Unit 1. World of Plant Life
A. Science of Botany: Its Origin, Some important landmarks in the development of Botany, uses of plants in daily life.
Differences between plants and animals.
B. (i) Diversity in habitats - Mesophytes, Xerophytes, Hydrophytes, Halophytes, Epiphytes, Mangroves
(ii) Diversity in forms - Herbs, Shurbs, Trees, Twiners, Lianes
(iii) Diversity in life span - Ephemerals, Annuals, Biennials, Perennials
(iv) Diversity in nutritional Methods - Parasites, Saprophytes, Symbionts, Autotrophs
C. Branches of Botany and applied Botany - Phycology, Mycology, Lichenology, Bacteriology, Virology, Microbiology,Bryology, Pteridology, Morphology, Embryology, Palynology, Anatomy, Cytology, Taxonomy, Ecology, Genetics, Paleo-botany, Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Pharmacology, Plant breeding, Plant pathology, Biotechnology
Unit 2. Institutes & Botanists of India
A. Contributions of the following institutes - BSI, NBRI, CIMAP, IARI, ICRISAT, FRI, ICAR.
B. Contributions of the following botanists - Birbal Sahni, P. Maheswari, M.O.P. Iyengar, M.S. Swaminathan and K.C. Mehta
Unit 3.Vegetative Morphology
A. Root: Characteristics of roots, types of root system, Regions of root, Modifications of root
B. Stem: Characteristics and functions of stem, Types of stems, Types of buds, Types of branching, modifications of stem
C. Leaf: Leaf base, stipules, petioles. (Note: Lamina, Margins, apex, surface, texture OMITTED), Venation, phyllotaxy, types of leaves (simple & compound), leaf modifications.
Unit 4. Reproductive Morphology
A. Inflorescence: Racemose & cymose inflorescences, mixed and special inflorescences, Terminal inflorescence,Axillary inflorescence & intercalary inflorescence, cauliflory
B. Flower:- Structure of flower, sx distribution, symmetry of flower (based on the arrangement), merosity, structural symmetry, position of gynoecium on the thalamus, types of bracts & bracteoles, various types of thalamus, perianth,aestivation, calyx, corolla, Androecium, Gynoecium
C. Pollination: Types of pollination, contrivances of self and cross pollination, agents of pollination.
D. Embryology: Structure of anther and ovule, types of ovules, structure and development of Embryo sac, Fertilization and post fertilization changes.
E. Fruit: Types of fruits - simple, aggregate and multiple, True and false fruits
F. Dispersal of seeds and fruits: Agents of dispersal
Unit 5. Clasification of Flowering Plants
A. Principles of clasification and nomenclature, Bentham & Hookers system of clasification
B. Study of the following families:- Malvaceae, Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Liliaceae
Unit 6. Economic Botany
Botanical name, family, morphology of useful part, varieties, economic importance of the following - Paddy, Wheat, Jowar, Bajra, Red gram, Bengal gram, Groundnut, Coconut, Cotton, Jute, Mango, Banana, Neem and Amla
Unit 7. Cell Biology
Ultra structure of Eukaryotic cell, differences between plant and animal cells, Chromosomes and Nucleic acids.
Unit 8. Cell Division: Mitosis and meiosis
Unit 9. Internal Organisation of Plants
A. Tissues: Meristems, Simple, complex and secretory tissues
B. Tissue systems: Epidermal, Ground and vascular tissue systems.
C. Root apex and stem apex
D. Anatomy of dicot and monocot roots
E. Anatomy of dicot and monocot stems
F. Anatomy of dicot & monocot leaves
G. Normal secondary growth in dicot stem
Unit 10. Biotechnology
A. Scope and applications of biotechnology, aspects of biotechnology
B. Genetic engineering
C. Tissue culture and singe cell protein, somatic hybridization
D. Mushroom cultivation (White button mushrooms)
Unit 11. Plant Kingdom
A. Broad outlines of the clasifications (cryptogams & phanerogams)
B. Salient features of the major groups - Thallophyta (Algae & Fungi), Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta
(Gymnosperms & angiosperms)
C. Study of the structure and life history of the following forms:- Spirogyra, Rhizopus, Funaria, Pteris, & Cycas
Unit 12. Microbiology
A. Branches of applied Microbiology and their Importance
B. Bacteria: Introduction, distribution, habitat, Structure, Nutrition, reproduction and economic importance
C. Viruses: Introduction, structure of TMV & bacteriophage, Multiplication, transmission, symptoms of viral diseases
on plants and their control measures.
Unit 13. Plant Pathology
A. Introduction, brief historical account of plant pathology, clasification of plant diseases, general control measures.
B. Symptoms, causative organism and control measures of the following diseases -
1. Blast of paddy (Rice)
2. Red rot of sugar cane
3. Grain smut of sorghum
4 . Citrus canker
A. Introduction, scope of ecology, levels of organization, basic concepts of ecology
B. Plant communities - Hydrophytes, Mesophytes, Xerophytes
C. Soil - Soil formation, soil profile, components of soil, plant groups in relation to soil characteristics, soil erosion, soil
conservation (Note: Vegetation of AP and forests of AP - OMITTED)
Introduction, Aims & Objectives of plant breeding, organizations of crop improvement research, methods of plant
breeding - Introduction, selection, hybridization, Hybrid vigour, Polyploidy breeding, Mutation breeding
A. Water relations of plants: Importance of water, availability of water, bulk flow, diffusion, Water potential, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Imbibition - Absorption of water by plants - (Active and pasive absorption). Ascent of sap - (root pressure theory, cohesion - tension theory) Transpiration - Definition, types of transpiration, Structure of stomata, Mechanism of stomatal opening and closing, factors affecting transpiration, importance of transpiration.
B. Mineral Nutrition: Introduction, Macro and Microelements, criteria of essentiality, role of NPK in plant nutrition, Absorption of ions, (Active and pasive absorption). Carrier theory (cytochrome pump theory, Lecithin carrier theory) Fertilisers - (Inorganic, Organic, Bio-Fertilizers) - Importance of bio fertilizers.
C. Enzymes: Definition, Historical account, Properties, components of enzyme nomenclature and clasification of enzymes. Mode of enzyme action
D. Photosynthesis: Introduction, historical account, structure of chloroplast, Photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophylls, Carotenoids & Phycobilins), Hills reaction, Emerson enhancement effect, photosystems, Photolysis of water, photophosphorylation, C3 pathway, C4 pathway, CAM pathway, Photorespiration, factors affecting photosynthesis, Importance of photosynthesis.
E. Translocation of Organic solutes: Munch’s Hypothesis.
F. Respiration: Introduction, Types of respiration, differences between aerobic & anaerobic respiration - Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport System, mechanism of anaerobic respiration, alcoholic fermentation, respiratory quotient (RQ)
G. Nitrogen Metabolism: Forms of Nitrogen, biological nitrogen fixation, (Symbiotic & non symbiotic) Bio-synthesis of
proteins (Transcription and Translation), Genetic code and its properties.
H. Plant Growth Regulators And Seed Germination: Introduction, Discovery & Physiological effects of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene, Role of hormones in agriculture and horticulture, Photoperiodism, Seed germination - Physiological changes during germination, conditions required for germination, seed vigour, and seed dormancy.