Electromagnetic Radiation: Wave nature - Wave Characteristics: Wave length - frequency - Wave number - units to express these quantities - relationship between them, Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen - different regions of the spectrum - wave number of the spectral lines in these regions (Rydberg's equation),. Lyman, Balmer , Paschen , Bracket and Pfund series. Atomic Models : Rutherford's model, merits and demerits, Bohr's Model: Postulates - formulation of the model - Expressions for the energy and radius of the Hydrogen Atomic orbits with derivations - limitations. Zeemen, Stark effects - Sommerfields modifications. Quantum Numbers: Significance - writing quantum numbers for differentiating electrons in atoms - Pauli's exclusion principle. Wave nature of electron: De-Broglie wave equation - Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, (Cartesian coordinates equation only). Orbitals: Shapes of s,p,d orbitals - orbitals energy sequence - aufbau principle - Hund's rule. Electronic configuration of elements (from atomic no: 1 to 30 by nlx method) Stability and magnetic behaviour of atoms based on concepts of electronic configuration.
Unit 2. Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear particles: (Protons, Neutrons) - isotopes, isobars, isotones and Isodiapheres. Nucleus: Relative dimensions of atom and nucleus - nuclear mass defect - mass -energy relation - binding energy - n/p ratio - magic numbers. Nuclear reactions: Writing nuclear reactions in the shortest form of (M(a,b)M') notation, balancing - typical examples of nuclear reactions - nuclear fusion (proton) reactions - nuclear fission (uranium - 235) - Differences between nuclear and Chemical reactions. Radioactivity: Units of radioactivity (Curie, Rutherford and Bacquerel) - natural and artificial
radioactivity - disintegration series - Group displacement law. Radioactive disintegration: Rate equation (no derivation) - decay constant - half-life period - numerical problems on radioactive disintegrations - Radioactive isotopes (O18, P32, U238, C14, I131) and their applications
Unit 3. Periodic Classification of Elements
Periodic Laws and Periodic Table: Periodic laws based on atomic number and electron configuration - Structure of the long form of the periodic table - s,p,d,f blocks - outer electronic configuration of elements of s,p,d and f blocks. Periodic trends: Trends down the group and across the period in respect of atomic size, ionic radius, Oxidation State, ionization potential, electron affinity and electronegativity - reasons for the trends
Unit 4. Chemical Bonding
Ionic Bonding: Nature, factors favourable for the bond formation - Effect of ionization potential, electron affinity and electro negativity - Born - Haber cycle for sodium chloride crystal formation - Face centered cubic lattice structure of sodium chloride - Body centered cubic lattice structure of cesium chloride (diagramatic illustrations only) - coordination number of metal ions in the crystals of sodium chloride and cesium chloride. Properties of ionic substances, Covalent Bond: Nature - octet rule and electron dot formula of simple molecules (BeCl2, BF3, CO2, NH3, H2O,PCl5, SF6, CH4, C2-H4, C2H6) - postulates of valence bond theory (qualitative treatment) - overlapping of orbitals - sigma and pi bonds - dipole moment (qualitative aspect) of simple molecules. (HCl, H2O, SO2, NH3, CH4-, CCl4) - properties of covalent substances. Hybridization of Orbitals: sp, sp2
,sp3, dsp3, d2 sp3 hybridizations - shapes of simple molecules (BeCl2, BCl3, CH4, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, NH3, H2O, PCl5, SF6) Bond Lengths - bond angles and bond energies - postulates of valance shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory - application to geometry of covalent molecules (beryllium chloride, boron tri-chloride, water and ammonia) Hydrogen Bond: Concept - inter and intra molecular Hydrogen bonds - typical examples.
Unit 5. Stoichiometry
Definition : Stoichiometry, Stoichiometric Equation, Stoichiometric amounts – Examples, Mole Concept: Gram atom, Gram molecule, Definition of mole, mass, formula weight - Calculations. Chemical reactions and Numerical calculations based on weight - weight, weight - volume , volume - volume relationships, Calculation of empirical and molecular formulae of Carbon compounds - oxidation number - Redox reactions - Calculation of oxidation number - Balancing of redox reactions by ion - electron (half reaction) method and oxidation number method.
Unit 6. Gaseous State
Gas laws - Boyle's law, Charle's law, Avogadro's law - statement and numerical problems, Ideal gas equation: PV=nRT, values of R - numerical problems based on gas equation. Graham's law of diffusion - Statement - numerical problems. Dalton's law of partial pressures: Statement - numerical problems. Kinetic theory of Gases: Postulates - derivation of PV= 1/3 mnc2 - Deducing gas laws from kinetic gas laws (Boyles law, Charles law, Dalton's law, Graham's law) from kinetic gas equation - RMS velocity - most probable velocity - Mathematical relationship between the three. Average kinetic energy of the molecules.
