material of a Wire, Shear Modulus, Bulk Modulus, and Poisson’s Ratio. Surface tension-Surface Energy, Surface Energy and Surface Tension, Angle of Contact, Drops and Bubbles, Capillary Rise, Detergents and Surface Tension.
9) Properties Of Matter:
Thermal properties-Temperature and heat, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity,Heat transfer,
Conduction, thermal conductivity, Convection, Radiation, Black body Radiation, Newton’s law of cooling. Thermodynamics- Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Internal Energy and work, First law of thermodynamics, Specific heat capacity, Thermodynamic state variables and
equation of State, Thermodynamic process, Isothermal Process, Adiabatic Process, Isochoric Process, Cyclic process, Heat engines, Refrigerators and heat pumps, Second law of thermodynamics, Reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot engine, Carnot’s theorem.
10) Acoustics And Optics:
Transverse and longitudinal waves, Displacement relation in a progressive wave, The speed of a travelling wave, The principle of superposition
of waves, Reflection of waves, Beats, Doppler effect. Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors, Refraction, Total Internal Reflection, Refraction at
Spherical Surfaces and by Lenses, eyepieces Refraction through a Prism,Optical Instruments and aberrations. Huygens Principle, Refraction and reflection of plane waves using Huygens Principle, Coherent and Incoherent Addition of Waves, Interference of Light Waves and Young’s Experiment, Diffraction, Polarization.
11) Static Fields:
Electric fields-Charges, Conductors and Insulators, Properties of Electric Charges, Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field, Flux Electric Dipole and Dipole in a Uniform External Field due to charge, Continuous Charge Distribution, Gauss’s Law, Application of Gauss’s Law. Electrostatic Potential-Potential due to a Point Charge, Electric Dipole, Equipotential Surfaces, Dielectrics and Polarization, Capacitors and Capacitance, The Parallel Plate Capacitor, Effect of Dielectric on Capacitance, Combination of Capacitors, Energy Stored in a Capacitor. Magnetic fields- Poles of magnet ,magnetic flux, magnetic induction, field due to unit north pole, axial and equatorial line of magnet, earth’s magnetic field and time period of vibration magnetometer.
12) Current Electricity :
Introduction, Electric Current, Electric Currents in Conductors, Ohm’s law, Drift of Electrons and the Origin of Resistivity, Limitations of
Ohm’s Law, Resistivity of various Materials, Temperature Dependence of Resistivity, Electrical Energy, Power, Combination of Resistors — Series and Parallel, Cells, emf, Internal Resistance, Cells in Series and in Parallel, Kirchhoff’s Laws, Wheatstone Bridge, Meter Bridge, Potentiometer.
Moving magnetic fields -Magnetic Force, Motion in a Magnetic Field, Motion in Combined Electric and Magnetic Fields, Magnetic Field due to a
Current Element, Biot-Savart Law, Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop, Ampere’s Circuital Law, The Solenoid and the Toroid, Force between Two Parallel Currents, the Ampere, Torque on Current Loop, Magnetic Dipole, The Moving Coil Galvanometer. Electromagnetic Induction-Faraday’s Law of Induction, Lenz’s Law and Conservation of Energy, Motional Electromotive Force, Energy Consideration. Alternating currents:
Introduction, AC Voltage Applied to a Resistor, Representation of AC Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors —Phasors, AC Voltage Applied to an Inductor, AC Voltage Applied to a Capacitor, Power in AC Transformers.
14) Modern Physics:
Photoelectric Effect, Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect, Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light, Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation, Particle Nature of Light: The Photon, Wave Nature of Matter, Davisson and Germer Experiment. Nuclear Physics-Alpha-particle Scattering and Rutherford’s Nuclear Model of Atom, Atomic Spectra, Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom, The Line Spectra of the Hydrogen Atom, characteristic and continuous x ray spectrum, Atomic Masses and Composition of Nucleus, Size of the Nucleus, Mass-Energy and Nuclear Binding Energy, Nuclear Force, Radioactivity, Nuclear Energy.