Unit 7. Solutions
Definition of solution: Solvent - solute, methods of expressing concentrations of solutions - molarity, molality, normality - mole fraction methods - Numerical problems. Vapour Pressure: Definition - effect of temperature - Raoult's law - Numerical problems.
Unit 8. Acids and Bases
Theories of Acids and Bases - Arrhenius acid - base concept, limitations, Lowry - Bronsted concept - examples - limitations - Lewis Theory - examples. Ionic Product of Water: pH of aqueous solutions - (include both strong and weak acids and bases) - buffer solutions - types of buffers, buffer action - calculation of pH of acid buffers. Indicators: Acid -base indicators - pH range - selection of indicators for acid - base titrations. Hydrolysis of Salts: Definition - examples of different salts.
Unit 9. Electro Chemistry
Metallic Conductors - Electrolytes - Non-electrolytes - Arrhenius theory of ionization - Faraday's laws - Numerical problems. Galvanic Cells : Definition - examples - cell notation - writing of cells and cell reactions. Nernst Equation - e.m.f. calculation
Unit 10. Chemical Equilibrium and chemical Kinetics
Chemical Equilibrium: Reversible reactions - chemical equilibrium - dynamic nature - examples of chemical equilibrium, law of mass action - equilibrium constant - characteristics of equilibrium constant - factors affecting equilibrium - application of law of mass action to Haber's process (for Ammonia). Le Chatelier's Principle: Statement and applications to Haber's process (for Ammonia). Chemical Kinetics: Rate of reaction (elementary treatment) factors (concentration - temperature, catalyst) affecting rate of reaction, rate law, rate constant and its units Order and
Molecularity - First order Rate equation and half life - collision theory of reaction rates (elementary treatment)
Unit 11. Chemical Energetics
Chemical energetics: Internal energy - enthalpy - exothermic and endothermic reactions - heats of reaction; formation, combustion, neutralization - Hess Law - Numerical problems.
Unit 12. Surface chemistry
Adsorption and absorption - Physical and Chemical adsorption - distinguishing properties - Adsorption of Gases on Metals - Adsorption from solutions (Elementary treatment). Colloidal State: True and Colloidal solutions - explanation of terms - Dispersion medium, Dispersed phase, lyophillic and lyophobic sols using the examples - smoke, cloud, blood, milk, starch solution and gold sol. Micelles - cleaning action of soap Emulsions: emulsifying agent and emulsification - its applications Catalysts: Explanation of terms - Homogeneous and Heterogeneous catalysis, Distinction with suitable examples - auto catalysis with one example.
Unit 13. Hydrogen and its Compounds
Water: Hardness of Water and its removal Heavy Water: Isotopes of hydrogen - heavy water - electrolytic preparation - properties and uses of heavy Water. Hydrogen Peroxide: Preparation (laboratory, electrolytic and auto oxidation) and concentration, properties of H2O2 as oxidizing agent and reducing agent, structure and uses of H2O2
Unit 14. Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals
General Characteristics: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the periodic table - trends in physical properties, chemical properties with reference to oxides, halides and carbonates. Sodium and Magnesium: Occurrence - extraction of sodium (Castner and Down process) - extraction of Magnesium (from Carnalite and Magnasite) - Typical physical and chemical properties - Uses. Alloys of magnesium (Magnalium and Electron) preparation, properties and uses of the following compounds sodium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, magnesium - sulphate, Plaster of Paris, Lime Mortar and Gypsum.
Unit 15. Group elements
General Characteristics: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the periodic table - trends in physical properties - Chemical properties with reference to oxides, halides and hydroxides. Aluminium: Occurrence - extraction - purification (electrolytic) - typical physical and chemical properties - uses including aluminothermic process - Preparation, properties and uses of Potash Alum. Electron deficient compounds: Concept and examples, Diborane: Preparation, properties and structure
Unit 16. IV Group elements
General Characteristics: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the periodic table - trends in physical properties of carbon and silicon. Physical forms of Carbon: Allotropy of carbon - structure of diamond and graphite. Preparation - properties - structure and uses of Silicon and SiO2 . Comparison of SiO2 with CO2.. Fuel gases: Producer gas and water gas - preparation - calorific values and uses.
Unit 17. V Group Elements
General Characteristics: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the period table - trends in physical properties. Chemical Properties of Compounds of Nitrogen & Phosphorous: Hydrides, Oxides, Halides and structural aspects of Oxy - acids. Industrial Preparation and Uses of : Ammonia, and Super phosphate of lime.
Unit 18. VI Group Elements
General Characteristics: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the periodic table - trends in physical properties - allotropy of elements. Chemical Properties of Compounds of Oxygen and Sulphur: Hydrides, oxides, halides and structural aspects of Oxy acids. Preparation, properties and uses of Ozone, Sodium thiosulphate.
Unit 19. VII Group Elements
General Characteristics: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the periodic table - trends in physical properties. Fluorine and Chlorine: Preparation, properties and uses. Structure and oxidation states of Oxides and oxyacids of chlorine. Bleaching Powder: Preparation, properties and uses.
Unit 20. Noble Gases
Discovery, Occurrence and isolation. Chemistry of Noble Gases and their uses.
Unit 21. Transition Elements (dBlock)
General characteristics of: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the periodic table. Properties : Oxidation states - colour forming ability - alloy formation - magnetic properties Coordination complexes: Werner's notations (elementary account)
Unit 22. Environmental Chemistry
Terminology: Environment, pollutant, contaminant, receptor, sink, speciation, dissolved oxygen, threshold limit. Air Pollution: Common air pollutants - CO and oxides of Nitrogen and Sulphur - acid rains and green house effect Water pollution: Common Water pollutants. Organic Pollutants, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Inorganic pollutants - Water treatment with respect to fluorine content Ozone layer and effect of freons (CFC).
Unit 23. Hydrocarbons-I (Alkanes and Alkenes)
Classification - Formation of sigma and pi bonds. Homologous series - concept and its significance. Isomerism:
Concept, Structural isomerism (chain, position, functional isomerism). Nomenclature of Aliphatic Hydro Carbons :
IUPAC system Methane and Ethane: Preparation by reduction of alkyl halides, Wurtz method, Grignard method, decarboxylation, Kolbe's'electrolysis, Sabtier - Senderen's reaction. Chemical Properties: Halogenation, Nitration, Pyrolysis, Oxidation - Uses Ethylene: Methods of preparation: dehydration of alcohols - dehydrohalogenation of alkylhalides - dehalogenation of dihalides. Properties of Ethylene: Addition of hydrogen - halogens - hydrogen halides - water - hypohalous acids -mineral acids - polymerisation - oxidation (with Beayers reagent) - ozonolysis - Uses.
Unit 24. Hydrocarbons II
Acetylene: preparation - Dehydrohalogenation of 1,2 - dihalides - hydrolysis of CaC2 dehalogenation - Kolbe's electrolysis Properties: Oxidation, addition of hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water, trimerization, salt formation, decolorization of Br2/CCl4 - uses Benzene: Preparation from acetylene, coal tar distillation, structure of benzene, resonance - aromatic property. Properties: Friedel - Craft's reaction, halogenation, nitration, sulphonation - Uses.
Unit 25. Alkyl Halides
Nomenclature and classification to Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Alkyl halides Ethyl Chloride: Preparation - from alcohols using Lucas reagent, PCl3, PCl5 and SOCl2. Properties: Reduction, hydrolysis, dehydrohalogenation, Wurtz reaction, reactions with KNO2, AgNO2, KCN, AgCN, Mg and sodium ethoxide. Chloroform: Preparation from ethanol using bleaching powder & water and chloralhydrate. Properties: Oxidation, isocyanide formation - hydrolysis - uses.
Units 26. Alcohols
Nomenclature and classification to Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Alcohols Ethanol: Preparation - Hydrolysis of alkyl halides, hydration of alkenes, fermentation of molasses & starch, Properties: Hydrogen bonding - Reaction with Sodium , esterification, action with conc H2SO4 , reaction with Lucas reagent, PBr3, PCl5, oxidation with Potassium dichromate and Cu / 300oc. Combustion, chloroform formation. Differentiation with Lucas reagent - Uses.
Nomenclature - Diethyl ether - Preparation from alcohols-Williamson synthesis - Properties - Reaction with HI-Uses.
Unit28. Aldehydes and Ketones
Nomenclature - Acetaladehyde & Acetone: Preparations - Oxidation of Alcohols, heating calcium salts. Properties: oxidation, reduction with H2 / Ni and LiAlH4, addition of NaHSO3, HCN, NH3, hydroxylamine, phenylhydrazine, 2,4 - DNP, aldol condensation, oxidation with Tollen's and Fehlings reagents.
Unit 29. Carboxylic Acids
Nomenclature - Acetic Acid - Preparations - Oxidation of alcohols, aldehydes , hydrolysis of cyanides. Properties: Acidity - reactions with Na, NaOH, NaHCO3, esterification - acid cholrides, anhydrides, amides formation, halogenation - Uses.
Unit 30. Nitrogen Compounds
Nomenclature - Nitro-Benzene - Preparation - nitration of Benzene. Properties : Reduction in acidic , basic, neutral media and with LiAlH4 - Uses Aniline: Classification of amines - Preparation : reduction of nitro benzene. Properties: basic nature - salt formation with HCl, alkylation, N - acetylation, N- benzoyalation , diazotisation - carbylamine reaction - Uses.
Unit 31. Chemistry in Biology and Medicine
Importance of Metals in the bio molecules viz., Haemoglobin, Cyanocobalamine (Vitamin B12) and chlorophyll (Elementary treatment) Common Drugs used in Medicine: Actyl Salicylic acid (Aspirin) - Paracetamol (Elementary treatment of these two only).