15) Semiconductor Electronics:
Introduction, Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors, Intrinsic Semiconductor, Extrinsic Semiconductor, p-n Junction, Semiconductor diode, Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier, Special Purpose p-n Junction Diodes, Junction Transistor, Digital Electronics and Logic Gates, Integrated Circuits.
1. Atomic Structure :
Characteristics of Electron, Proton and Neutron, RutherFord's model of atom - Nature of electromagnetic theory - Plancks Quantum Theory, Explanation of photoelectric effect - Features of atomic Spectra - Characteristics of Hydrogen spectrum, Bohr's theory of structure of atom, Bohr's explanation of spectralines, failure of Bohr's theory - Wave particle nature of electron - de Brogile's hypothesis, Heisensbergs uncertainly principle, Important features of the Quantam mechanical model of atom, Quantum numbers, concept of orbitals – Expressing atomic orbitals interms of quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, Aufbau principle, paulis exclusion principle, Hunds'.rule of maximum multiplicity. Electronic configuration of atoms, explanation of stability of half - filled and completely filled orbitals.
2. Chemical Boning :
Orbital overlap and covalent bond, Ionic bond and Fajan’s rules, Lattice energy, Hybridisation involving S, P and d orbitals, MOT, H-bond,
Dipolemoment, VSEPR theory and shapes of molecules.
3. Classification Of Elements And Periodicity Of Properties:
Concept of grouping of elements in accordance with their properties, The periodic law, The significance of atomic number and electronic configuration as the basis for periodic classification - Classification of elements into s,p,d, f blocks and their main characteristics - Classification of elements based on their properties.
4. Alkali And Alkaline Earth Metals :
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anamolous properties of first element in each group, diagonal relationship, trends in properties like Ionisation enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii, reactivity with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and water. Preparation and properties and
uses of the compounds sodium hydroxide, salts of oxoacids, sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, sodium chloride, biological importance of sodium and potassium, preparation and uses of CaO, CaCO3 and CaSO4 , Industrial uses of lime and limestone - Biological importance of Mg and Ca.
5. States Of Matter : Gases And Liquids:
Grahams Law of diffusion, Dalton’s law of partial pressures, Avogadro's law. Ideal behavior, Emperical derivation of Gas equation, Ideal gas equation. Kinetic molecular theory of gases, Kinetic gas equation (No derivation) and deduction of gas laws from kinetic gas equation, Distribution of molecular velocities - types of molecular velocities, behavior of real gases, Deviation from ideal behavior, compressibility factor Vs pressure diagrams of real Conditions for liquefication of gases, critical temperature, Liquid state - properties of liquids in terms of Intermolecular attractions, Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (Quantitative Idea only. No mathematical derivation).
6. Chemical Thermodynamics : Thermodynamics:
Concepts of system, types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, Exothermic and endothermic reactions. Measurement of U and
H, Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, neutralization, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization and dilution, Thermo-chemical equations.
Hess's law of constant heat summation, Driving force for a spontaneous process, Thermodynamic representation of criteria of spontaneity in terms of entropy, entropy as a state function, Gibbs free energy, Gibbs free energy change for spontaneous, non spontaneous process and equilibrium process.
Classification of solutions, Molarity Normality, Molality, Mole fraction, Dilute solutions, vapour pressure, Raoult's Law, Limitations of Raoults Law Colligative properties, relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression in freezing point, Osmosis and osmotic pressure, theory of dilute solutions, determination of molar masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.
8. ACcids And Bases:
Lowry - Bronsted acids and bases theory, Lewis theory, limitations of Lewis theory, Ionic equilibrium, ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionic product of water. Concept of pH , Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), hydrolysis constant, buffer solutions, solubility product and common ion effect with illustrative examples.
9. Solid State:
Classification of solids based on different binding forces such as molecular, ionic, covalent solids and metallic solids, Treatment of metallic bond and metallic / solids, Amorphous and crystalline solids, Unit cell in two- dimensional and three- dimensional lattices, Seven crystal systems and Bravis lattices, Bragg's equation, X-ray study of crystal structure, Bragg's method. Calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, No. of atoms per cubic unit cell. Point defects - Schottky and Frenkel defects. Electrical and magnetic properties.
10. Surface Chemistry:
Adsorption, physical and chemical adsorption. Adsorption of gases on solids, factors affecting the adsorption - pressure (Langmuir and Freundlich
Isotherms) and temperature, Catalysis-types of catalysis, autocatalysis. Colloidal state - colloidal solutions, classification of colloidal solutions, protective colloids and Gold number emulsions - classification of emulsions, micelles, cleansing action of soap, properties of colloids -Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, Coagulation.
11. Chemical Kinetics:
Concept of reaction rate, factors affecting reaction rates, Rate law, units of rate constant, Order and molecularity, methods of determination oforder of reaction, Integrated rate equations and half lives for zero and first order reaction, Collision theory of reaction rates (elementary ideas), concepts of activation energy.
12. Equilubrium :
Equilibrium in physical and chemical process, Dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, Equilibrium constant, Factors affecting equilibrium, Relation between Kp and Kc, Le- Chatlier's principle, applications to the industrial processes like (I) ammonia (2) sulphur trioxide.
13. Electro Chemistry:
Conductance in electrolytic solutions, Specific and molar conductances- variation of conductance with concentration, Kohlrausch's law, application to calculation of equivalent conductance of weak electrolytes. Electrolytes and non-electrolytes, redox reactions, electrolysis - some typical examples of electrolysis viz; fused NaOH, brine solution, fused MgCl2, Faraday's laws of electrolysis, Galvanic and voltaic cells representation and notation of electrochemical cells with and without salt bridge, Standard hydrogen electrode and electrode potentials, electro chemical series,
EMF of cell, Nernst equation and its applications, calculation of EMF of electro chemical cells, Primary cell-dry cell/Lechlanche cell, secondary cells - fuel cells - Hydrogen – Oxygen fuel cell and hydro carbon- oxygen fuel cel
14. Group 13 Elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurance, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, Anomalous
properties of first element of the group, Boron: - Physical and chemical properties, uses, some important compounds: Borax and Boric acid. Boron hydrides, aluminium - uses, reactions with acids and alkalies, Potash alum.
15. Group 14 Elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity,
Anomalous behavior of the first element of the group Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties and uses. Similarities between carbon and silicon, uses of oxides of carbon, Important compounds of silicon - silicon dioxide and a few uses of silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites (Elementary ideas) Fuel gases : Manufacture and uses of producer gas and water gas.
16. Zero Group Elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, Isolation trends in physical and chemical properties, uses, compounds of
xenonoxides and xenon halides (structures only).
17. Group 15 Elements (V A Group Elements):
Occurrence- physical states of Nitrogen and Phosphorous; allotropy, catenation. electronic configuration, oxidation states, General characteristics of hydrides, structure of hydrides, general characteristics of oxides, general characteristics of halides, Oxyacids of nitrogen, Oxyacids of
phosphorous, preparation and uses of nitric acid and ammonia, superphosphate of lime.
18. Group 16 Elements (VI Group Elements):
Occurrence, electronic configuration, oxidation states, physical states of Oxygen and Sulphur and their structure, allotropy, general characteristics of hydrides, oxides and halides, structural aspects of oxyacids of chalcogens, Ozone, uses of ozone, Sodium thiosulphate, Sulphuric acid - industrial process of manufacture.
19. Transition Elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, Occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of first
row transition elements- metallic character, ionization energy, Variable oxidation states, atomic and ionic radii, color, catalytic property, magnetic property, interstitial compounds. Alloy formation.
Electronic configuration, variable oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanide contraction.
21. Coordination Compounds:
Introduction, ligands, coordination number, Werner's theory of coordination compounds, Shapes of coordination compounds, valence bond theory, IUPAC nomenclature of mono nuclear coordination compounds, Bonding, isomerism, EAN rule, Importance of coordination compounds in qualitative analysis,
extraction of metals, Biological systems (chromo proteins, haemoglobin, chlorophyll structures only).
22. General Principles Of Metalurgy:
Principles and methods of extraction concentration, reduction by chemical and electrolytic methods and refining, Occurrence and principles of extraction of copper, zinc, iron and silver. Process of molten electrolysis to extract Al, Mg and Na.
23. Organic Chemistry
Some basic principles and techniques: General introduction, methods of purification, quantitative and qualitative analysis. Classification
and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond, Inductive effect, electrometric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation, Fission of a covalent bond - homolytic and heterolytic fissions, Types of reagents : Electrophiles, nucleophiles and free radicals - examples and reactive intermediates, Common types of organic reactions - substitution, addition. Elimination and rearrangement reactions with examples.
Classification of hydrocarbons, Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism conformations (Ethane only), Methods of preparation of Ethane, physical
properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis of ethane, Cycloalkanes: Preparation and properties of cyclohexane, Alkenes: Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical Isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation of ethylene, physical properties, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markonikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
25. Aromatic Hydrocarbons:
Introduction - IUPAC nomenclature, Benzene , resonance, aromaticity chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution -
nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel crafts alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono substituted Benzene carcinogenicity and toxicity, Stereochemistry : Introduction to Isomerism and recapitulation of geometrical isomerism and conformations, Optical activity - discovery, determination using a polarimeter, specific rotation, chirality - chiral objects, chiral molecules Configuration and Fischer projections of asymmetric carbon, elements of symmetry, Compounds containing one chiral centre, enantiomers, D-L and R-S nomenclature, racemic forms, recemisation. Compounds containing two chiral centres, diastereoisomers, mesoform, resolution, importance of stereo chemistry.
26. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers:
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation of ethyl alcohol, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), Identification of primary, secondary, tertiary alcohols, Mechanism of dehydration. Uses of some important compounds - methanol and ethanol.
Phenols:Nomenclature, methods of preparation of phenol, Physical and chemical properties, Acidic nature of phenol, Electrophilic substitution reactions, Uses of phenols.
Ethers : Nomenclature, Methods of preparation of diethyl ether, physical and chemical properties, uses.
27. Aldehydes, Ketones And Carboxyllic Acids :
Aldehydes And Ketones : Nomenclature, Nature of carbonyl group, Methods of preparation of acetaldehyde and acetone, physical and chemical properties, Mechanism of nucleophilic addition, Reactivity of alpha- hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, Methods of preparation of acetic acid, Physical and chemical properties, Uses.
28. Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Nitrobenzene -
Preparation, properties uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, Classification, Structure, methods of preparation of aniline, physical and chemical properties, Uses, Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Diazonium Salts : Preparation, Chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry, Uses of azodyes.
Classification of polymers, addition, condensation, copolymerization, Natural rubber, vulcanization of rubber, synthetic rubber, molecular weights of polymers – number average and weight average molecular weights (definitions only). Bio - polymers, bio-degradable polymers, Some commercially important polymers like polythene, nylon, polyesters and Bakelite.
Carbohydrates : Classification (aldoses and ketoses), Monosaccharides. (glucose and fructose), Oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) and Importance.
Proteins : Elementary idea of amino acids, peptide, Polypeptides, proteins Primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative ideas only). Denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
Vitamins: Classification, Functions in bio systems.
Nucleic Acids: Types of nucleic acids, primary building blocks of nucleic acids, Chemical composition of DNA & RNA, Primary structure of DNA, genetic code.